9,538 Works

Examining pelagic carbonate-rich sediments as an archive for authigenic uranium and molybdenum isotopes using reductive cleaning and leaching experiments

Matthew O. Clarkson, Kim Müsing, Morten B. Andersen & Derek Vance
Novel metal isotope systematics are increasingly used to understand environmental change in geological history. On a global scale, the isotopic budgets of these metals respond to a range of environmental processes, allowing them to trace complex changes in the global climate system and carbon cycle. In particular, uranium (U) and molybdenum (Mo) isotopes are useful tools for quantifying the global extent of oceanic anoxia and euxinia respectively. The oceanic signature of these metals is recorded...

Challenges and solution technologies for the integration of variable renewable energy sources—a review

Simon Robert Sinsel, Rhea L. Riemke & Volker H. Hoffmann
Renewable Energy, 145

Full-length haplotype reconstruction to infer the structure of heterogeneous virus populations

Francesca Di Giallonardo, Armin Töpfer, Melanie Rey, Sandhya Prabhakaran, Yannick Duport, Christine Leemann, Stefan Schmutz, Nottania K. Campbell, Beda Joos, Maria R. Lecca, Andrea Patrignani, Martin Däumer, Christian Beisel, Peter Rusert, Alexandra Trkola, Huldrych F. Günthard, Volker Roth, Niko Beerenwinkel & Karin J. Metzner
Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies enable new insights into the diversity of virus populations within their hosts. Diversity estimation is currently restricted to single-nucleotide variants or to local fragments of no more than a few hundred nucleotides defined by the length of sequence reads. To study complex heterogeneous virus populations comprehensively, novel methods are required that allow for complete reconstruction of the individual viral haplotypes. Here, we show that assembly of whole viral genomes of ∼8600...

A measurement of the neutron to 199Hg magnetic moment ratio

Samer Afach, Colin A. Baker, Gilles Ban, Georg Bison, Kazimierz Bodek, Martin Burghoff, Zema Chowdhuri, Manfred Daum, Martin Fertl, Beatrice Franke, Peter V. Geltenbort, K. Green, Maurits Van Der Grinten, Zoran D. Grujić, Philip G. Harris, Werner Heil, Victor Hélaine, Reinhold Henneck, M. Horras, P. Iaydjiev, Sergey N. Ivanov, Małgorzata Kasprzak, Y. Kermaïdic, Klaus Stefan Kirch, Andreas Knecht … & Géza Zsigmond
The neutron gyromagnetic ratio has been measured relative to that of the 199Hg atom with an uncertainty of 0.8 ppm. We employed an apparatus where ultracold neutrons and mercury atoms are stored in the same volume and report the result γn/γHg=3.8424574(30).

Preferred analysis methods for single genomic regions in RNA sequencing revealed by processing the shape of coverage

Michał J. Okoniewski, Anna Leśniewska, Alicja Szabelska, Joanna Zyprych-Walczak, Martin Ryan, Marco Wachtel, Tadeusz Morzy, Beat Schäfer & Ralph Schlapbach
The informational content of RNA sequencing is currently far from being completely explored. Most of the analyses focus on processing tables of counts or finding isoform deconvolution via exon junctions. This article presents a comparison of several techniques that can be used to estimate differential expression of exons or small genomic regions of expression, based on their coverage function shapes. The problem is defined as finding the differentially expressed exons between two samples using local...

Temperature and moisture are minor drivers of regional-scale soil organic carbon dynamics

Beatriz González-Domínguez, Pascal A. Niklaus, Mirjam S. Studer, Frank Hagedorn, Lukas Wacker, Negar Haghipour, Stephan Zimmermann, Lorenz Walthert, Peter B. McIntyre & Samuel Abiven
Storing large amounts of organic carbon, soils are a key but uncertain component of the global carbon cycle, and accordingly, of Earth System Models (ESMs). Soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics are regulated by a complex interplay of drivers. Climate, generally represented by temperature and moisture, is regarded as one of the fundamental controls. Here, we use 54 forest sites in Switzerland, systematically selected to span near-independent gradients in temperature and moisture, to disentangle the effects...

Structural and functional implications of the QUA2 domain on RNA recognition by GLD-1

Gerrit M. Daubner, Anneke Brümmer, Cristina Tocchini, Stefan Gerhardy, Rafal Ciosk, Mihaela Zavolan & Frédéric H.-T. Allain
The STAR family comprises ribonucleic acid (RNA)-binding proteins that play key roles in RNA-regulatory processes. RNA recognition is achieved by a KH domain with an additional α-helix (QUA2) that seems to extend the RNA-binding surface to six nucleotides for SF1 (Homo sapiens) and seven nucleotides for GLD-1 (Caenorhabditis elegans). To understand the structural basis of this probable difference in specificity, we determined the solution structure of GLD-1 KH-QUA2 with the complete consensus sequence identified in...

