4,387 Works

Zielkonflikte zwischen Biodiversitätsförderung und Pflanzenschutz

Karin Ruchti & Christoph Studer
Massnahmen zur Förderung der Biodiversität können im Bereich Pflanzenschutz zu Zielkonflikten führen, weil in und um ökologische Strukturen bestimmte Krankheiten und Schaderreger vermehrt auftreten können. Gute landwirtschaftliche Praxis und angepasste Pflegemassnahmen können jedoch negative Auswirkungen der Biodiversitätsförderung reduzieren. Da kaum wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen zum Thema existieren, scheint eine fundierte Wirkungsanalyse zur Biodiversitätsförderung angezeigt.

Computertomographie für Rundholz: Blick ins Stamminnere

M. Schaller, Eduard Bachmann, Bernhard Pauli, C. Berli, H. Von Fehrn, Alexandra Müller & Jelena Markovic
Die meisten Menschen verknüpfen die Computertomographie mit der Suche nach der Ursache von menschlichen Beschwerden und nicht mit der Vermessung und Qualitätsbestimmung von Rundholz. Doch Letzteres ist dank moderner, industrietauglicher Computertomographen inzwischen möglich. ln einem gemeinsamen Projekt der HAFL und der AHB befragten Forst- und Holzwissenschaftler Forstbetriebe und Säger zu den Möglichkeiten und Grenzen des Einsatzes von Computertomographen in der Holzwirtschaft.

Blühstreifen fördern Honig- und Wildbienen

Hans Ramseier, Dominik Füglistaller, Christina Lädrach, Christian Ramseier, Michael Rauch & Franziska Widmer Etter
Honig- und Wildbienen sind für die landwirtschaftliche Produktion und die Biodiversität unverzichtbar, doch sie sind weltweit unter Druck geraten. Neben der Varroa- Milbe, Krankheiten und Umweltgiften dürfte auch fehlende Nahrung ein wichtiger Stressfaktor sein. Mit Blühstreifen in der Kulturlandschaft soll deshalb die Trachtlücke von Ende Mai bis Ende Juli verringert werden. An der Hochschule für Agrar-, Forst- und Lebensmittelwissenschaften HAFL wurden 2011–2015 Blühstreifenmischungen entwickelt, die Honig- und nichtspezialisierten Wildbienen in der trachtarmen Zeit Pollen und...

Quo Vadis Data Linkage in Germany? An Initial Inventory

Stefanie March, Manfred Antoni, Joachim Kieschke, Bianca Kollhorst, Birga Maier, Gabriele Müller, Murat Sariyar, Mandy Schulz, Swart Enno, Jan Zeidler & Falk Hoffmann

Towards automatic encoding of medical procedures using convolutional neural networks and autoencoders

Yihan Deng, André Sander, Lukas Faulstich & Kerstin Denecke

StratIT– Ein Rahmenwerk zu den Inhalten von ITStrategien. Grundlegung und methodische Fundierung

K. Walser, M. Goeken, C.A. Albayrak, J. Puchan, J. Thielscher, R. Tischendorf, K. Schoo, M. Knoll, H.-J. Ley, J. Bartenschlager, D. Sterren & F. Pörtig
Bis heute ist kein Konsens über die Inhalte von IT-Strategien vorhan-den. Daraus folgt eine gewisse Unsicherheit, wenn es gilt, die Themenbereiche einer IT-Strategie festzulegen. Dieser Missstand soll durch den Entwurf eines Rahmenwerks/Frameworks behoben werden. Die Fachgruppe Strategisches In-formationsmanagement der Gesellschaft für Informatik (GI-Fachgruppe SIM) hat sich zum Ziel gesetzt, ein entsprechendes Rahmenwerk zu entwickeln. Dieses dient dazu, die Erstellung von IT-Strategien zu unterstützen. Der vorlie-gende Beitrag beschreibt den aktuellen Stand der Arbeit und zeigt im...

Business-IT alignment in municipalities – The Swiss case

K. Walser, S. Enkerli, N. Bigler & M. Topfel
Huge challenges face municipalities (in Switzerland) today, not merely as administrative units but also in the context of rapid technological development in information technology. There are calls for the increased implementation of E-government solutions. The relationship between business activities and IT ('busi-ness-IT alignment') plays a central role in this. This paper considers the rela-tionship between the use of IT solutions and the business activities of municipal authorities in general and specifically in the German speaking...

