1,237 Works

Performance analysis of biodegradable municipal solid waste collection in the Czech Republic

O. Chotovinský & V. Altmann
The article deals with the issues of biodegradable municipal solid waste management system, focusing on its separate collection. The two basic locations are compared – rural area and urban area. The emphasis is put on evaluation of individual biodegradable municipal solid waste collections development from 2012 to 2015. Individual technological performances of collection are also observed and evaluated (e.g. biodegradable municipal solid waste production, development of container quantity and collection frequency). The observed data also...

Listeria monocytogenes'e levimus valmistoidus

Mati Roasto, Kadrin Meremäe, Toomas Kramarenko, Mihkel Mäesaar & Maiu Kuningas
RTE meat and fish products with a long shelf-life are associated with the high risk of transmission of L. monocytogenes to human. Also, soft and semi-soft cheeses are in focus according to potential contamination with L. monocytogenes bacteria. The aim of the study was to give an overview about the prevalence of L. monocytogenes in readyto-eat food products obtained at food business operator’s self-control and at official control level. It was found that the highest...

Implementation of the Land Reform in Estonia: Institutional Arrangement, Speed of Implementation and Land Plot Fragmentation

Evelin Jürgenson
The implementation of land reform has been an important task in Estonia since the regaining of independence in 1991. Land reform is implemented according to the aim stated in the Land Reform Act and is carried out by the Government of the Republic through the Land Board, county governors and local governments. The implementation of that aim has created conflicts among different persons, for example, between entitled subjects of restitution and privatisation. A major obstacle...

Impact of slurry fertilization on nutrient leaching and on the abundance of antibiotic resistance genes in agricultural soil

Mailiis Tampere
Present thesis studies the impacts of slurry fertilization on nutrient leaching and on the efficiency of using activated carbon (AC) as a measure in its reduction. In addition research assesses the cattle slurry as a source of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) entering grassland soil. It was hypothesised that N and K leaching depends on fertilizer type, N rate used and sward type. Also it was assumed that the use of AC reduces N and K...

The perceivable landscape a theoretical-methodological approach to landscape

Nele Nutt
The goal of the case studies was to identify a semiosphere in landscape, the properties characteristic of memory and reminiscences, in order to identify the universal functioning mechanisms of the object and to comprehend the inner logics of the functioning of landscape. Several traits characteristic of semiospheres are present in landscapes, such as delimitation, unevenness, homogeneity, individuality, wholeness. The semiospheric border of landscape determines the structural and functional nature of landscape as semiosphere, which enables...

Dimethyl ether as a renewable fuel for diesel engines

P. Zeman, V. Hönig, P. Procházka & J. Mařík
The area of automotive fuel, or fuel components, which can be produced from biomass also includes dimethyl ether, otherwise known as DME. The issue of the use of DME as a fuel is one which has been monitored until recently. Biomass can also be used as the raw material for the production of DME. DME has therefore replaced the previously-used CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons), which are now banned for their role in dangerous levels of ozone depletion....

Chemical composition of seeds and green beans of common bean varieties, breeded in Omsk State Agrarian University under conditions of southern forest-steppe zone of Western Siberia

N. Kazydub, A. Pinkal, T. Marakayeva, S. Kuzmina, M. Korobeinikova & O. Kotsyubinskaya
The article considers the biochemical composition of green beans and seeds of common beans varieties, breeded in Omsk State Agrarian University named after P.A. Stolypin (OmSAU). The research was conducted in 2014–2016. Varieties of locally breeded beans, in comparison with the standards, have advantages in the content of protein, zinc, iodine, calcium, iron, sugar; green bean technological properties and tenderizing of seeds during cooking, which becomes an indispensable component of the diet.

Design of Distributed Energetics Solution Based on the Increasing of Direct Consumption of Electricity Generated from Wind and Solar Energy

Alo Allik
This doctoral thesis presents six original papers, which are used to demonstrate the design possibilities for increasing the local renewable energy consumption of buildings equipped with renewable energy production devices. The findings and visualisations can be used for educational purposes as well as for the practical engineering of building based energy systems. The findings from papers can be used to decrease the necessary grid connection capacity of buildings. It was found in the thesis that...

Effect of rake angle and cutting speed on energy demands of mulcher with vertical axis of rotation

J. Čedík, M. Pexa & R. Pražan
The contribution deals with the reduction of agriculture energy demands. For maintenance and treatment of permanent grassland areas, areas left fallow and put to rest the mulching in combination with other workflows (mowing, grazing) is advantageous procedure. As conventional impact grass cutting and chopping is energy demanding procedure, it is proper to reduce the energy demands of such device. In the paper the effect of shape of cutting tool, particularly the rake angle, on energy...

