3,194 Works

Short-term activity cycles impede information transmission in ant colonies

Thomas O. Richardson, Jonas I. Liechti, Nathalie Stroeymeyt, Sebastian Bonhoeffer & Laurent Keller
Rhythmical activity patterns are ubiquitous in nature. We study an oscillatory biological system: collective activity cycles in ant colonies. Ant colonies have become model systems for research on biological networks because the interactions between the component parts are visible to the naked eye, and because the time-ordered contact network formed by these interactions serves as the substrate for the distribution of information and other resources throughout the colony. To understand how the collective activity cycles...

Projekt Multimedia Storytelling. Konzeption und Umsetzung einer Content-Marketing-Plattform an der ETH-Bibliothek

Deborah Kyburz
Storytelling begeistert und macht als Methode von sich Reden. Die ETH-Bibliothek bediente sich des Storytelling für die Entwicklung und Umsetzung einer neuen Content-Marketing-Plattform namens Explora. Erzählt werden dort Geschichten zu digitalisierten Beständen der Sammlungen und Archive und zu Dienstleistungen der ETH-Bibliothek. Im Zentrum steht hierbei die Frage der attraktiven Präsentation des (Multimedia-)Contents. Der Beitrag skizziert, warum Storytelling und Wissenschaft eine geeignete Kombination sind, um die allgemeine Öffentlichkeit mit wissenschaftlichen oder auch bibliothekarischen Themen zu erreichen....

Targeted Recovery as an Effective Strategy against Epidemic Spreading

Lucas Böttcher, & Hans J. Herrmann
We propose a targeted intervention protocol where recovery is restricted to individuals that have the least number of infected neighbours. Our recovery strategy is highly efficient on any kind of network, since epidemic outbreaks are minimal when compared to the baseline scenario of spontaneous recovery. In the case of spatially embedded networks, we find that an epidemic stays strongly spatially confined with a characteristic length scale undergoing a random walk. We demonstrate numerically and analytically...

Understanding the drivers of marine liquid-water cloud occurrence and properties with global observations using neural networks

Hendrik Andersen, Jan Cermak, Julia Fuchs, Reto Knutti & Ulrike Lohmann
The role of aerosols, clouds and their interactions with radiation remain among the largest unknowns in the climate system. Even though the processes involved are complex, aerosol–cloud interactions are often analyzed by means of bivariate relationships. In this study, 15 years (2001–2015) of monthly satellite-retrieved near-global aerosol products are combined with reanalysis data of various meteorological parameters to predict satellite-derived marine liquid-water cloud occurrence and properties by means of region-specific artificial neural networks. The statistical...

Differential regulation of germ line apoptosis and germ cell differentiation by CPEB family members in C. elegans

Kapil D. Singh, Xue Zheng, Stuart Milstein, Martin Keller, Bernd Roschitzki, Jonas Grossmann & Michael O. Hengartner
Cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding (CPEB) proteins are evolutionary conserved RNA-binding proteins that control mRNA polyadenylation and translation. Orthologs in humans and other vertebrates are mainly involved in oogenesis. This is also the case for the C. elegans CPEB family member CPB-3, whereas two further CPEB proteins (CPB-1 and FOG-1) are involved in spermatogenesis. Here we describe the characterisation of a new missense allele of cpb-3 and show that loss of cpb-3 function leads to an...

Transgene flow in Mexican maize revisited: Socio-biological analysis across two contrasting farmer communities and seed management systems

Sarah Agapito-Tenfen, Flor R. Lopez, Narmeen Mallah, Gretta Abou-Slemayne, Miluse Trtikova, Rubens O. Nodari & Fern Wickson
The flow of transgenes into landraces and wild relatives is an important biosafety concern. The case of transgene flow into local maize varieties in Mexico (the center of origin of maize) has been intensively debated over the past 15 years, including legal, political, and environmental disputes fanned by the existence of a significant scientific controversy over the methods used for the detection of transgenes. The use of diverse approaches and a lack of harmonized methods...