Are mutagenic non D-loop direct repeat motifs in mitochondrial DNA under a negative selection pressure?

Lakshmi N. Lakshmanan, Jan Gruber, Barry Halliwell & Rudiyanto Gunawan
Non D-loop direct repeats (DRs) in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) have been commonly implicated in the mutagenesis of mtDNA deletions associated with neuromuscular disease and ageing. Further, these DRs have been hypothesized to put a constraint on the lifespan of mammals and are under a negative selection pressure. Using a compendium of 294 mammalian mtDNA, we re-examined the relationship between species lifespan and the mutagenicity of such DRs. Contradicting the prevailing hypotheses, we found no significant...

New insights into the performance of human whole-exome capture platforms

Janine Meienberg, Katja Zerjavic, Irene Keller, Michal Okoniewski, Andrea Patrignani, Katja Ludin, Zhenyu Xu, Beat Steinmann, Thierry Carrel, Benno Röthlisberger, Ralph Schlapbach, Rémy Bruggmann & Gábor Mátyás
Whole exome sequencing (WES) is increasingly used in research and diagnostics. WES users expect coverage of the entire coding region of known genes as well as sufficient read depth for the covered regions. It is, however, unknown which recent WES platform is most suitable to meet these expectations. We present insights into the performance of the most recent standard exome enrichment platforms from Agilent, NimbleGen and Illumina applied to six different DNA samples by two...

Observation of the photon-blockade breakdown phase transition

Johannes M. Fink, Andras Dombi, András Vukics, Andreas Wallraff & Peter Domokos
Nonequilibrium phase transitions exist in damped-driven open quantum systems when the continuous tuning of an external parameter leads to a transition between two robust steady states. In second-order transitions this change is abrupt at a critical point, whereas in first-order transitions the two phases can coexist in a critical hysteresis domain. Here, we report the observation of a first-order dissipative quantum phase transition in a driven circuit quantum electrodynamics system. It takes place when the...

Cereal β-glucan processing for improved molecular interactions

Elena Marasca

Unintentional unfairness when applying new greenhouse gas emissions metrics at country level

Joeri Rogelj & Carl-Friedrich Schleussner
The 2015 Paris Agreement sets out that rapid reductions in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are needed to keep global warming to safe levels. A new approach (known as GWP*) has been suggested to compare contributions of long- and short-lived GHGs, providing a close link between cumulative CO2-equivalent emissions and total warming. However, comparison factors for non-CO2 GHGs under the GWP* metric depend on past emissions, and hence raise questions of equity and fairness when applied...

Molecular Design, Optimization, and Genomic Integration of Chimeric B Cell Receptors in Murine B Cells

Theresa Pesch, Lucia Bonati, William Kelton, Cristina Parola, Roy A. Ehling, Lucia Csepregi, Daisuke Kitamura & Sai T. Reddy
Immune cell therapies based on the integration of synthetic antigen receptors comprise a powerful strategy for the treatment of diverse diseases, most notably T cells engineered to express chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) for targeted cancer therapy. In addition to T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes may also represent valuable immune cells that can be engineered for therapeutic purposes such as protein replacement therapy or recombinant antibody production. In this article, we report a promising concept for the...

A dynamic climate finance allocation mechanism reflecting the Paris Agreement

Florian Manuel Egli & Anna Stünzi
Reaching the goal of the Paris Agreement requires substantial investment. The developed country parties have agreed to provide USD$100 billion in climate finance annually from 2020 to 2025. Ongoing negotiations on post-2025 commitments are likely to exceed that sum and include a broader scope of parties. However, there is no guidance regarding the allocation of contributions. Here, we develop a dynamic mechanism based on two conventional pillars of a burden sharing mechanism: emission responsibility and...

SPHERE: the exoplanet imager for the Very Large Telescope

Jean-Luc Beuzit, Hans M. Schmid, Andreas Bazzon, D. Gisler &
Observations of circumstellar environments that look for the direct signal of exoplanets and the scattered light from disks have significant instrumental implications. In the past 15 years, major developments in adaptive optics, coronagraphy, optical manufacturing, wavefront sensing, and data processing, together with a consistent global system analysis have brought about a new generation of high-contrast imagers and spectrographs on large ground-based telescopes with much better performance. One of the most productive imagers is the Spectro-Polarimetic...

Improved Water Management for PEFC with Interdigitated Flow Fields using Modified Gas Diffusion Layers

Victoria Manzi-Orezzoli, Muriel Siegwart, Magali Cochet, Thomas J. Schmidt & Pierre Boillat
Polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) with interdigitated flow fields were operated with modified gas diffusion layers (GDLs). Interdigitated flow fields have dead-ended channels, which forces the gas to flow convectively through the GDLs to the outlet channels and significantly reduces the mass transport losses. However, when using conventional GDLs, the water accumulation at the end of the inlet channels results in an increased and unpredictable pressure drop, which translates in unstable performance. This has prevented...

