4,405 Works

The negative effect of wood ant presence on tick abundance

Silvia Zingg, Patrick Dolle, Maarten Jeroen Voordouw & Maren Kern
Background: Ticks and tick-borne pathogens are a global problem for the health of humans and their livestock. Wood ants are important ecosystem engineers in forests worldwide. Although both taxa are well studied, little is known about their interactions under natural conditions. The purpose of the present field study was to test whether European red wood ants (Formica polyctena) influence the abundance of Ixodes tick populations in temperate forests. Methods: Data collection took place in 130...

Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) Analysis and Risk Assessment for Soil Compaction—A European Perspective

Per Schjønning, Jan J.H. Van Den Akker, Thomas Keller, Mogens H. Greve, Mathieu Lamandé, Asko Simojoki, Matthias Stettler, Johan Arvidsson & Henrik Breuning-Madsen
Compaction of subsoil is a hidden but persistent damage that impairs a range of soil functions and ecosystem services. We analyzed the soil compaction issue in the Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) context. The driving force (DPSIR-D) is the farmers' efforts to sustain economic viability. This entails a steady increase in the size and weight of the agricultural machinery (DPSIR-P) exerting the specific pressures on the soil system. Simulations using historical data for agricultural machinery show significant increases...

Just a subtle difference

Corinna Krause, Kathrin Sommerhalder, Sigrid Beer-Borst & Thomas Abel
Nutrition literacy and food literacy have become increasingly important concepts in health promotion. Researchers use one or the other term to describe the competencies needed to maintain a healthy diet. This systematic review examines whether these terms are synonymous or if their meanings are substantially different. We searched major bibliographic databases (Web of Science, PubMed, ScienceDirect, CINAHL, SocIndex and ERIC) for publications that provided an original definition of nutrition or food literacy. Then we used...

Landscape Planning—Paving the Way for Effective Conservation of Forest Biodiversity and a Diverse Forestry?

Gabriel Michanek, Göran Bostedt, Hans Ekvall, Maria Forsberg, Anouschka Hof, Johnny De Jong, Jörgen Rudolphi & Astrid Mirjam Zabel Von Felten
Globally, intensive forestry has led to habitat degradation and fragmentation of the forest landscape. Taking Sweden as an example, this development is contradictory to international commitments, EU obligations, and to the fulfillment of the Parliament’s environmental quality objective “Living Forests”, which according to Naturvårdsverket (The Swedish Environmental Protection Agency) will not be achieved in 2020 as stipulated. One important reason for the implementation deficit is the fragmented forestry management. In a forest landscape, felling and...

Resource-Conserving Agriculture: Undersowing and Mixed Crops as Stepping Stones Towards a Solution

Hans Ramseier & Valentin Crismaru
In today’s agricultural environment, the conservation of water, soil and energy is of utmost importance. In the past, various approaches have been tested in a practical environment. Two practical approaches that were, once, commonplace have been neglected, namely, undersowing and mixed cultivation where various species are simultaneously grown with or between plantings of a main crop. These have been researched in multiyear field studies. White clover and lucerne have proven to be suitable for undersowing...

Integrating the mitigating effect of forests into quantitative rockfall risk analysis – Two case studies in Switzerland

Christine Moos, Michael Fehlmann, Daniel Trappmann, Markus Stoffel & Luuk Dorren
Over the past decades, integral risk management of natural hazards has become increasingly important. Although risk analyses have been established for the design of structural protection measures against rockfalls, they have hardly been applied to ecosystem-based disaster risk reduction measures, such as protection forests. This, however, is necessary to quantify the benefits of such forests and compare them to structural measures. The goal of this study is to present a general framework which allows for...

Planning on a wider scale – Swedish forest owners' preferences for landscape policy attributes

Göran Bostedt, Astrid Mirjam Zabel Von Felten & Hans Ekvall
A tax-fund system has been proposed to advance Swedish forest conservation. We present a choice experiment with Swedish private forest owners on preferences for attributes of a tax-fund system. Focusing on three aspects: (i) freedom to choose set-asides, (ii) equity issues, and (iii) frequency of nature inventories, we find two groups of forest owners. The first is opposed to interventions that could curtail liberty and oppose frequent nature inventories, while a smaller group would derive...

Mental training in group settings: intervention protocols of a mindfulness and acceptance-based and a psychological skills training program

Daniel Birrer
This article provides protocols of a mindfulness and acceptance-based intervention and a psychological skills training intervention. Both consist of four 90-minute group workshops in a time period of one month. All workshops were accompanied with methods that support behavioral change. We considered four principles in the program development to support behavioral change (i.e., supporting processing and learning of the workshop content, strengthening motivation to get involved with the program, promoting regular practice of formal exercises,...