Harvest time and ensilage suitability of giant reed and miscanthus for bio-methane production and characterization of digestate for agronomic use

F. da Borso, C. Di Marzo, F. Zuliani, F. Danuso & M. Baldini
In many countries, biogas plants are mainly fed by livestock slurry and dedicated crops, including maize, which still represents one of the main energy crops utilized. Many concerns are now arising on environmental impact due to the high water consumption, chemical fertilizer and pesticide requirements and on adverse effect of maize as energy crop on the price of food and feed commodities. For these reasons two perennial crops, in particular miscanthus (Miscanthus x giganteus) and...

Fatty acid composition of oilseed rapeseed genotypes as affected by vermicompost application and different thermal regimes

E. Samadzadeh Ghale Joughi, E. Majidi Hervan, A.H. Shirani Rad & Gh. Noormohamadi
Vegetable oils with a high relative amount of unsaturated fatty acids are of great significance for human health. Hence, in a 2-year factorial split plot experiment, the effects of different sowing date (optimum (October 17) and late (October 27)), vermicompost (0 and 20 ton ha-1 ) and genotypes (BAL104, DIE710.08, BAL102, FJL330, FJL290 and Okapi) on the fatty acid composition of rapeseed were evaluated. Rapeseed genotypes and the combination of sowing date and vermicompost application...

Morphological lodge of desi cotton (gossypium arboreum l.) genotypes and stage-manage by planting log under dry tropical prospect

Karim Jan, Muhammad Waseem, Mohammad Dost Baloch, Adbul Hameed Baloch, Mustajab A. Khan, Taimoor Khan, Muhammad Rashid & Qurban Ali
Planting log is the most considerable factor which directly manipulates the plant traits under naturally prevailing environment. The aim of the trial was to ensure the influence of planting hiatus on the morphological cabin of Desi cotton (Gossypium arboreum L.) varieties under dry tropical coast. The research was carried out during 2016 on three desi cotton genotypes C1 (FDH-512), C2 (FDH-502), C3 (FDH-170) under three-fortnightsowing regimes (S1 = 15. March, S2 = 1. April and...

Monitoring and evaluation of forest ecosystem restoration

Diana Laarmann
This thesis synthesizes several studies of forest ecosystem restoration in Estonia, including afforestation on abandoned oil-shale mining areas and initiating natural processes and fostering natural structures and species composition. Silvicultural systems for timber production have caused changes in ecosystem structure and function associated with anthropogenic alterations of natural disturbance regimes. Increasingly, forest management is based on understanding of processes of natural disturbances, their effects for stand and landscape composition and structure, considering that this enables...

Influence of chemical composition on the biochemical methane potential of agro-industrial substrates from Estonia

M.A Luna-del Risco, K. Orupõld, I. Diaz-Forero & M. González-Palacio
Batch trials were carried out to evaluate the Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) of 61 different substrates collected from agricultural farms and industrial sites in Estonia. Tests were performed in 500 mL plasma bottles at 36°C. The highest methane yield from all tested substrates was obtained from unconsumed dairy products (557 ± 101 L kg-1 VS) while the lowest was obtained from animal slurries (238 L kg-1 VS ± 42). From tested energy crops, foxtail millet...

Cultivar resistance and population studies of late blight pathogen in potato breeding in Estonia

Terje Tähtjärv
Potato (Solanum spp.) is the third most important food crop in the world after rice and wheat by FAO in 2014 in terms of human consumption. In the cold temperate climate zone, potato is one of the essential vitamins source throughout the year. People’s preferences and consumption habits have changed; thereby fluctuating demands of the food industry are setting up additional requirements for new potato cultivars. Potato late blight caused by pathogen Phytophthora infestans is...

The Socio-Economic Determinants of Entrepreneurship in Estonian Rural Municipalities

Anne Põder
The aim of the present thesis was to study the impact of socio-economic determinants on the development of entrepreneurship in Estonian rural municipalities. The socio-economic determinants refer to external economic, social, spatial and institutional factors. The thesis studies the effects of the main developments in Estonian agriculture and the rural economy on entrepreneurship in rural areas following the transition to the market economy, and it analyses the development of entrepreneurship and SMEs in different types...

Additional concentrates do not affect feeding times of cows, but social positions of cows do

Maria Soonberg, Marko Kass, Tanel Kaart, Ragnar Leming & David R. Arney
In robotic milking dairy systems lack of control over intakes can be problematic for balancing the forage and concentrate portions of diets. This can lead to proble ms associated with high concentrate intakes and concomitant low forage intakes. To check this as a problem, the feeding behaviour of cows was observed: the number of daily visits to the feed barrier, the duration of these visits and actual feeding, of high and low yielding cows. The...