Business-IT Alignment In Municipalities – The Swiss Case

K. Walser, D. Weibel, B. Wissmath, S. Enkerli, N. Bigler & M. Topfel
Municipalities face huge challenges today in the context of rapid technological changes and E-govern-ment. Therefore business-IT alignment (ΒIA) plays a growing role in municipalities today. We consider the level of BIA in Swiss municipalities based on various variables relating to municipality size, artefacts that underpin BIA, and the satisfaction of the municipalities with IT services. We investigate BIA using a deductive approach that employs a survey and develops a behavioral partial least square model. BIA...

Loss and Damage in the mountain cryosphere

Christian Huggel, Veruska Muccione, Mark Carey, Rachel James, Christine Jurt Vicuña Muñoz & Reinhard Mechler
The mountain cryosphere, which includes glaciers, permafrost, and snow, is one of the Earth’s systems most strongly affected by climate change. In recent decades, changes in the cryosphere have been well documented in many high-mountain regions. While there are some benefits from snow and ice loss, the negative impacts, including from glacier lake outburst floods and variations in glacier runoff, are generally considered to far outweigh the positive impacts, particularly if cultural impacts are considered....

Nachwuchssicherung im Kontext von Fachkräftemangel und Generation Y.

Peter Kels, Andrea Gurtner & Frank E.P. Dievernich

A Novel DEM Approach to Simulate Block Propagation on Forested Slopes

David Toe, Franck Bourrier, Luuk Dorren & Frédéric Berger
In order to model rockfall on forested slopes, we developed a trajectory rockfall model based on the discrete element method (DEM). This model is able to take the complex mechanical processes at work during an impact into account (large deformations, complex contact conditions) and can explicitly simulate block/soil, block/tree contacts as well as contacts between neighbouring trees. In this paper, we describe the DEM model developed and we use it to assess the protective effect...

Policies for forest landscape management – A conceptual approach with an empirical application for Swedish conditions

Astrid Mirjam Zabel Von Felten, Göran Bostedt & Hans Ekvall
Habitat loss and habitat fragmentation are major factors leading to forest biodiversity decline. This paper discusses landscape planning as strategy to improve connectivity in a landscape with a heterogeneous distribution of ecologically valuable areas across land owners. A tax-fund system is proposed, that following the principle of common but differentiated responsibility, tries to spread the burden of conservation equally across land owners while optimizing the environmental outcome. Design options of such a tax-fund system are...

Woody species diversity and carbon stock under different land use types at Gergera watershed in eastern Tigray, Ethiopia

Abrha Brhan Gebre, Emiru Birhane, Girmay Gebresamuel, Kiros Meles Hadgu & Lindsey Norgrove
Woody diversity and carbon stock estimation of land use types have critical role for the successful implementation of climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies. This study investigated relationships between woody species diversity and carbon stock in different land use types. Three land use types (area exclosure, homestead agroforestry and woodlot) were selected in the Gergera watershed, Tigray, Ethiopia. A total of 45 sample plots were established using stratified random sampling, 15 plots in each land...

Quantifying annual soil and nutrient lost by rill erosion in continuously used semiarid farmlands, North Ethiopia

Berhane Lemma, Fassil Kebede, Shimbahri Mesfin, Ibrahim Fitiwy, Zenebe Abraha & Lindsey Norgrove
The loss of soil from land surfaces by erosion is widespread and reduces the productivity of agricultural lands. Concurrently, due to increasing human population, agricultural land expansion and exploitation, soil erosion and nutrient loss are the major environmental problems in Ethiopia. This study was conducted to estimate annual losses of soil, soil nutrients and carbon due to rill erosion. The entire watershed was classified into 12 land mapping units (LMUs). Consequently, the cropland was delineated...

The Effect of Post-Exercise Cryotherapy on Recovery Characteristics

Erich Hohenauer, Jan Taeymans, Jean-Pierre Baeyens, Peter Clarys & Ron Clijsen
The aim of this review and meta-analysis was to critically determine the possible effects of different cooling applications, compared to non-cooling, passive post-exercise strategies, on recovery characteristics after various, exhaustive exercise protocols up to 96 hours (hrs). A total of n = 36 articles were processed in this study. To establish the research question, the PICO-model, according to the PRISMA guidelines was used. The Cochrane’s risk of bias tool, which was used for the quality...

