869 Works

Are We Using the Most Appropriate Animals for Our Research and Are We Doing It for the Best Reasons?

Axel Kornerup Hansen
Over the last 50 years there have been demands to increase the quality of animals used for research. The numbers of animals used for individual projects have in the same period decreased, while the efforts put on the single animal to secure the highest scientific output from it have increased. Basically this is a very important part of both “refinement” and “reduction”; those two of the three R’s which, it previously has been argued, were...

Two Intranasal Administration Techniques Give Two Different Pharmacokinetic Results

Sveinbjörn Gizurarson, Erik Bechgaard & Rolf K Hjortkjær
Minor changes in the administration technique used for intranasal instillation of clonazepam, have been found to influence the results significantly. A simple study was performed, where rabbits received 0.5 mg clonazepam intranasally. One group received the drug while fixed in a sitting position, where the other group was fixed in a supine position. The results show that both techniques where able to provide a rapid absorption with a tmax around 3-4 min. The Cmax and...

Influence of Cyclophosphamide on the Haematological Profile of Laboratory Bred African Soft-furred Rats (Mastomys natalensis)

J M Kagira, N W Maina, J K Thuita, M Ngotho & J Hau
The African soft-furred rat (Mastomys natalensis) has been shown to be a possible model for propagation of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense. This study aimed at determining the baseline biological reference values and reproductive data of a laboratory bred Mastomys colony, which was established at TRC. In addition, the effect of cyclophosphamide (an immunosuppressant) treatment (s) on the haematological profile was investigated. The mean gestation period was 23 days and the mean litter size was eight. At...

Open Field Behaviour and Reaction to Novelty in Göttingen Minipigs: Effects of Amphetamine and Haloperidol

Nanna Marie Lind, Sidse Marie Arnfred, Ralf Peter Hemmingsen, Axel Kornerup Hansen & Karin Hjelholt Jensen
The purpose of the study was to quantify behavioural changes of healthy Göttingen minipigs in response to experimentally altered dopamine neurotransmission. Since dopamine function is important in the pathogenesis of several human neuropsychiatric diseases, it is important for future evaluation of minipig models of diseases involving dopamine that the changes in behaviour in response to changed neurotransmitter function can be quantified. We recorded the behaviour of eight Göttingen minipigs in a ten-minute open field and...

Effects of Neostigmine Methylsulfate on Enzyme Activity of Acetylcholinesterase in Rat Serum, Plasma, Muscle and Liver in vivo

H Demir & V Turkoglu
This study was designed to investigate the effects of neostigmine methylsulfate on enzyme activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in rat serum, plasma, muscle and liver were investigated in vivo. Twelve Sprague-Dawley Albino male rats, weighing 150-200 g were housed in two groups, each group containing six rats. A single dose (0.05 mg/kg) of neostigmine methylsulfate was injected intramuscularly to the treatment rats. Control rats were given only the same amount of physiological saline. Blood samples for...

Measurements of Three Ocular Parameters in the Göttingen Minipig

Lisbeth Sanfeld Nielsen & Nanna Marie Lind
The use of laboratory pigs has increased dramatically in the last decade, and this study supplements the basic ocular anatomical and physiological characterisations already carried out on laboratory pigs. Pigs are frequently used as models of human ocular diseases due to the similar anatomy and physiology of the ocular structures of the pig as compared to humans, but refractive error has not been investigated systematically in the Göttingen minipig. We measured refractive status, corneal power...

A Neurophysiological Study on the Sympathetic Premotor Nuclei in the Pons and Medulla Oblongata

Yasuhiko Kira, Taku Ogura, Shunzo Aramaki, Fumihiko Nakanishi & Toshikazu Kubo
The aim of this study was to neurophysiologically demonstrate the activities of the premotor nuclei of sympathetic vasomotion, by capturing the diachronic changes in the action potentials which are generated in the pons and medulla oblongata. To do so, ten male Wistar rats weighing 300g were used as subjects. Microelectrodes were inserted in the muscular branch of the sciatic nerve and the ventral side of the pons and medulla oblongata, and the muscle sympathetic nerve...

Case Report and Short Communication: Rectal prolapse associated with an unusual combination of pinworms and citrobacter species infection in FVB mice colony

M J Manesh Kumar, P Nagarajan, R Venkatesan & Ramesh C Juyal
Spontaneous cases of rectal prolapse in a breeding colony of FVB mice were found to be due to infection with Syphacia obvelata and Citrobacter freundii. Microbiology, biochemical and parasitological examination revealed Citrobacter freundii and eggs of Syphacia obvelata. After treatment with antibiotics, antihelminthic drugs and manual reduction prevented further occurrence.

Bordetella avium cross-reacts with B. bronchiseptica by ELISA but natural B. avium infection in rats is unlikely

R Boot, L Van Den Berg, M A Koedam & J L Veenema
The specificity of a Bordetella bronchiseptica antibody ELISA for the monitoring of laboratory rodents was re-evaluated by studying the serological relationship of the B. bronchiseptica antigen and antigens of B. avium, B. hinzii, B. holmesii and an unclassified Bordetella sp. Immunization of rats with B. avium strains induced antibodies to the B. bronchiseptica antigen. Bordetella antibody free rats that were experimentally infected with a B. avium strain seroconverted to the bacterium but not to B....

