57,706 Works

Long-term real-time chemical characterization of submicron aerosols at Montsec (southern Pyrenees, 1570 m a.s.l.)

Anna Ripoll, Maria C. Minguillón, Jorge Pey, Jose L. Jimenez, D.A. Day, Yulia Sosedova, Francesco Canonaco, André S.H. Prévôt, Xavier Querol & Andres Alastuey
Real-time measurements of inorganic (sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, chloride and black carbon (BC)) and organic submicron aerosols (particles with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 1 μm) from a continental background site (Montsec, MSC, 1570 m a.s.l.) in the western Mediterranean Basin (WMB) were conducted for 10 months (July 2011–April 2012). An aerosol chemical speciation monitor (ACSM) was co-located with other online and offline PM1 measurements. Analyses of the hourly, diurnal, and seasonal variations are presented...

The immunocytokine L19-IL2: An interplay between radiotherapy and long-lasting systemic anti-tumour immune responses

Nicolle H. Rekers, Veronica Olivo Pimentel, Ala Yaromina, Natasja G. Lieuwes, Rianne Biemans, Catharina M.L. Zegers, Wilfred T.V. Germeraad, Evert J. Van Limbergen, Dario Neri, Ludwig J. Dubois & Philippe Lambin
Recently, we have shown that the administration of the tumour-targeted antibody-based immunocytokine L19-IL2 after radiotherapy (RT) resulted in synergistic anti-tumour effect. Here we show that RT and L19-IL2 can activate a curative abscopal effect, with a long-lasting immunological memory. Ionizing radiation (single dose of 15Gy, 5 × 2Gy or 5 × 5Gy) was delivered to primary C51 colon tumour-bearing immunocompetent mice in combination with L19-IL2 and response of secondary non-irradiated C51 or CT26 colon tumours...

Precise Temporal Profiling of Signaling Complexes in Primary Cells Using SWATH Mass Spectrometry

Etienne Caron, Romain Roncagalli, Takeshi Hase, Witold E. Wolski, Meena Choi, Marisa G. Menoita, Stephane Durand, Antonio García-Blesa, Ivo Fierro-Monti, Tatjana Sajic, Moritz Heusel, Tobias Weiss, Marie Malissen, Ralph Schlapbach, Ben C. Collins, Samik Ghosh, Hiroaki Kitano, Ruedi Aebersold, Bernard Malissen & Matthias Gstaiger
Spatiotemporal organization of protein interactions in cell signaling is a fundamental process that drives cellular functions. Given differential protein expression across tissues and developmental stages, the architecture and dynamics of signaling interaction proteomes is, likely, highly context dependent. However, current interaction information has been almost exclusively obtained from transformed cells. In this study, we applied an advanced and robust workflow combining mouse genetics and affinity purification (AP)-SWATH mass spectrometry to profile the dynamics of 53...

Grand challenges in biogeoscience

Timothy I. Eglinton
“The term ‘holistic’ refers to my conviction that what we are concerned with here is the fundamental interconnectedness of all things”…. “I see the solution to each problem as being detectable in the pattern and web of the whole. The connections between causes and effects are often much more subtle and complex than we with our rough and ready understanding of the physical world might naturally suppose…” These quotes are from Dirk Gently's Holistic Detective...

Novel concept for neutron detection: Proportional counter filled with 10 B nanoparticle aerosol

Fernando D. Amaro, Cristina M.B Monteiro, Joaquim M.F. Dos Santos & Aldo Antognini
The high neutron detection efficiency, good gamma-ray discrimination and non-toxicity of 3He made of proportional counters filled with this gas the obvious choice for neutron detection, particularly in radiation portal monitors (RPM), used to control the illicit transport of nuclear material, of which neutron detectors are key components. 3He is very rare and during the last decade this gas has become increasingly difficult to acquire. With the exception of BF3, which is toxic, no other...

Morphometric analysis of spread platelets identifies integrin αIIbβ3-specific contractile phenotype

Sebastian Lickert, Simona Sorrentino, Jan-Dirk Studt, Ohad Medalia, Viola Vogel & Ingmar Schoen
Scientific Reports, 8 (1)

Effective polyploidy causes phenotypic delay and influences bacterial evolvability

Lei Sun, Helen K. Alexander, Balazs Bogos, Daniel J. Kiviet, Martin Ackermann & Sebastian Bonhoeffer
Whether mutations in bacteria exhibit a noticeable delay before expressing their corresponding mutant phenotype was discussed intensively in the 1940s to 1950s, but the discussion eventually waned for lack of supportive evidence and perceived incompatibility with observed mutant distributions in fluctuation tests. Phenotypic delay in bacteria is widely assumed to be negligible, despite the lack of direct evidence. Here, we revisited the question using recombineering to introduce antibiotic resistance mutations into E. coli at defined...

