9,538 Works

On the use of mode shape curvatures for damage localization under varying environmental conditions

Yaser Shokrani, Vasilis K. Dertimanis, Eleni Chatzi & Marco N. Savoia
A novel damage localization method is introduced in this study, which exploits mode shape curvatures as damage features, while accounting for operational variability. The developed framework operates in an output‐only regime,that is, it does not assume availability of records from the influencing environmental/operational quantities but rather from response quantities alone. The introduced tool comprises 3 stages pertaining to training, validation, and diagnostics. During the training stage, a representation of the healthy, or baseline, structural state...

On the use of mode shape curvatures for damage localization under varying environmental conditions

Yaser Shokrani, Vasilis K. Dertimanis, Eleni Chatzi & Marco N. Savoia
A novel damage localization method is introduced in this study, which exploits mode shape curvatures as damage features, while accounting for operational variability. The developed framework operates in an output‐only regime,that is, it does not assume availability of records from the influencing environmental/operational quantities but rather from response quantities alone. The introduced tool comprises 3 stages pertaining to training, validation, and diagnostics. During the training stage, a representation of the healthy, or baseline, structural state...

Particle filters for high-dimensional geoscience applications: A review

Peter J. Van Leeuwen, Hans R. Künsch, Lars Nerger, Roland Potthast & Sebastian Reich
Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 145 (723)

Particle filters for high-dimensional geoscience applications: A review

Peter J. Van Leeuwen, Hans R. Künsch, Lars Nerger, Roland Potthast & Sebastian Reich
Particle filters contain the promise of fully nonlinear data assimilation. They have been applied in numerous science areas, including the geosciences, but their application to high‐dimensional geoscience systems has been limited due to their inefficiency in high‐dimensional systems in standard settings. However, huge progress has been made, and this limitation is disappearing fast due to recent developments in proposal densities, the use of ideas from (optimal) transportation, the use of localization and intelligent adaptive resampling...

Particle filters for high-dimensional geoscience applications: A review

Peter J. Van Leeuwen, Hans R. Künsch, Lars Nerger, Roland Potthast & Sebastian Reich
Particle filters contain the promise of fully nonlinear data assimilation. They have been applied in numerous science areas, including the geosciences, but their application to high‐dimensional geoscience systems has been limited due to their inefficiency in high‐dimensional systems in standard settings. However, huge progress has been made, and this limitation is disappearing fast due to recent developments in proposal densities, the use of ideas from (optimal) transportation, the use of localization and intelligent adaptive resampling...

Particle filters for high-dimensional geoscience applications: A review

Peter J. Van Leeuwen, Hans R. Künsch, Lars Nerger, Roland Potthast & Sebastian Reich
Particle filters contain the promise of fully nonlinear data assimilation. They have been applied in numerous science areas, including the geosciences, but their application to high‐dimensional geoscience systems has been limited due to their inefficiency in high‐dimensional systems in standard settings. However, huge progress has been made, and this limitation is disappearing fast due to recent developments in proposal densities, the use of ideas from (optimal) transportation, the use of localization and intelligent adaptive resampling...

On the use of mode shape curvatures for damage localization under varying environmental conditions

Yaser Shokrani, Vasilis K. Dertimanis, Eleni N. Chatzi & Marco N. Savoia
A novel damage localization method is introduced in this study, which exploits mode shape curvatures as damage features, while accounting for operational variability. The developed framework operates in an output‐only regime,that is, it does not assume availability of records from the influencing environmental/operational quantities but rather from response quantities alone. The introduced tool comprises 3 stages pertaining to training, validation, and diagnostics. During the training stage, a representation of the healthy, or baseline, structural state...

Long-term variations of solar activity and their impacts: The modulating role of atmospheric chemistry

Stefan Muthers, Christoph C. Raible, Eugene Rozanov & Thomas F. Stocker
The influence of reduced solar forcing (grand solar minimum or geoengineering scenarios like solar radiation management) on the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) is assessed in an ensemble of atmosphere–ocean–chemistry–climate model simulations. Ensemble sensitivity simulations are performed with and without interactive chemistry. In both experiments the AMOC is intensified in the course of the solar radiation reduction, which is attributed to the thermal effect of the solar forcing: reduced sea surface temperatures and enhanced sea...

