391 Works

Eye tracking in virtual reality

Viviane Clay, Peter König & Sabine U. König
The intent of this paper is to provide an introduction into the bourgeoning field of eye tracking in Virtual Reality (VR). VR itself is an emerging technology on the consumer market, which will create many new opportunities in research. It offers a lab environment with high immersion and close alignment with reality. An experiment which is using VR takes place in a highly controlled environment and allows for a more in-depth amount of information to...

Motion tracking of iris features to detect small eye movements

Aayush K. Chaudhary & Jeff B. Pelz
The inability of current video-based eye trackers to reliably detect very small eye movements has led to confusion about the prevalence or even the existence of monocular microsaccades (small, rapid eye movements that occur in only one eye at a time). As current methods often rely on precisely localizing the pupil and/or corneal reflection on successive frames, current microsaccade-detection algorithms often suffer from signal artifacts and a low signal-to-noise ratio. We describe a new video-based...

Evaluating age-related variations of gaze behavior for a novel digitized-digit symbol substitution test

Debatri Chatterjee, Rahul Dasharath Gavas, Kingshuk Chakravarty, Aniruddha Sinha & Uttama Lahiri
Analysis of cognitive functioning from gaze behavior might serve as an early indicator of age related decline of cognitive functions. Standard psychological tests like the digit-symbol substitution test or the symbol-digit modalities test is used exclusively in this regard. In this paper, we have designed and developed a digitized version of the digit symbol substitution test. Three different versions have been designed in order to derive deeper insights of the user behavior. The test-retest validation...

Microsaccades and covert attention: Evidence from a continuous, divided attention task

Aimee Elizabeth Ryan, Brendan Keane & Guy Wallis
A substantial question in understanding expert behavior is isolating where experts look, and which aspects of their environment they process. While tracking the position of gaze provides some insight into this process, our ability to attend covertly to regions of space other than the current point of fixation, severely limits the diagnostic power of such data. Over the past decade, evidence has emerged suggesting that microscopic eye movements present during periods of fixation may be...

Eye-hand coordination patterns of intermediate and novice surgeons in a simulation-based endoscopic surgery training environment

Endoscopic surgery procedures require specific skills, such as eye-hand coordination to be developed. Current education programs are facing with problems to provide appropriate skill improvement and assessment methods in this field. This study aims to propose objective metrics for hand-movement skills and assess eye-hand coordination. An experimental study is conducted with 15 surgical residents to test the newly proposed measures. Two computer-based both-handed endoscopic surgery practice scenarios are developed in a simulation environment to gather...

Abstracts of the Scandinavian Workshop on Applied Eye Tracking (SWAET 2018)

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This document contains the abstracts for the 2018 Scandinavian Workshop on Applied Eye Tracking (SWAET 2018) which was held at Copenhagen Business School, Denmark, 23 to 24 August, 2018..

Comparing written and photo-based indoor wayfinding instructions through eye fixation measures and user ratings as mental effort assessments

Laure De Cock, Pepijn Viaene, Nico Van De Weghe, Ralph Michels, Kristien Ooms, Nina Vanhaeren, Alain De Wulf & Philippe De Maeyer
The use of mobile pedestrian wayfinding applications is gaining importance indoors. However, compared to outdoors, much less research has been conducted with respect to the most adequate ways to convey indoor wayfinding information to a user. An explorative study was conducted to compare two pedestrian indoor wayfinding applications, one text-based (SoleWay) and one image-based (Eyedog), in terms of mental effort. To do this, eye tracking data and mental effort ratings were collected from 29 participants...

User-Friendly Locations of Error Messages in Web Forms: An Eye Tracking Study

Error messages presented to users are one of the most important elements of Web forms. Error messages are embedded in different parts of the forms available on the Internet and presented in various formats. One of the measures of a user-friendly error message design is the ability to easily capture users’ attention and facilitate fast error correction. In this empirical study, I tested four different locations of error messages frequently used in Web forms on...