Thermodynamic explanation of the universal correlation between oxygen evolution activity and corrosion of oxide catalysts

Tobias Binninger, Rhiyaad Mohamed, Kay Waltar, Emiliana Fabbri, Pieter Levecque, & Thomas J. Schmidt
In recent years, the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) has attracted increased research interest due to its crucial role in electrochemical energy conversion devices for renewable energy applications. The vast majority of OER catalyst materials investigated are metal oxides of various compositions. The experimental results obtained on such materials strongly suggest the existence of a fundamental and universal correlation between the oxygen evolution activity and the corrosion of metal oxides. This corrosion manifests itself in structural...

A new model for global glacier change and sea-level rise

Matthias Huss & Regine Hock
The anticipated retreat of glaciers around the globe will pose far-reaching challenges to the management of fresh water resources and significantly contribute to sea-level rise within the coming decades. Here, we present a new model for calculating the twenty-first century mass changes of all glaciers on Earth outside the ice sheets. The Global Glacier Evolution Model (GloGEM) includes mass loss due to frontal ablation at marine-terminating glacier fronts and accounts for glacier advance/retreat and surface...

Subfossil trees suggest enhanced Mediterranean hydroclimate variability at the onset of the Younger Dryas

Maren Pauly, Gerhard Helle, Cécile Miramont, Ulf Büntgen, Kerstin Treydte, Frederick Reinig, Frédéric Guibal, Olivier Sivan, Ingo Heinrich, Frank Riedel, Bernd Kromer, Daniel Balanzategui, Lukas Wacker, Adam Sookdeo & Achim Brauer
Nearly 13,000 years ago, the warming trend into the Holocene was sharply interrupted by a reversal to near glacial conditions. Climatic causes and ecological consequences of the Younger Dryas (YD) have been extensively studied, however proxy archives from the Mediterranean basin capturing this period are scarce and do not provide annual resolution. Here, we report a hydroclimatic reconstruction from stable isotopes (δ18O, δ13C) in subfossil pines from southern France. Growing before and during the transition...

Adaptive Designs and sparse polynomial chaos expansions for structural reliability analysis

Stefano Marelli & Bruno Sudret
Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Structural Safety and Reliability (ICOSSAR 2017)

Secondary electrospray ionization coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry reveals tryptophan pathway metabolites in exhaled human breath

Diego García-Gómez, Thomas Gaisl, Lukas Bregy, Pablo Martinez-Lozano Sinues, Malcolm Kohler & Renato Zenobi
Chemical Communications, 52 (55)

Copper pollution exacerbates the effects of ocean acidification and warming on kelp microscopic early life stages

Pablo P. Leal, Catriona L. Hurd, Sylvia G. Sander, Evelyn Armstrong, Pamela A. Fernández, Tim Jesper Suhrhoff & Michael Y. Roleda
Ocean warming (OW), ocean acidification (OA) and their interaction with local drivers, e.g., copper pollution, may negatively affect macroalgae and their microscopic life stages. We evaluated meiospore development of the kelps Macrocystis pyrifera and Undaria pinnatifida exposed to a factorial combination of current and 2100-predicted temperature (12 and 16 °C, respectively), pH (8.16 and 7.65, respectively), and two copper levels (no-added-copper and species-specific germination Cu-EC50). Meiospore germination for both species declined by 5–18% under OA...

Interplay between TETs and microRNAs in the adult brain for memory formation

Eloïse A. Kremer, Niharika Gaur, Melissa A. Lee, Olivia Engmann, Johannes Bohacek & Isabelle Mansuy
5-hydroxymethylation (5-hmC) is an epigenetic modification on DNA that results from the conversion of 5-methylcytosine by Ten-Eleven Translocation (TET) proteins. 5-hmC is widely present in the brain and is subjected to dynamic regulation during development and upon neuronal activity. It was recently shown to be involved in memory processes but currently, little is known about how it is controlled in the brain during memory formation. Here, we show that Tet3 is selectively up-regulated by activity...

Grundlagen der Schüepp'schen Alpenwetterstatistik AWS: eine Zusammenstellung der relevanten Dokumente

Stephan Bader, Hans Richner & Max Schüepp
Detaillierte Beschreibung der Parameter in der von Schüepp eingeführten Klassifikation für die Wetterlagen im zentralen Alpenraum. Im Anhang sind die täglichen, generellen Klassifikationen für die Jahre 1945 bis 2010 enthalten.

Implementation of a tribology-based process control system for deep drawing processes

Jörg Heingärtner, D. Bonfanti, David Harsch, Franziska Dietrich & Pavel Hora
Modern deep drawn parts have complex designs and are driven to the limits of the material formability in order to reduce costs. This leads to small process windows and unstable forming processes with high scrap rates. Especially at the beginning of a batch, when the tools are warming up, high scrap rates can occur due to the changing friction behaviour of the system tool – lubricant – metal sheet. To make processes independent from user...