Assessment of Calotropis natural dye extracts on the efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells

A.H. Alami, K. Aokal, D. Zhang, M. Tawalbeh, A. Alhammadi & A. Taieb
This work presents the construction and testing of solar cells sensitized with natural dyes extracted from plants indigenous to the desert. Calotropis plants are self - sufficient as they grow in very harsh environments, and yet are not consumed by humans or livestock due to their irritating agents to the skin and eyes. The energy generators of these plants are the leaves, which are crushed and processed to produce the dye solution. Also, the Calotropis...

Efficiency of the use of field beans in fattening lambs

D. Kairisa & E. Aplocina
The breeding and feeding of self produced pulses to livestock is one of the important directions of research for reducing the production costs of livestock products. Experiment on the effective using of the field beans to lambs for fattening was arranged in three replications using the Latvian Da rk - headed breed male lambs. The mixture of concentrated feed consisted of 50% of bean and 50% of oat. Lambs were weighed at the starting and...

Mathematical model of cleaning potatoes on surface of spiral separator

V. Bulgakov, S. Nikolaenko, Margus Arak, I. Holovach, Z. Ruzhуlo & Jüri Olt
Cleaning potato tubers from soil impurities and plant debris after digging them out of soil is a topical problem in the work process of potato production. Therefore, the engineer ing of new designs of potato heap separators necessitates the further studying of them and the optimisation of their kinematic and design parameters, which must not only ensure the high quality of cleaning, but also rule out the possibility of damaging the tubers. The aim of...

Application of conversion model for designing hydrodynamic pumps in turbine mode

M. Polák
The use of the smallest water resources has been coming again to the centre of interest in recent years. A water engine – turbine, is the heart of these power plants. This is usually the highest expense for the investor, in terms of cost. The effort is therefore to seek investment less demanding alternatives. One of them is the use of hydrodynamic pumps in reverse turbine operation. This paper provides a methodology for conversion of...

Soil bulk density and phytosanitary conditions at potato field

Luule Tartlan & Edvin Nugis
The aim of this paper is to present the microorganisms and their activities and soil bulk density. It is a fact that both have a great impact on soil fertility and its health status. Among the microorganisms in soil, the bacteria and fungi are the most important ones for potato cultivation; the bacteria living on the plant roots serve to uphold the nutrient intake of plants. Our previous research has shown that Paenibacillus Polymyxa Rizobacter...

A comparative analysis of functional traits in semi-natural grasslands under different grazing intensities

S. Targetti, A. Messeri, G. Argenti & N. Staglianò
The reduction of traditional management practices is a major threat for the conservation of permanent grasslands in many European marginal areas. The ecological importance of grasslands is acknowledged by the European Habitats Directive 92/43/EEC (1992) which includes many natural or semi-natural grassland types, and by the growing attention of society towards functions and services provided by these ecosystems. Nonetheless, the efficiency of conservation policies is questioned also for the lack of local-scale information on trends...

Kihilise kasvatamise/kahandamise meetodid jääk- pingete määramiseks ortotroopsetes mittehomogeen- setes silindrites: rakendus kasvupingete määramiseks puu tüves

Jakub Kõo & Jaak Valgur
Kihilise kasvatamise/kahandamise meetodid jääkpingete määramiseks mittehomogeensetes ortotroopsetes silindrites pakuvad huvi jääkpingete uurimisel kihilistes komposiitmaterjalides, samuti puidu jääkpingete uurimisel ja kasvupingete modelleerimisel. Ettekandes kirjeldatakse meetodi algoritmi ja tuuakse rakendusnäitena kasvupingete modelleerimine Jaapani punase männi (Pinus densiflora) tüves. Meetodi algoritm mittehomogeensetele isotroopsetele silindritele on esitatud töös [Kõo, Valgur: 5th Int. Conf. On Residual Stresses, Linköping, 1997].

Role of historical slash and burn cultivation in the development of cultural landscapes and forest vegetation in south Estonia

Pille Tomson
The objective of this PhD thesis was to estimate the effects of historical rotational slash and burn cultivation on the formation of southern Estonian cultural landscapes and forest vegetation. Slash and burn cultivation was practised in Northern and Central Europe until the 20th century. With regard to Estonia, previous studies have suggested that slash and burn cultivation resulted in soil depletion, podsolization and the formation of species-poor forest habitats. This research was based on land...

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