65,595 Works

Glacier thickness estimations of alpine glaciers using data and modeling constraints

Lisbeth Langhammer, Melchior Grab, Andreas Bauder & Hansruedi Maurer
Advanced knowledge of the ice thickness distribution within glaciers is of fundamental importance for several purposes, such as water resource management and the study of the impact of climate change. Ice thicknesses can be modeled using ice surface features, but the resulting models can be prone to considerable uncertainties. Alternatively, it is possible to measure ice thicknesses, for example, with ground-penetrating radar (GPR). Such measurements are typically restricted to a few profiles, with which it...

A Non-Probabilistic Framework for Scientific Theories

Daniela Frauchiger

Evolution from magmatic to hydrothermal activity beneath the Cerro Escorial volcano (NW Argentina) as sampled by erupted quartz and brines

Alina M. Fiedrich, Christoph A. Heinrich & Olivier Bachmann
Large quartz pebbles erupted with the Escorial ignimbrite provide insight into the late-magmatic evolution of the shallow, cooling magmatic-hydrothermal system below the Cerro Escorial volcano of the Southern Central Volcanic Zone in the Argentine Andes. The ignimbrite is of relatively small volume, crystal-rich, dacitic in composition, and not particularly water-rich, as amphibole is absent. Eruption temperature was estimated to be close to 850 °C. The quartz pebbles provide insight into the magmatic-hydrothermal transition beneath the...

Natural Selection on Female Life-History Traits in Relation to Socio-Economic Class in Pre-Industrial Human Populations

Jenni E. Pettay, Samuli Helle, Jukka Jokela & Virpi Lummaa
Life-history theory predicts that resource scarcity constrains individual optimal reproductive strategies and shapes the evolution of life-history traits. In species where the inherited structure of social class may lead to consistent resource differences among family lines, between-class variation in resource availability should select for divergence in optimal reproductive strategies. Evaluating this prediction requires information on the phenotypic selection and quantitative genetics of life-history trait variation in relation to individual lifetime access to resources. Here, we...

Multi-agent paradoxes beyond quantum theory

Venkatesh Vilasini, Nuriya Nurgalieva & Lidia Pacheco Canamero B. Del Rio
Which theories lead to a contradiction between simple reasoning principles and modelling observers' memories as physical systems? Frauchiger and Renner have shown that this is the case for quantum theory (Frauchiger and Renner 2018 Nat. Commun. 9 3711). Here we generalize the conditions of the Frauchiger–Renner result so that they can be applied to arbitrary physical theories, and in particular to those expressed as generalized probabilistic theories (GPTs) (Hardy 2001 arXiv:quant-ph/0101012; Barrett 2007 Phys. Rev....

Identifying multiply scattered wavepaths in strongly scattering and dispersive media

La Ode Marzujriban Masfara, Andrew Curtis, Henrik Rasmus Thomsen & Dirk-Jan Van Manen
The ability to extract information from scattered waves is usually limited to singly scattered energy even if multiple scattering might occur in the medium. As a result, the information in arrival times of higher-order scattered events is underexplored. This information is extracted using fingerprinting theory. This theory has never previously been applied successfully to real measurements, particularly when the medium is dispersive. The theory is used to estimate the arrival times and scattering paths of...

Fundamental Work Cost of Quantum Processes

Philippe Faist & Renato Renner
Information-theoretic approaches provide a promising avenue for extending the laws of thermodynamics to the nanoscale. Here, we provide a general fundamental lower limit, valid for systems with an arbitrary Hamiltonian and in contact with any thermodynamic bath, on the work cost for the implementation of any logical process. This limit is given by a new information measure—the coherent relative entropy—which accounts for the Gibbs weight of each microstate. The coherent relative entropy enjoys a collection...

Heuristics for the design of low-carbon districts in the tropics

Anastasiya Bosova
Low-carbon urban design strategies suggest that energy performance of a district can be influenced by altering the urban form. Such strategies are the most effective at the early stages of low-carbon development projects. However, there exists a lack of early-stage design heuristics for urban practitioners, addressing parameters that largely influence energy performance of a district. The literature quantifying the interdependence between urban design parameters and energy performance at the district level is limited. The current...