The negative effect of wood ant presence on tick abundance

Silvia Zingg, Patrick Dolle, Maarten Jeroen Voordouw & Maren Kern
Background: Ticks and tick-borne pathogens are a global problem for the health of humans and their livestock. Wood ants are important ecosystem engineers in forests worldwide. Although both taxa are well studied, little is known about their interactions under natural conditions. The purpose of the present field study was to test whether European red wood ants (Formica polyctena) influence the abundance of Ixodes tick populations in temperate forests. Methods: Data collection took place in 130...

Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) Analysis and Risk Assessment for Soil Compaction—A European Perspective

Per Schjønning, Jan J.H. Van Den Akker, Thomas Keller, Mogens H. Greve, Mathieu Lamandé, Asko Simojoki, Matthias Stettler, Johan Arvidsson & Henrik Breuning-Madsen
Compaction of subsoil is a hidden but persistent damage that impairs a range of soil functions and ecosystem services. We analyzed the soil compaction issue in the Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) context. The driving force (DPSIR-D) is the farmers' efforts to sustain economic viability. This entails a steady increase in the size and weight of the agricultural machinery (DPSIR-P) exerting the specific pressures on the soil system. Simulations using historical data for agricultural machinery show significant increases...

Just a subtle difference

Corinna Krause, Kathrin Sommerhalder, Sigrid Beer-Borst & Thomas Abel
Nutrition literacy and food literacy have become increasingly important concepts in health promotion. Researchers use one or the other term to describe the competencies needed to maintain a healthy diet. This systematic review examines whether these terms are synonymous or if their meanings are substantially different. We searched major bibliographic databases (Web of Science, PubMed, ScienceDirect, CINAHL, SocIndex and ERIC) for publications that provided an original definition of nutrition or food literacy. Then we used...

Landscape Planning—Paving the Way for Effective Conservation of Forest Biodiversity and a Diverse Forestry?

Gabriel Michanek, Göran Bostedt, Hans Ekvall, Maria Forsberg, Anouschka Hof, Johnny De Jong, Jörgen Rudolphi & Astrid Mirjam Zabel Von Felten
Globally, intensive forestry has led to habitat degradation and fragmentation of the forest landscape. Taking Sweden as an example, this development is contradictory to international commitments, EU obligations, and to the fulfillment of the Parliament’s environmental quality objective “Living Forests”, which according to Naturvårdsverket (The Swedish Environmental Protection Agency) will not be achieved in 2020 as stipulated. One important reason for the implementation deficit is the fragmented forestry management. In a forest landscape, felling and...

Resource-Conserving Agriculture: Undersowing and Mixed Crops as Stepping Stones Towards a Solution

Hans Ramseier & Valentin Crismaru
In today’s agricultural environment, the conservation of water, soil and energy is of utmost importance. In the past, various approaches have been tested in a practical environment. Two practical approaches that were, once, commonplace have been neglected, namely, undersowing and mixed cultivation where various species are simultaneously grown with or between plantings of a main crop. These have been researched in multiyear field studies. White clover and lucerne have proven to be suitable for undersowing...

Integrating the mitigating effect of forests into quantitative rockfall risk analysis – Two case studies in Switzerland

Christine Moos, Michael Fehlmann, Daniel Trappmann, Markus Stoffel & Luuk Dorren
Over the past decades, integral risk management of natural hazards has become increasingly important. Although risk analyses have been established for the design of structural protection measures against rockfalls, they have hardly been applied to ecosystem-based disaster risk reduction measures, such as protection forests. This, however, is necessary to quantify the benefits of such forests and compare them to structural measures. The goal of this study is to present a general framework which allows for...

Planning on a wider scale – Swedish forest owners' preferences for landscape policy attributes

Göran Bostedt, Astrid Mirjam Zabel Von Felten & Hans Ekvall
A tax-fund system has been proposed to advance Swedish forest conservation. We present a choice experiment with Swedish private forest owners on preferences for attributes of a tax-fund system. Focusing on three aspects: (i) freedom to choose set-asides, (ii) equity issues, and (iii) frequency of nature inventories, we find two groups of forest owners. The first is opposed to interventions that could curtail liberty and oppose frequent nature inventories, while a smaller group would derive...

Mental training in group settings: intervention protocols of a mindfulness and acceptance-based and a psychological skills training program

Daniel Birrer
This article provides protocols of a mindfulness and acceptance-based intervention and a psychological skills training intervention. Both consist of four 90-minute group workshops in a time period of one month. All workshops were accompanied with methods that support behavioral change. We considered four principles in the program development to support behavioral change (i.e., supporting processing and learning of the workshop content, strengthening motivation to get involved with the program, promoting regular practice of formal exercises,...

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