Snowpack response to directed gas explosions on level ground

Stephan Simioni, Jürg Dual & Jürg Schweizer
The artificial release of avalanches is an important mitigation measure in avalanche control. The explosion to trigger an avalanche is either produced by igniting solid (or liquid) explosives or a gas mixture. Whereas there have been several studies on the impact of explosives, there is little research on the effect of directed gas explosions on a snowpack. We performed experiments with a prototype gas exploder above snow and measured air pressure at different distances from...

Critical Assessment of Metagenome Interpretation - A benchmark of metagenomics software

Alexander Sczyrba, Peter Hofmann, Peter Belmann, David Koslicki, Stefan Janssen, Johannes Dröge, Ivan Gregor, Stephan Majda, Jessika Fiedler, Eik Dahms, Andreas Bremges, Adrian Fritz, Ruben Garrido-Oter, Tue Sparholt Jørgensen, Nicole Shapiro, Philip D. Blood, Alexey Gurevich, Yang Bai, Dmitrij Turaev, Matthew Z. DeMaere, Rayan Chikhi, Niranjan Nagarajan, Christopher Quince, Fernando Meyer, Monika Balvočiūtė … & Alice C. McHardy
Methods for assembly, taxonomic profiling and binning are key to interpreting metagenome data, but a lack of consensus about benchmarking complicates performance assessment. The Critical Assessment of Metagenome Interpretation (CAMI) challenge has engaged the global developer community to benchmark their programs on highly complex and realistic data sets, generated from ∼700 newly sequenced microorganisms and ∼600 novel viruses and plasmids and representing common experimental setups. Assembly and genome binning programs performed well for species represented...

Search for gluino mediated bottom- and top-squark production in multijet final states in pp collisions at 8 TeV

, Serguei Chatrchyan, Felix Bachmair, L. Bäni, Lorenzo Bianchini, Pierluigi Bortignon, Marco A. Buchmann, Bruno Casal, Nicolas Chanon, Amanda Deisher, Günther Dissertori, Michael Dittmar, Mauro Donegà, Marc Dünser, Philipp Eller, Klaus Freudenreich, Christoph Grab, Dmitry Hits, Pierre Lecomte, Werner Lustermann, A.C. Marini, Pablo Martinez Ruiz Del Arbol, Niklas Mohr, Filip Moortgat, Christoph Nägeli … &
A search for supersymmetry is presented based on events with large missing transverse energy, no isolated electron or muon, and at least three jets with one or more identified as a bottom-quark jet. A simultaneous examination is performed of the numbers of events in exclusive bins of the scalar sum of jet transverse momentum values, missing transverse energy, and bottom-quark jet multiplicity. The sample, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.4fb−1, consists of proton–proton collision...

Large-eddy simulation of subtropical cloud-topped boundary layers: 2. Cloud response to climate change

Zhihong Tan, Tapio Schneider, João Teixeira & Kyle G. Pressel
How subtropical marine boundary layer (MBL) clouds respond to warming is investigated using large-eddy simulations (LES) of a wide range of warmer climates, with math formula concentrations elevated by factors 2–16. In LES coupled to a slab ocean with interactive sea surface temperatures (SST), the surface latent heat flux (LHF) is constrained by the surface energy balance and only strengthens modestly under warming. Consequently, the MBL in warmer climates is shallower than in corresponding fixed-SST...

Global high-resolution monthly pCO2 climatology for the coastal ocean derived from neural network interpolation

Goulven G. Laruelle, Peter Landschützer, Nicolas Gruber, Jean-Louis Tison, Bruno Delille & Pierre Regnier
In spite of the recent strong increase in the number of measurements of the partial pressure of CO2 in the surface ocean (pCO2), the air–sea CO2 balance of the continental shelf seas remains poorly quantified. This is a consequence of these regions remaining strongly under-sampled in both time and space and of surface pCO2 exhibiting much higher temporal and spatial variability in these regions compared to the open ocean. Here, we use a modified version...

Adaptive Mutations in RNA Polymerase and the Transcriptional Terminator Rho Have Similar Effects on Escherichia coli Gene Expression

Andrea Gonzalez-Gonzalez, Shaun M. Hug, Alejandra Rodriguez-Verdugo, Jagdish Suresh Patel & Brandon S. Gaut
Modifications to transcriptional regulators play a major role in adaptation. Here, we compared the effects of multiple beneficial mutations within and between Escherichia coli rpoB, the gene encoding the RNA polymerase β subunit, and rho, which encodes a transcriptional terminator. These two genes have harbored adaptive mutations in numerous E. coli evolution experiments but particularly in our previous large-scale thermal stress experiment, where the two genes characterized alternative adaptive pathways. To compare the effects of...