Learning to search. The importance of eye movements in the decrease of response times during a visual choice reaction time task

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Reaction times are often used as an indicator of the efficiency of the processes in thecentral nervous system. While extensive research has been conducted on the possibleresponse time correlates, the role of eye movements in visual tasks is yet unclear. Here wereport data to support the role of eye movements during visual choice reaction time training.Participant performance, reaction times, and total session duration improved. Eyemovementsshowed expected changes in saccade amplitude and resulted in improvementin visual...

Reading English-Language Haiku: Processes of Meaning Construction Revealed by Eye Movements

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In the present study, poets and cognitive scientists came together to investigate the construction of meaning in the process of reading normative, 3-line English-language haiku (ELH), as found in leading ELH journals. The particular haiku which we presented to our readers consisted of two semantically separable parts, or images, that were set in a ‘tense’ relationship by the poet. In our sample of poems, the division, or cut, between the two parts was positioned either...

How prior experience, cognitive skills and practice are related with eye-hand span and performance in video gaming

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Research has shown that performance in visual domains depends on domain-specific cognitive and perceptual adaptations that result from extensive practice. However, less is known about processes and factors that underpin the acquisition of such adaptations. The present study investigated how prior experience, cognitive skills, task difficulty and practice effect eye-hand span (EHS) and performance in video gaming. Thirty-three participants played a platformer video game in a pre-test/practice/post-test experiment. Eye movements and keypresses were recorded. The...

Synchronizing eye tracking and optical motion capture: How to bring them together

Birgitta Burger, Anna Puupponen & Tommi Jantunen
Both eye tracking and motion capture technologies are nowadays frequently used in human sciences, although both technologies are usually used separately. However, measuring both eye and body movements simultaneously would offer great potential for investigating cross- modal interaction in human (e.g. music and language-related) behavior. Here we combined an Ergoneers Dikablis head mounted eye tracker with a Qualisys Oqus optical motion cap- ture system. In order to synchronize the recordings of both devices, we developed...

Digital sketch maps and eye tracking statistics as instruments to obtain insights into spatial cognition

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This paper explores map users’ cognitive processes in learning, acquiring and remembering information presented via screen maps. In this context, we conducted a mixed-methods user experiment employing digital sketch maps and eye tracking. On the one hand, the performance of the participants was assessed based on the order with which the objects were drawn and the influence of visual variables (e.g. presence & location, size, shape, color). On the other hand, trial durations and eye...

The impact of text segmentation on subtitle reading

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Understanding the way people watch subtitled films has become a central concern for subtitling researchers in recent years. Both subtitling scholars and professionals generally believe that in order to reduce cognitive load and enhance readability, line breaks in two-line subtitles should follow syntactic units. However, previous research has been inconclusive as to whether syntactic-based segmentation facilitates comprehension and reduces cognitive load. In this study, we assessed the impact of text segmentation on subtitle processing among...

Using Eye-Movement Events to Determine the Mental Workload of Surgical Residents

These days, eye-tracking is one of the promising technologies used in different fields. However, studies involving eye-tracking are rare in the field of endo-neurosurgery. This study aims to use this technology to promote our understanding of the effect related to computer-based instructional materials on mental workload of surgical residents. Four computer-based simulation scenarios are developed, two of them were designed as general models and the other two as simulated surgical models. During these surgical procedures,...

The rhythm of cognition – Effects of an auditory beat on oculomotor control in reading and sequential scanning

Elke B. Lange, Aleksandra Pieczykolan, Hans A. Trukenbrod & Lynn Huestegge
Eye-movement behavior is inherently rhythmic. Even without cognitive input, the eyes never rest, as saccades are generated 3 to 4 times per second. Based on an embodied view of cognition, we asked whether mental processing in visual cognitive tasks is also rhythmic in nature by studying the effects of an external auditory beat (rhythmic background music) on saccade generation in exemplary cognitive tasks (reading and sequential scanning). While in applied settings background music has been...

Fixational eye movement waveforms in amblyopia: Characteristics of fast and slow eye movements

Sarah Linda Kang, Sinem B. Beylergil, Jorge Otero-Millan, Aasef Shaikh & Fatema Ghasia
Fixational eye movements comprise of fast microsaccades alternating with slow inter-saccadic drifts. These physiologic eye movements play an important role in visual perception. Amblyopic patients are known to have fixation instability, particularly of the amblyopic eye. We examined eye movement abnormalities that contribute to this instability. We found that fixation stability is affected by the presence of fusion maldevelopment nystagmus (FMN). However, some amblyopes can have nystagmus without nasally directed slow phases and reversal in...