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Processing of metals with ps-laser pulses in the range between 10ps and 100ps

Marc Schmid, Beat Neuenschwander, Valerio Romano, Guido Hennig, Beat Jaeggi & Urs Hunziker

Processing of metals and dielectric materials with ps-laserpulses: results, strategies, limitations and needs

Beat Neuenschwander, Guido Bucher, Christian Nussbaum, Benjamin Joss, Martin Muralt, Urs Hunziker & Peter Schütz

Processing of Industrially Relevant Non Metals with Laser Pulses in the Range Between 10Ps and 50Ps

Beat Jaeggi, Marc Schmid, Beat Lüscher & Carmine Nocera
The interest in ps-laser pulses for industrial applications has significantly increased in the last few years. Today, available ps-lasers are industrially applicable turnkey systems, set up in a MOPA arrangement with rod or disk amplifiers and mostly have pulse durations of about 10ps. The change to fiber based amplifier technologies would help to build more compact systems but with pulse durations between 20ps and 50ps. It has been shown, that the ablation efficiency of a...

High precision and high throughput surface structuring by synchronizing mechanical axes with an ultra short pulsed laser system in MOPA arrangement

Beat Jaeggi, Beat Neuenschwander, Urs Hunziker, Joseph Zuercher, Thomas Meier, Markus Zimmermann & G. Hennig

Influence of the Pulse Duration in the ps-Regime on the Ablation Efficiency of Metals

Beat Jaeggi, Beat Neuenschwander, Marc Schmid, Martin Muralt, Joseph C. Zuercher & Urs Hunziker

Loss of tensile strength in cellulose tissue on the surface of spruce (Picea abies) caused by natural photodegradation and delignification

Thomas Volkmer, L. Arietano, C. Plummer, J. Strautmann & Marion Noël
Photodegradation of wood leads to discolouration and delignification, inducing damage to the cellular structure. This study is an investigation of the damage and loss of tensile strength of the cellulose fibres in spruce (Picea abies). Microtensile tests in the longitudinal direction on 250-μm-thick microtomed samples were performed on undegraded and degraded spruce specimens. The tested length of the samples for the first series was 10 mm (t-span) to evaluate the entire wood composite degradation process...

Optimization of the volume ablation rate for metals at different laser pulse-durations from ps to fs

Beat Neuenschwander, Beat Jaeggi, Marc Schmid, Vincent Rouffiange, Paul-E. Martin & Guido Hennig

Ultra-high-precision surface structuring by synchronizing a galvo scanner with an ultra-short-pulsed laser system in MOPA arrangement

Beat Jaeggi, Beat Neuenschwander, Urs Hunziker, Joseph Zuercher, Thomas Meier, Markus Zimmermann, Karl-Heinz Selbmann & Guido Hennig

Use of Butanol Blend Fuels on Diesel Engines - Effects on Combustion and Emissions

Danilo Engelmann, Jan Czerwinski, Hervé Nauroy, Pierre Comte & Andreas Hüssy
Butanol, a four-carbon alcohol, is considered in the last years as an interesting alternative fuel, both for Diesel and for Gasoline application. Its advantages for engine operation are: good miscibility with gasoline and diesel fuels, higher calorific value than Ethanol, lower hygroscopicity, lower corrosivity and possibility of replacing aviation fuels. Like Ethanol, Butanol can be produced as a biomass-based renewable fuel or from fossil sources. In the research project, DiBut (Diesel and Butanol) addition of...

Mit Low-End Innovationen die medizinische Versorgung verbessern – Potenziale und Herausforderungen

Ariane Segelitz-Karsten, Sebastian Gurtner & Ronny Reinhardt
Unsere Gesellschaft im 21. Jahrhundert steht vor zahlreichen globalen Herausforderungen. Besonders das Gesundheitswesen sieht sich trotz Verbesserungen von Untersuchungs- und Behandlungsmethoden großen Aufgaben gegenüber. Ein drängendes Problem stellt die Bereitstellung von medizinischer Versorgung dar. Mehrere Milliarden Menschen, v. a. in Entwicklungs- und Schwellenländern, verfügen über keinen oder nur unzureichenden Zugang zu medizinischer Grundversorgung. Ein Weg, um diese Herausforderungen zu bezwingen, stellen Low-End Innovationen dar. Hierbei handelt es sich um neue Produkte oder Dienstleistungen, die deutlich...

Revisiting Principles and Challenges in Natural Language Programming

André Freitas, Douglas Oliveira, Adamantios Koumpis & Siegfried Handschuh
Automation has faced the risk of reducing its pace due to the shortage of information technology professionals. Although part of the programming demand can be addressed by simple compositions of high-level functions and data flows, non-technical professionals are still unable to build their own software given the intrinsic complexity of coding. Among other types of end-user development, natural language programming has emerged as a strong candidate to fill this gap by developing methods and tools...

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