Social Cognition and Interaction in Chronic Users of 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, \"Ecstasy\")

Michael D. Wunderli, Matthias Vonmoos, Lorena Treichler, Carmen Zeller, Isabel Dziobek, Thomas Kraemer, Markus R. Baumgartner, Erich Seifritz & Boris B. Quednow
Background The empathogen 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is the prototypical prosocial club drug inducing emotional openness to others. It has recently been shown that acutely applied 3,4-MDMA in fact enhances emotional empathy and prosocial behavior, while it simultaneously decreases cognitive empathy. However, the long-term effects of 3,4-MDMA use on socio-cognitive functions and social interactions have not been investigated yet. Therefore, we examined emotional and cognitive empathy, social decision-making, and oxytocin plasma levels in chronic 3,4-MDMA users. Methods...

Energy dissipation in flows through curved spaces

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Fluid dynamics in intrinsically curved geometries is encountered in many physical systems in nature, ranging from microscopic bio-membranes all the way up to general relativity at cosmological scales. Despite the diversity of applications, all of these systems share a common feature: the free motion of particles is affected by inertial forces originating from the curvature of the embedding space. Here we reveal a fundamental process underlying fluid dynamics in curved spaces: the free motion of...

Functional Polymorphisms in Dopaminergic Genes Modulate Neurobehavioral and Neurophysiological Consequences of Sleep Deprivation

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Sleep deprivation impairs cognitive performance and reliably alters brain activation in wakefulness and sleep. Nevertheless, the molecular regulators of prolonged wakefulness remain poorly understood. Evidence from genetic, behavioral, pharmacologic and imaging studies suggest that dopaminergic signaling contributes to the behavioral and electroencephalographic (EEG) consequences of sleep loss, although direct human evidence thereof is missing. We tested whether dopamine neurotransmission regulate sustained attention and evolution of EEG power during prolonged wakefulness. Here, we studied the effects...

Quantifying intrinsic and extrinsic control of single-cell fates in cancer and stem/progenitor cell pedigrees with competing risks analysis

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The molecular control of cell fate and behaviour is a central theme in biology. Inherent heterogeneity within cell populations requires that control of cell fate is studied at the single-cell level. Time-lapse imaging and single-cell tracking are powerful technologies for acquiring cell lifetime data, allowing quantification of how cell-intrinsic and extrinsic factors control single-cell fates over time. However, cell lifetime data contain complex features. Competing cell fates, censoring, and the possible inter-dependence of competing fates,...

Role of interface coupling inhomogeneity in domain evolution in exchange bias

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Models of exchange-bias in thin films have been able to describe various aspects of this technologically relevant effect. Through appropriate choices of free parameters the modelled hysteresis loops adequately match experiment, and typical domain structures can be simulated. However, the use of these parameters, notably the coupling strength between the systems' ferromagnetic (F) and antiferromagnetic (AF) layers, obscures conclusions about their influence on the magnetization reversal processes. Here we develop a 2D phase-field model of...

Some Data are More Important than Others

This thesis is comprised of two parts. Both parts study information-theoretic aspects of joint transmission of data of different levels of sensitivity. The more sensitive data is better protected than the less sensitive data. In the first part the data streams have different robustness criteria with respect to variations of the underlying channel model, and in the second part, the data streams have different decoding error requirements. In the first part, we establish the deterministic-code...

Characterization of the Mycobacterial Acyl-CoA Carboxylase Holo Complexes Reveals Their Functional Expansion into Amino Acid Catabolism

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Biotin-mediated carboxylation of short-chain fatty acid coenzyme A esters is a key step in lipid biosynthesis that is carried out by multienzyme complexes to extend fatty acids by one methylene group. Pathogenic mycobacteria have an unusually high redundancy of carboxyltransferase genes and biotin carboxylase genes, creating multiple combinations of protein/protein complexes of unknown overall composition and functional readout. By combining pull-down assays with mass spectrometry, we identified nine binary protein/protein interactions and four validated holo...