Instrumente für eine wirksame und effiziente Klima- und Energiepolitik

Silvia Banfi Frost, Regina Betz, David N. Bresch, Pierre-Alain Bruchez, Rafael Bucher, Anne-Kathrin Faust, Denise Fussen, Beat Hintermann, Rolf Iten, Nicole A. Mathys, Axel Michaelowa, Reto Schleiniger, Philippe Thalmann & Hannes Weigt
Derzeit werden im politischen Prozess der Schweiz die Weichen für die zukünftige Klima- und Energiepolitik gestellt. Die Schweiz will aus der Kernenergie aussteigen und gleichzeitig die Treibhausgasemissionen mindern. Dazu braucht es eine koordinierte und breit abgestützte Klima- und Energiepolitik mit einem wirksamen und effizienten Mix aus politischen Instrumenten wie beispielsweise Lenkungsabgaben oder Emissionsgrenzwerten. Dieses Faktenblatt bietet eine Übersicht über die verschiedenen Instrumente und zeigt auf, für welchen Zweck sie sich am besten eignen, welche Wirkung...

Intercomparison of daily precipitation persistence in multiple global observations and climate models

Heewon Moon, Lukas Gudmundsson, Benoit Guillod, Vuruputur Venugopal & Sonia I. Seneviratne
Daily precipitation persistence is affected by various atmospheric and land processes and provides complementary information to precipitation amount statistics for understanding the precipitation dynamics. In this study, daily precipitation persistence is assessed in an exhaustive ensemble of observation-based daily precipitation datasets and evaluated in global climate model (GCM) simulations for the period of 2001–2013. Daily precipitation time series are first transformed intocategorical time series of dry and wet spells with a 1 mm d−1precipitation threshold....

High Infrared Photoconductivity in Films of Arsenic-Sulfide-Encapsulated Lead-Sulfide Nanocrystals

Sergii Yakunin, Dmitry N. Dirin, Loredana Protesescu, Mykhailo Sytnyk, Sajjad Tollabimazraehno, Markus Humer, Florian Hackl, Thomas Fromherz, Maryna I. Bodnarchuk, Maksym V. Kovalenko & Wolfgang Heiss
Highly photoconductive thin films of inorganic-capped PbS nanocrystal quantum dots (QDs) are reported. Stable colloidal dispersions of (NH4)3AsS3-capped PbS QDs were processed by a conventional dip-coating technique into a thin homogeneous film of electronically coupled PbS QDs. Upon drying at 130 °C, (NH4)3AsS3 capping ligands were converted into a thin layer of As2S3, acting as an infrared-transparent semiconducting glue. Photodetectors obtained by depositing such films onto glass substrates with interdigitate electrode structures feature extremely high...

Using a direct simulation Monte Carlo approach to model collisions in a buffer gas cell

Maximilian J. Doppelbauer, Otto Schullian, Jerome Loreau, Nathalie Vaeck, Ad Van Der Avoird, Christopher J. Rennick, Timothy P. Softley & Brianna R. Heazlewood
A direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method is applied to model collisions between He buffer gas atoms and ammonia molecules within a buffer gas cell. State-to-state cross sections, calculated as a function of the collision energy, enable the inelastic collisions between He and NH3 to be considered explicitly. The inclusion of rotational-state-changing collisions affects the translational temperature of the beam, indicating that elastic and inelastic processes should not be considered in isolation. The properties of...

Unsupervised local cluster-weighted Bagging the output from multiple stochastic simulators

Imad Abdallah, Konstantinos Tatsis & Eleni Chatzi

Corrigendum: Biomass heat storage dampens diurnal temperature variations in forests (2019 Environ. Res. Lett. 14 084026)

Ronny Meier, Edouard Léopold Davin, Sean C. Swenson, David M. Lawrence & Jonas Schwaab
Environmental Research Letters, 14 (11)

GeneValidator: Identify problems with protein-coding gene predictions

Monica-Andreea Drăgan, Ismail Moghul, Anurag Priyam, Claudio Bustos & Yannick Wurm
Summary: Genomes of emerging model organisms are now being sequenced at very low cost. However, obtaining accurate gene predictions remains challenging: even the best gene prediction algorithms make substantial errors and can jeopardize subsequent analyses. Therefore, many predicted genes must be time-consumingly visually inspected and manually curated. We developed GeneValidator (GV) to automatically identify problematic gene predictions and to aid manual curation. For each gene, GV performs multiple analyses based on comparisons to gene sequences...

Monitoring-Driven Seismic Assessment of Existing Masonry Buildings

Panagiotis Martakis, Yves Reuland, Vasileios Ntertimanis & Eleni Chatzi
ANCRiSST 2019 Procedia 14th International Workshop on Advanced Smart Materials and Smart Structures Technology

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