The use of the API 20 NE bacteria classification procedure to identify Pasteurellaceae strains in rodents and rabbits

R Boot, M Van Den Brink, P Handgraaf & R Timmermans
Forty growth-factor independent Pasteurellaceae strains representing most known taxa from rodents and rabbits were API 20 NE profiled by four laboratory animal diagnostic laboratories using their routine methodology. Significant differences were found in the number of bacterial strains classified with the Pasteurellaceae. The results of the four laboratories taken together showed that 136 (85 %) of the 160 tests carried out with the 40 strains led to classification with the family. The 23 Pasteurellaceae strains...

Twenty six-week exposure to 2 amino-3 methylimidazo [4,5-ƒ]quinoline (IQ) does not significantly increase the incidence of tumours in HMGCR/mts1 tg579 transgenic mice

Alicja Mortensen, Eugene Lukanidin, Noona S Ambartsumian & Ilona K Sørensen
HMGCR/mts1 tg579 transgenic mice were designed to direct the expression of metastasis-promoting mts1 (S100A4) gene to all the tissues. In order to test the usefulness of this mouse model for carcinogenicity tests shorter than that recommended by OECD guideline nr. 451, HMGCR/mts1 tg579 transgenic and C57BL/6ByA (wild type) mice (15 males and 15 females of each genotype per group) received either a control diet for 53 weeks or a control diet plus 0.03% 2-amino-3 methylimidazo[4,5-ƒ]quinoline...

The autonomic innervation of the testicular parenchyma: a rat model

Ender Erdogan, Atıf Aydinlioglu, Murat C Ragbetli, Hanefi Özbek & Fatma Göçer
The specific roles and direct involvements of autonomic innervations on the spermatogenic process are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate stereologically the relative importance of sympathetic innervations in testicular parenchyma rats in chemically sympathectomized with guanethidine. Treated animals (n=10) were injected intraperitoneally with guanethidine at doses of 10mg/kg/day for 15 days while control animals (n= 5) received an equivalent volume of saline. After routine histological procedures, 5μm thick sections of the...

Development of laboratory animal science in Lithuania

O Ruksenas & V Simkeviciene
The development of laboratory animal science (LAS) in Lithuania during the last decades is reviewed. Political changes in the 1990’s initiated development of LAS in Lithuania. Two aspects of LAS are analyzed – education and legislation. As regards education over 40 people possess FELASA category C certificates, a regular course on “Laboratory animal science” is delivered at Vilnius University, and a textbook “Basics of laboratory animal science” in Lithuanian has been published. Introduction of necessary...

Propranolol does not affect the oxidative burst of rat neutrophils or complement serum opsonizing capacity in in vivo and in vitro experiments

E M S Russo-Carbolante, TS Marasca, ACM Polizello, AECS Azzolini & Y M Lucisano-Valim
Propranolol is a ß-adrenergic antagonist used for the treatment of a variety of cardiac conditions and has a palliative value when used in situations in which adrenergic signals and symptoms are involved. It is used as a co-adjuvant in hyperthyroidism to decrease heart rate and output, as well as the tremor. The aim of this work was to study the effect of propranolol treatment on the oxidative burst of rat peripheral blood neutrophils and on...

Development and validation of ELISAs for monitoring bacterial and parasitic infections in laboratory rodents and rabbits

R Boot
According to the FELASA recommendations for the health monitoring of rodent and rabbit breeding and experimental colonies (Kraft et al. 1994; Rehbinder et al. 1996) bacterial and parasitic infections are monitored by culture and microscopy respectively whereas viral infections are monitored by serology. The recommendation on the breeding colonies states that serological methods exist for the detection of antibodies to various bacterial pathogens e.g. Bacillus piliformis (now Clostridium piliforme), mycoplasmas and Leptospira spp. and suggests...

The influence of strain on demand functions for water in rats (Rattus Norvegicus)

Dorte Bratbo Sørensen, Jan Ladewig & Lartey Godwin Lawson
Demand functions generated by operant conditioning techniques may be used to assess animal priorities (Dawkins 1990, Matthews & Ladewig 1994, Sherwin & Nicol 1997, Fraser & Matthews 1997, Matthews 1998). The animal needs to perform a number of simple responses (e.g. bar-presses), to obtain one unit of a reinforcer (Lea 1978, Dawkins 1990, Matthews & Ladewig 1994). This reinforcer enables the animal to perform a certain behaviour. The relationship between the workload (traditionally set by...

Isolation of neonatal porcine islet tissue and transplantation into diabetic mice. A methodological evaluation

Thomas Buschmann Nielsen, Knud Bonnet Yderstraede, Helle Juul Rasmussen & Henning Beck-Nielsen
Diabetes mellitus type I can be a disabling disease with a high risk of complications (i.e. neuropathy, atherosclerosis and nephropathy). Furthermore, the treatment with insulin can be complicated with severe episodes of hypoglycaemia. As diabetes type 1 is caused by an autoimmune destruction of the islets of Langerhans, replacement of these islets could be the treatment of choice for this disease provided the immunological process is halted. Centres world wide perform islet allotransplantation (i.e. transplantation...