Sensitivity Analysis on the Impact of Geometrical and Operational Variations on Turbine Hub Cavity Modes and Practical Methods to Control them

Anestis Kalfas, Reza Abhari, Shigeki Senoo, Kazuhiro Momma & Vahid Iranidokht
Proceedings of Global Power and Propulsion Society

Individual-level variation in the mating system of a self-compatible hermaphrodite

Anja Bürkli
Reproduction is one of the most basic characteristics of life itself. The specific mode of reproduction profoundly impacts almost all aspects of biology, ranging from the genetic makeup of organisms to their physiology, morphology, behavior, life history and eventually evolution. Understanding variation among individuals in their ability to reproduce has therefore been a central theme in evolutionary biology for a long time. Of particular interest are organisms that are not restricted to a single mode...

Implementing community-scale PV systems as a sustainable and governable urban common

Danielle Griego
Distributed photovoltaic (PV) systems are essential to meet future energy targets. Among these systems, there is a growing trend in community organized installations. This indicates benefits for collective action and economies of scale. From a technical perspective, load aggregation from multiple tenants increases self-consumption (SC). However, additional opportunities for community-scale PV (CSPV) include local innovation, sustainable social norms, joint-investments, and self-governance. The work presented in this thesis implements a holistic approach to evaluate CSPV to...

Costs and benefits of sexual reproduction: An experimental approach

Michael Greeff

Articulating the effect of food systems innovation on the Sustainable Development Goals

Mario Herrero, Philip K Thornton, Daniel Mason-D’Croz, Jeda Palmer, Benjamin L Bodirsky, Prajal Pradhan, Christopher B Barrett, Tim G Benton, Andrew Hall, Ilje Pikaar, Jessica R Bogard, Graham D Bonnett, Brett A Bryan, Bruce M Campbell, Svend Christensen, Michael Clark, Jessica Fanzo, Cécile M. Godde, Andy Jarvis, Ana Maria Loboguerrero, Alexander Mathys, C Lynne McIntyre, Rosamond L Naylor, Rebecca Nelson, Michael Obersteiner … & Johan Rockström
Food system innovations will be instrumental to achieving multiple Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). However, major innovation breakthroughs can trigger profound and disruptive changes, leading to simultaneous and interlinked reconfigurations of multiple parts of the global food system. The emergence of new technologies or social solutions, therefore, have very different impact profiles, with favourable consequences for some SDGs and unintended adverse side-effects for others. Stand-alone innovations seldom achieve positive outcomes over multiple sustainability dimensions. Instead, they...

Water-borne pharmaceuticals reduce phenotypic diversity and response capacity of natural phytoplankton communities

Francesco Pomati, Jukka Jokela, Sara Castiglioni, Mridul K. Thomas & Luca Nizzetto
Chemical micropollutants occur worldwide in the environment at low concentrations and in complex mixtures, and how they affect the ecology of natural systems is still uncertain. Dynamics of natural communities are driven by the interaction between individual organisms and their growth environment, which is mediated by the organisms’ expressed phenotypic traits. We tested whether exposure to a mixture of 12 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCP) influences phenotypic trait diversity in lake phytoplankton communities and...

de Finetti reductions for correlations

Rotem Arnon-Friedman & Renato Renner
When analysing quantum information processing protocols, one has to deal with large entangled systems, each consisting of many subsystems. To make this analysis feasible, it is often necessary to identify some additional structures. de Finetti theorems provide such a structure for the case where certain symmetries hold. More precisely, they relate states that are invariant under permutations of subsystems to states in which the subsystems are independent of each other. This relation plays an important...