Afar triple junction triggered by plume-assisted bi-directional continental break-up

Alexander Koptev, Taras Gerya, Eric Calais, Sylvie Leroy & Evgueni Burov
Divergent ridge-ridge-ridge (R-R-R) triple junctions are one of the most remarkable, yet largely enigmatic, features of plate tectonics. The juncture of the Arabian, Nubian, and Somalian plates is a type-example of the early development stage of a triple junction where three active rifts meet at a ‘triple point’ in Central Afar. This structure may result from the impingement of the Afar plume into a non-uniformly stressed continental lithosphere, but this process has never been reproduced...

Archived DNA reveals fisheries and climate induced collapse of a major fishery

Sara Bonanomi, Loïc Pellissier, Nina O. Therkildsen, Rasmus B. Hedeholm, Anja Retzel, Dorte Meldrup, Steffen M. Olsen, Anders Nielsen, Christophe Pampoulie, Jakob Hemmer-Hansen, Mary S. Wisz, Peter Gronkjaer & Einar E. Nielsen
Fishing and climate change impact the demography of marine fishes, but it is generally ignored that many species are made up of genetically distinct locally adapted populations that may show idiosyncratic responses to environmental and anthropogenic pressures. Here, we track 80 years of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) population dynamics in West Greenland using DNA from archived otoliths in combination with fish population and niche based modeling. We document how the interacting effects of climate change...

Committed sea-level rise under the Paris Agreement and the legacy of delayed mitigation action

Matthias Mengel, Alexander Nauels, Joeri Rogelj & Carl-Friedrich Schleussner
Sea-level rise is a major consequence of climate change that will continue long after emissions of greenhouse gases have stopped. The 2015 Paris Agreement aims at reducing climate-related risks by reducing greenhouse gas emissions to net zero and limiting global-mean temperature increase. Here we quantify the effect of these constraints on global sea-level rise until 2300, including Antarctic ice-sheet instabilities. We estimate median sea-level rise between 0.7 and 1.2 m, if net-zero greenhouse gas emissions...

What Kinds of Trade Liberalization Agreements Do People in Developing Countries Want?

Gabriele Spilker, Thomas Bernauer & Víctor Umaña
One of the most striking developments in the global economy in the past decades is the rapid proliferation of preferential trade agreements (PTAs), with many of them concluded among or with participation of developing countries. On the presumption that current popular debates on trade policy are not so much about whether citizens want free trade but rather what kinds of trade liberalization they want, we examine individual trade policy preferences with regard to PTAs that...

Impact of air mass conditions and aerosol properties on ice nucleating particle concentrations at the High Altitude Research Station Jungfraujoch

Larissa Lacher, Martin Steinbacher, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Erik Herrmann, Assaf Zipori & Zamin A Kanji
Ice nucleation is the source of primary ice crystals in mixed-phase clouds. Only a small fraction of aerosols called ice nucleating particles (INPs) catalyze ice formation, with their nature and origin remaining unclear. In this study, we investigate potential predictor parameters of meteorological conditions and aerosol properties for INP concentrations at mixed-phase cloud condition at 242 K. Measurements were conducted at the High Altitude Research Station Jungfraujoch (Switzerland, 3580 m a.s.l.), which is located predominantly...

Experimental demonstration of high fidelity entanglement distribution over decoherence channels via qubit transduction

Hyangtag Lim, Kanghee Hong & Yoonho Kim
Quantum coherence and entanglement, which are essential resources for quantum information, are often degraded and lost due to decoherence. Here, we report a proof-of-principle experimental demonstration of high fidelity entanglement distribution over decoherence channels via qubit transduction. By unitarily switching the initial qubit encoding to another, which is insensitive to particular forms of decoherence, we have demonstrated that it is possible to avoid the effect of decoherence completely. In particular, we demonstrate high-fidelity distribution of...

Growth of magnetic nanowires along freely selectable 〈hkl〉 crystal directions

Ye Tao & Christian L. Degen
The production of nanowire materials, uniformly oriented along any arbitrarily chosen crystal orientation, is an important, yet unsolved, problem in material science. Here, we present a generalizable solution to this problem. The solution is based on the technique of glancing angle deposition combined with a rapid switching of the deposition direction between crystal symmetry positions. Using iron–cobalt as an example, we showcase the simplicity and capabilities of the process in one-step fabrications of 〈100〉, 〈110〉,...

Tuning the multiferroic mechanisms of TbMnO3 by epitaxial strain

Kenta Shimamoto, Saumya Mukherjee, Sebastian Manz, Jonathan S. White, Morgan Trassin, Michel Kenzelmann, Laurent Chapon, Thomas Lippert, Manfred Fiebig, Christof W. Schneider & Christof Niedermayer
A current challenge in the field of magnetoelectric multiferroics is to identify systems that allow a controlled tuning of states displaying distinct magnetoelectric responses. Here we show that the multiferroic ground state of the archetypal multiferroic TbMnO3 is dramatically modified by epitaxial strain. Neutron diffraction reveals that in highly strained films the magnetic order changes from the bulk-like incommensurate bc-cycloidal structure to commensurate magnetic order. Concomitant with the modification of the magnetic ground state, optical...

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