Min-Cost Bipartite Perfect Matching with Delays

Itai Ashlagi, Yossi Azar, Moses Charikar, Ashish Chiplunkar, Ofir Geri, Haim Kaplan, Rahul Makhijani, Yuyi Wang & Roger Wattenhofer
In the min-cost bipartite perfect matching with delays (MBPMD) problem, requests arrive online at points of a finite metric space. Each request is either positive or negative and has to be matched to a request of opposite polarity. As opposed to traditional online matching problems, the algorithm does not have to serve requests as they arrive, and may choose to match them later at a cost. Our objective is to minimize the sum of the...

Logarithmic sensing in Bacillus subtilis aerotaxis

Filippo Menolascina, Roberto Rusconi, Vicente Fernandez, Steven Smirga, Zahra Aminzare, Eduardo D. Sontag & Roman Stocker
Aerotaxis, the directed migration along oxygen gradients, allows many microorganisms to locate favorable oxygen concentrations. Despite oxygen’s fundamental role for life, even key aspects of aerotaxis remain poorly understood. In Bacillus subtilis, for example, there is conflicting evidence of whether migration occurs to the maximal oxygen concentration available or to an optimal intermediate one, and how aerotaxis can be maintained over a broad range of conditions. Using precisely controlled oxygen gradients in a microfluidic device,...

Lysine acetylome profiling uncovers novel histone deacetylase substrate proteins in Arabidopsis

Markus Hartl, Magdalena Füßl, Paul J. Boersema, Jan-Oliver Jost, Katharina Kramer, Ahmet Bakirbas, Julia Sindlinger, Magdalena Plöchinger, Dario Leister, Glen Uhrig, Greg B.G. Moorhead, Jürgen Cox, Michael E. Salvucci, Dirk Schwarzer, Matthias Mann & Iris Finkemeier
Histone deacetylases have central functions in regulating stress defenses and development in plants. However, the knowledge about the deacetylase functions is largely limited to histones, although these enzymes were found in diverse subcellular compartments. In this study, we determined the proteome‐wide signatures of the RPD3/HDA1 class of histone deacetylases in Arabidopsis. Relative quantification of the changes in the lysine acetylation levels was determined on a proteome‐wide scale after treatment of Arabidopsis leaves with deacetylase inhibitors...

Using Feedback to Promote Physical Activity: The Role of the Feedback Sign

Jan-Niklas Kramer & Tobias Kowatsch
Background: Providing feedback is a technique to promote health behavior that is emphasized by behavior change theories. However, these theories make contradicting predictions regarding the effect of the feedback sign—that is, whether the feedback signals success or failure. Thus, it is unclear whether positive or negative feedback leads to more favorable behavior change in a health behavior intervention. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of the feedback sign in a...

Search for supersymmetry in the all-hadronic final state using top quark tagging in pp collisions at s√=13 TeV

, Vardan Khachatryan, Felix Bachmair, L. Bäni, Lorenzo Bianchini, Bruno Casal, Günther Dissertori, Michael Dittmar, Mauro Donegà, Christoph Grab, Constantin Heidegger, Dmitry Hits, Jan Hoss, Gregor Kasieczka, Pierre Lecomte, Werner Lustermann, Boris Mangano, Matthieu Marionneau, Pablo Martinez Ruiz Del Arbol, Mario Masciovecchio, Maren T. Meinhard, Daniel Meister, Francesco Micheli, Pasquale Musella, Francesca Nessi-Tedaldi … &
A search is presented for supersymmetry in all-hadronic events with missing transverse momentum and tagged top quarks. The data sample was collected with the CMS detector at the LHC and corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 2.3 fb−1 of proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. Search regions are defined using the properties of reconstructed jets, the multiplicity of bottom and top quark candidates, and an imbalance in transverse momentum. With no statistically...