Capacity of Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies to Inhibit HIV-1 Cell-Cell Transmission Is Strain- and Epitope-Dependent

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An increasing number of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) are considered leads for HIV-1 vaccine development and novel therapeutics. Here, we systematically explored the capacity of bnAbs to neutralize HIV-1 prior to and post-CD4 engagement and to block HIV-1 cell-cell transmission. Cell-cell spread is known to promote a highly efficient infection with HIV-1 which can inflict dramatic losses in neutralization potency compared to free virus infection. Selection of bnAbs that are capable of suppressing HIV irrespective...

Gazette, Issue 15 (2012): FCL - Future Cities Laboratory

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Gazette

Transmission of Hepatitis B and D Viruses in an African Rural Community

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According to the World Health Organization (WHO), an estimated 257 million people worldwide are chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV), with approximately 15 million of them being coinfected with hepatitis D virus (HDV). To investigate the prevalence and transmission of HBV and HDV within the general population of a rural village in Cameroon, we analyzed serum samples from most (401/448) of the villagers. HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) was detected in 54 (13.5%) of the...

Background Free-Tropospheric Ice Nucleating Particle Concentrations at Mixed-Phase Cloud Conditions

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Clouds containing ice are vital for precipitation formation and are important in determining the Earth's radiative budget. However, primary formation of ice in clouds is not fully understood. In the presence of ice nucleating particles (INPs), the phase change to ice is promoted, but identification and quantification of INPs in a natural environment remains challenging because of their low numbers. In this paper, we quantify INP number concentrations in the free troposphere (FT) as measured...

Labor Market Effects of Currency Appreciation: The Case of Switzerland

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Recent work on labour market effects of globalization has generated both academic and populist interests. However, this work has focussed exclusively on the manufacturing sector. Moreover, general equilibrium effects of globalization have received little attention. This study contributes to filling both these gaps by examining the general equilibrium effects of external exposure on the labor market in Switzerland. We exploit exogenous exchange rate movements to identify trade-induced shocks across all sectors of the Swiss economy...

Robotic Integral Attachment

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Fabricate 17. Rethinking Design and Construction

PSI-Jahresbericht 2001: Allgemeiner Teil

PSI-Jahresbericht

Higher species richness enhances yield stability in intensively managed grasslands with experimental disturbance

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Climate models predict increased frequency and severity of drought events. At an Irish and Swiss site, experimental summer droughts were applied over two successive years to grassland plots sown with one, two or four grassland species with contrasting functional traits. Mean yield and plot-to-plot variance of yield were measured across harvests during drought and after a subsequent post-drought recovery period. At both sites, there was a positive relationship between species richness and yield. Under rainfed...

The Endophytic Mycobiome of European Ash and Sycamore Maple Leaves: Geographic Patterns, Host Specificity and Influence of Ash Dieback

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The European ash (Fraxinus excelsior) is threatened by the introduced ascomycete Hymenoscyphus fraxineus, the causal agent of ash dieback. Endophytic fungi are known to modulate their host’s resistance against pathogens. To understand possible consequences of ash dieback on the endophytic mycobiome, F. excelsior leaves were collected in naturally regenerated forests and the fungal communities analyzed by classic culture and Illumina amplicon sequencing using a newly developed and validated fungal-specific primer. Collections were done in the...

Arylvinylpiperazine amides, a new class of potent inhibitors targeting QcrB of mycobacterium tuberculosis

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New drugs are needed to control the current tuberculosis (TB) pandemic caused by infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We report here on our work with AX-35, an arylvinylpiperazine amide, and four related analogs, which are potent antitubercular agents in vitro. All five compounds showed good activity against M. tuberculosis in vitro and in infected THP-1 macrophages, while displaying only mild cytotoxicity. Isolation and characterization of M. tuberculosis-resistant mutants to the arylvinylpiperazine amide derivative AX-35 revealed mutations...

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