On the unusual effectiveness of type-aware operator mutations for testing SMT solvers

Dominik Winterer, Chengyu Zhang & Zhendong Su
We propose type-aware operator mutation, a simple, but unusually effective approach for testing SMT solvers. The key idea is to mutate operators of conforming types within the seed formulas to generate well-typed mutant formulas. These mutant formulas are then used as the test cases for SMT solvers. We realized type-aware operator mutation within the OpFuzz tool and used it to stress-test Z3 and CVC4, two state-of-the-art SMT solvers. Type-aware operator mutations are unusually effective: During...

Carbide-Modified Pd on ZrO2 as Active Phase for CO2-Reforming of Methane—A Model Phase Boundary Approach

Norbert Köpfle, Kevin Ploner, Peter Lackner, Thomas Götsch, Christoph Thurner, Emilia Carbonio, Michael Hävecker, Axel Knop-Gericke, Lukas Schlicker, Andrew Doran, Delf Kober, Aleksander Gurlo, Marc Willinger, Simon Penner, Michael Schmid & Bernhard Klötzer
Starting from subsurface Zr0-doped “inverse” Pd and bulk-intermetallic Pd0Zr0 model catalyst precursors, we investigated the dry reforming reaction of methane (DRM) using synchrotron-based near ambient pressure in-situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (NAP-XPS), in-situ X-ray diffraction and catalytic testing in an ultrahigh-vacuum-compatible recirculating batch reactor cell. Both intermetallic precursors develop a Pd0–ZrO2 phase boundary under realistic DRM conditions, whereby the oxidative segregation of ZrO2 from bulk intermetallic PdxZry leads to a highly active composite layer of carbide-modified...

Open-Access-Verträge in der Schweiz – ein Werkstattbericht aus dem Konsortium der Schweizer Hochschulbibliotheken

Pascalia Boutsiouci & Fabian Felder
Open-Access hat sich in der Schweiz in den letzten Jahren von einer dezentralen in eine nationale Bewegung gewandelt. Die Open-Access-Strategie von swissuniversities unterstützt dabei den einheitlichen Ansatz, alle mit öffentlichen Geldern finanzierten wissenschaftlichen Publikationen bis zum Jahr 2024 im Internet frei zugänglich zu machen. Die Neuorganisation der Verhandlungen mit Elsevier, Springer Nature und Wiley sowie weitere Aktivitäten des Konsortiums der Schweizer Hochschulbibliotheken bilden eine erste Grundlage, um die globale Transformation zu Open Access auch aus...

Business Solutions as Signals

Marcus Zimmer, Anna Salonen & Florian Von Wangenheim
Many manufacturing firms today claim to be solution providers. By means of highly customized and integrated, product-service offerings, these firms address complex business problems of customers in a holistic way. However, the extent to which manufacturers derive financial returns from these investments remains debatable. But despite the dubious profitability, we are not witnessing any large-scale transition away from the solution business. We assume that irrespective of the direct revenues generated by the solution business, manufacturers...

Determinants of different types of positive environmental behaviors: An analysis of public and private sphere actions

Ralph Hansmann & Claudia R. Binder
A survey of 1206 participants investigated determinants of positive environmental behaviors (PEBs) in Switzerland. Based on a principle component analysis on data for 23 different PEBs, three behavior types were distinguished: (i) public sphere PEBs with politically mediated impacts; (ii) socially salient private “lighthouse” PEBs that convey a pro-environmental message; and (iii) less socially salient private PEBs. An environmental behavior model identified general environmental knowledge and attitudes as the strongest predictors of PEBs, followed by...

Numerical modeling of fluid effects on seismic properties of fractured magmatic geothermal reservoirs

Melchior Grab, Beatriz Quintal, Eva Caspari, Hansruedi Maurer & Stewart Greenhalgh
Seismic investigations of geothermal reservoirs over the last 20 years have sought to interpret the resulting tomograms and reflection images in terms of the degree of reservoir fracturing and fluid content. Since the former provides the pathways and the latter acts as the medium for transporting geothermal energy, such information is needed to evaluate the quality of the reservoir. In conventional rock physics-based interpretations, this hydro-mechanical information is approximated from seismic velocities computed at the...

Neural Sensing Devices for in vivo and in vitro Applications

Aline Fabienne Renz

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