Use of eye tracking for assessment of electronic navigation competency in maritime training

Oguz Atik & Omer Arslan
The purpose of this study is to experiment an assessment method using eye tracking technology in simulator based electronic navigation training of ship officers who play a critical role in maritime accidents. The maritime industry focuses on human factor developing and improving regulations, training requirements and technology to prevent marine casualties. The mandatory use of simulations in maritime training as per international regulations includes competency assessment as a vital process. The study involves capturing and...

Effects of an active visuomotor steering task on covert attention

Samuel Tuhkanen, Jami Pekkanen, Esko Lehtonen & Otto Lappi
In complex dynamic tasks such as driving it is essential to be aware of potentially important targets in peripheral vision. While eye tracking methods in various driving tasks have provided much information about drivers’ gaze strategies, these methods only inform about overt attention and provide limited grounds to assess hypotheses concerning covert attention. We adapted the Posner cue paradigm to a dynamic steering task in a driving simulator. The participants were instructed to report the...

Estimating pilots’ cognitive load from ocular parameters through simulation and in-flight studies

Mohan Dilli Babu, D. V. JeevithaShree, Gowdham Prabhakar, Kamal Preet Singh Saluja, Abhay Pashilkar & Pradipta Biswas
Eye tracking is the process of measuring either the point of gaze (where one is looking) or the motion of an eye relative to the head. This paper investigated use of eye gaze trackers in military aviation environment to automatically estimate pilot’s cognitive load from ocular parameters. We used a fixed base variable stability flight simulator with longitudinal tracking task and collected data from 14 military pilots. In a second study, we undertook three test...

Probabilistic approach to robust wearable gaze tracking

Kristian Lukander, & Kai Puolamäki
This paper presents a method for computing the gaze point using camera data captured with a wearable gaze tracking device. The method utilizes a physical model of the human eye, advanced Bayesian computer vision algorithms, and Kalman filtering, resulting in high accuracy and low noise. Our C++ implementation can process camera streams with 30 frames per second in realtime. The performance of the system is validated in an exhaustive experimental setup with 19 participants, using...

Eye movement planning on Single-Sensor-Single-Indicator displays is vulnerable to user anxiety and cognitive load

Jonathan Allsop, Rob Gray, Heinrich Bülthoff & Lewis Chuang
In this study, we demonstrate the effects of anxiety and cognitive load on eye movement planning in an instrument flight task adhering to a single-sensor-single-indicator data visualisation design philosophy. The task was performed in neutral and anxiety conditions, while a low or high cognitive load, auditory n-back task was also performed. Cognitive load led to a reduction in the number of transitions between instruments, and impaired task performance. Changes in self-reported anxiety between the neutral...

Uncertainty visualization of gaze estimation to support operator-controlled calibration

Almoctar Hassoumi, Vsevolod Peysakhovich & Christophe Hurter
In this paper, we investigate how visualization assets can support the qualitative evaluation of gaze estimation uncertainty. Although eye tracking data are commonly available, little has been done to visually investigate the uncertainty of recorded gaze information. This paper tries to fill this gap by using innovative uncertainty computation and visualization. Given a gaze processing pipeline, we estimate the location of this gaze position in the world camera. To do so we developed our own...

When words and graphs move the eyes:The processing of multimodal causal relations

Giovanni Parodi, Cristóbal Julio & Inés Recio
Research on causal relations in multisemiotic texts constituted by words and graphs has been scarce with only a few exceptions. In the current study, eye movement behavior was studied in seventy-six Chilean high school students, who read a set of twelve causally-related economics texts in Spanish in four experimental conditions. The objective is twofold. We aimed, on the one hand, to observe the main effects of the causal discourse marker (DM) por tanto and the...

Unraveling Concussion Impact by Impact

Janet C. Rucker
Keynote at the 20th European Conference on Eye Movement Research (ECEM) in Alicante, 20.8.2019. Video stream: https://vimeo.com/357889739

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