Simulated changes in aridity from the last glacial maximum to 4xCO2

Peter Greve, Michael L. Roderick & Sonia I. Seneviratne
Aridity is generally defined as the 'degree to which a climate lacks moisture to sustain life in terrestrial ecosystems'. Several recent studies using the 'aridity index' (the ratio of potential evaporation to precipitation), have concluded that aridity will increase with CO2 because of increasing temperature. However, the 'aridity index' is—counterintuitively—not a direct measure of aridity per se (when defined as above) and there is widespread evidence that contradicts the 'warmer is more arid' interpretation. We...

Bivariate return periods of temperature and precipitation explain a large fraction of European crop yields

Jakob Zscheischler, Rene Orth & Sonia I. Seneviratne
Crops are vital for human society. Crop yields vary with climate and it is important to understand how climate and crop yields are linked to ensure future food security. Temperature and precipitation are among the key driving factors of crop yield variability. Previous studies have investigated mostly linear relationships between temperature and precipitation and crop yield variability. Other research has highlighted the adverse impacts of climate extremes, such as drought and heat waves, on crop...

NNLO QCD corrections to jet production in deep inelastic scattering

James Currie, Thomas Gehrmann, Alexander Huss & Jan Niehues
Hadronic jets in deeply inelastic electron-proton collisions are produced by the scattering of a parton from the proton with the virtual gauge boson mediating the interaction. The HERA experiments have performed precision measurements of inclusive single jet production and di-jet production in the Breit frame, which provide important constraints on the strong coupling constant and on parton distributions in the proton. We describe the calculation of the next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) QCD corrections to these processes,...

Higgs-differential cross section at NNLO in dimensional regularisation

Falko Dulat, Simone Lionetti, Bernhard Mistlberger, Andrea Pelloni & Caterina Specchia
We present an analytic computation of the Higgs production cross section in the gluon fusion channel, which is differential in the components of the Higgs momentum and inclusive in the associated partonic radiation through NNLO in perturbative QCD. Our computation includes the necessary higher order terms in the dimensional regulator beyond the finite part that are required for renormalisation and collinear factorisation at N3LO. We outline in detail the computational methods which we employ. We...

Complementary Sample Preparation Strategies for Analysis of Cereal β-Glucan Oxidation Products by UPLC-MS/MS

Samy Boulos & Laura Nyström
The oxidation of cereal (1→3,1→4)-β-D-glucan can influence the health promoting and technological properties of this linear, soluble homopolysaccharide by introduction of new functional groups or chain scission. Apart from deliberate oxidative modifications, oxidation of β-glucan can already occur during processing and storage, which is mediated by hydroxyl radicals (HO•) formed by the Fenton reaction. We present four complementary sample preparation strategies to investigate oat and barley β-glucan oxidation products by hydrophilic interaction ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem...

Piercing of Consciousness as a Threshold-Crossing Operation

Yul H.R. Kang, Frederike H. Petzschner, Daniel M. Wolpert & Michael N. Shadlen
Many decisions arise through an accumulation of evidence to a terminating threshold. The process, termed bounded evidence accumulation (or drift diffusion), provides a unified account of decision speed and accuracy, and it is supported by neurophysiology in human and animal models. In many situations, a decision maker may not communicate a decision immediately and yet feel that at some point she had made up her mind. We hypothesized that this occurs when an accumulation of...

Enzymatic Degradation of Aromatic and Aliphatic Polyesters by P. pastoris Expressed Cutinase 1 from Thermobifida cellulosilytica

Caroline Gamerith, Marco Vastano, Sahar M. Ghorbanpour, Sabine Zitzenbacher, Doris Ribitsch, Michael T. Zumstein, Michael Sander, Enrique Herrero Acero, Alessandro Pellis & Georg M. Guebitz
To study hydrolysis of aromatic and aliphatic polyesters cutinase 1 from Thermobifida cellulosilytica (Thc_Cut1) was expressed in P. pastoris. No significant differences between the expression of native Thc_Cut1 and of two glycosylation site knock out mutants (Thc_Cut1_koAsn and Thc_Cut1_koST) concerning the total extracellular protein concentration and volumetric activity were observed. Hydrolysis of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) was shown for all three enzymes based on quantification of released products by HPLC and similar concentrations of released terephthalic...

Towards accurate simulations of programmable dataplanes

Andreas Pantelopoulos

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