A Few New Developments in Primate Housing and Husbandry

Steven J Schapiro
Over the last few decades of the 20th century, laboratory animal scientists have made considerable advances in the development of avast array of animal models. This has been especially true for the establishment of nonhuman primate models as research resources. For these species, standards of care and criteria for definition, in terms of immunological, behavioral, and genetic factors, have been significantly enhanced in just the last few years. While these advancements are important, they represent...

Laienenud vestibulaarjuha. Haigusjuhtude kirjeldus ja kirjanduse ülevaade

Evgenia Chetverikova, Riste Saat & Maret Lepplaan
Neurosensoorne kuulmislangus lastel on kliiniline seisund, millega võivad kaasneda õppimise ning sotsiaalse ja emotsionaalse arengu probleemid. Kuni 30%-l kõikidest kaasasündinud neurosensoorse kuulmislangusega lastest esineb piltdiagnostilistel uuringutel oimuluu anatoomilisi iseärasusi. Laienenud vestibulaarjuha on kõige sagedasem neurosensoorse kuulmislanguse radioloogiliselt visualiseeritav põhjus. Selle anatoomilise iseärasuse tõttu tekkinud sümptomite kogumit nimetatakse laienenud vestibulaarjuha sündroomiks. Artiklis on tutvustatud laienenud vestibulaarjuha sündroomiga patsiente ja nende käsitluse võtmemomente ning antud ülevaade haiguse olemusest ja ravimeetoditest. Sündroomi diagnoosimine lapseeas on oluline, kuna sellise...

Sügelised ei väljendu alati klassikalise lööbena

Maire Karelson
Sügelised on nakkuslik nahahaigus, mida põhjustab lest Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis. Levimus maailmas kõigub 0,2–71,4%. Nakatumine toimub nahk naha kontaktil. Tervel inimesel tekib klassikaline lööve väikeste, punetavate, ekskorieeritud sõlmekestena sõrmevahedes, randmetel, naba ümber, rindadel, aksillaarvoltides, tuharatel ja suguelunditel. Atüüpiline koorikuline haigusvorm avaldub immuunkomprimeeritud isikutel generaliseerunud ekseemi- või ketendava psoriaasilaadse lööbena. Nahk ja ketud sisaldavad arvukalt lesti, mistõttu nakkus levib juba lühiajalisel kontaktil, põhjustades puhanguid õendus- ja hooldusasutuste töötajate seas. Sügelisi diagnoositakse anamneesi ja kliinilise pildi...

Euroopa arstid kogunesid Genfis

Indrek Oro
Eesti Arst 2019; 98(1):10–11

Kuulo Kutsar: epidemioloogias on vältimatu nakkushaiguste puhanguteks ja epideemiateks valmisolek

Eli Lilles
Eesti Arst 2019; 98(1):5–8

Äkk-kuulmislangus

Evgenia Chetverikova, Maret Lepplaan & Priit Kasenõmm
Äge kuulmislangus on igapäevases kliinilises praktikas sageli esinev seisund. Järsku tekkinud kuulmislangus võib olla nii konduktiivset tüüpi (nt kõrvavaigust põhjustatud) kui ka neurosensoorset tüüpi (nt ototoksiliste ravimite manustamisest tekkinud). Eraldiseisvaks, kuid samas levinud ägeda kuulmislanguse vormiks on äge neurosensoorne kuulmislangus. Eestis ei ole välja töötatud äkk-kuulmislanguse käsitluse ravialgoritmi. Artiklis antud ravisoovitused põhinevad 2012. aasta märtsis avaldatud ägeda kuulmislanguse ravijuhendil, mille American Academy of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery Foundation (AAO-HNS) on heaks kiitnud (1)....

Tartu Ülikooli raamatukogule tellitud kipsvalandid Tartu Ülikooli muuseumi kogus

Jaanika Anderson
Nowadays, a large part of the objects related to teaching and research acquired for the University of Tartu in the past couple of centuries are located in the museums of the university. The University of Tartu Museum also preserves the plaster casts ordered in 1805 for decorating the University of Tartu Library. Exhibiting sculptures at the library was far from being a new idea. It is likely that there were libraries at ancient Greek temples,...

Capgras’ sündroom

Mart Veerus
Capgras’ sündroom (ka negatiivne teisikuluul) on psüühiline seisund, mille puhul patsient usub, et keegi tema lähedastest on ära vahetatud teisikuga. Tegemist on levinuima luululise vääridentifitseerimise sündroomiga, mis on praktikas aladiagnoositud, kuna kaasub tihti teiste vaimse tervise häiretega ja jääb nende varju. Capgras’ sündroom on oma nime saanud prantsuse psühhiaatri Joseph Capgras’ järgi, kes oma kolleegi Jean Reboul-Lachaux’ga kirjeldas esimest korda seda sündroomi 1923. aastal. Teisikuluul on üks mitmest paranoiliste luulude alla kuuluvatest sündroomidest. Sündroomi täpsed...

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