11,685 Works

High genetic diversity and presence of genetic structure characterise the endemics Ruta corsica and Ruta lamarmorae (Rutaceae)

Marilena Meloni, Caterina A. Dettori, Andrea Reid, Gianluigi Bacchetta, Laetitia Hugot & Elena Conti
Corsica and Sardinia form one of the areas with highest biodiversity in the Mediterranean and are considered one of the priority regions for conservation in Europe. In order to preserve the high levels of endemism and biological diversity at different hierarchical levels, knowledge of the evolutionary history and current genetic structure of Corso-Sardinian endemics is instrumental. Microsatellite markers were newly developed and used to study the genetic structure and taxonomic status of Ruta corsica and...

Reversed surface-mass-balance gradients on himalayan debris-covered glaciers inferred from remote sensing

Rosie R. Bisset, Amaury Dehecq, Daniel N. Goldberg, Matthias Huss, Robert G. Bingham & Noel Gourmelen
Meltwater from the glaciers in High Mountain Asia plays a critical role in water availability and food security in central and southern Asia. However, observations of glacier ablation and accumulation rates are limited in spatial and temporal scale due to the challenges that are associated with fieldwork at the remote, high-altitude settings of these glaciers. Here, using a remote-sensing-based mass-continuity approach, we compute regional-scale surface mass balance of glaciers in five key regions across High...

Sequential loss of myelin proteins during Wallerian degeneration in the human spinal cord

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Brain: A Journal of Neurology, 128 (2)

The effects of power and organizational values on (un)ethical decision-making: The possible role of self-control

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This ongoing project investigates how power and organizational values affect people’s likelihood of lying to gain benefits for themselves, and the role of self-control in this relationship. The results of this study will deepen our understanding of how and when powerful people make (un)ethical decisions.

Probing the chiral magnetic wave in pPb and PbPb collisions at sNN =5.02 TeV using charge-dependent azimuthal anisotropies

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Charge-dependent anisotropy Fourier coefficients (vn) of particle azimuthal distributions are measured in pPb and PbPb collisions at √sNN=5.02TeV with the CMS detector at the LHC. The normalized difference in the second-order anisotropy coefficients (v2) between positively and negatively charged particles is found to depend linearly on the observed event charge asymmetry with comparable slopes for both pPb and PbPb collisions over a wide range of charged particle multiplicity. In PbPb, the third-order anisotropy coefficient v3...

Assessment of Global Longitudinal and Circumferential Strain Using Computed Tomography Feature Tracking: Intra-Individual Comparison with CMR Feature Tracking and Myocardial Tagging in Patients with Severe Aortic Stenosis

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In this study, we used a single commercially available software solution to assess global longitudinal (GLS) and global circumferential strain (GCS) using cardiac computed tomography (CT) and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) feature tracking (FT). We compared agreement and reproducibility between these two methods and the reference standard, CMR tagging (TAG). Twenty-seven patients with severe aortic stenosis underwent CMR and cardiac CT examinations. FT analysis was performed using Medis suite version 3.0 (Leiden, The Netherlands) software....

Developments in Polymer Theory and Simulation

Polymer theory and simulation are topics that are still growing (Figure 1), highlighting the need for an understanding of microscopic mechanisms influencing material properties of systems containing macromolecules. While there is a clear tendency for a growing industrial interest in biodegradable polymers and speciality polymers, many questions related to the behavior of polymeric systems can be tackled using theoretical approaches that apply to most kinds of polymers. Polymeric materials display distinguished characteristics which stem from...

Modeling the effect of a gas phase during injection-induced fault reactivation

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Injection of fluids into subsurface reservoirs is a cause for induced earthquakes. Physics-based numerical models may help to better understand the physical processes that lead to such seismicity. Recent models mainly focused on single-phase flow, and therefore the influence of multiple phases (e.g. gas) on induced seismicity remains unclear. In order to better understand the potential influence of gas on induced earthquakes, we perform numerical simulations with TOUGH-FLAC accounting for multi-phase and multi-component fluid flow....

Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Humoral Immunity Reveals Continued and Personalized Evolution in Chronic Viral Infection

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Control of established chronic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection requires the production of neutralizing antibodies, but it remains unknown how the ensemble of antibodies evolves during ongoing infection. Here, we analyze the evolution of antibody responses during acute or chronic LCMV infection, combining quantitative functional assays and time-resolved antibody repertoire sequencing. We establish that antibody responses initially converge in both infection types on a functional and repertoire level, but diverge later during chronic infection, showing...

Chronic Viral Infection Promotes Efficient Germinal Center B Cell Responses

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Persistent viral infections subvert key elements of adaptive immunity. To compare germinal center (GC) B cell responses in chronic and acute lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection, we exploit activation-induced deaminase (AID) fate-reporter mice and perform adoptive B cell transfer experiments. Chronic infection yields GC B cell responses of higher cellularity than acute infections do, higher memory B cell and antibody secreting cell output for longer periods of time, a better representation of the late B cell...

Postmigrantische Balkanbilder: Ästhetische Praxis und digitale Kommunikation im jugendkulturellen Alltag

Im Social Web inszenieren Jugendliche eine gemeinsame Herkunft aus den westlichen Balkanstaaten auf vielfältige Art. Dabei entstehen Fotografien und Collagenbilder, über welche stereotype Vorstellungen des «Balkanischen» verhandelt werden. Das Buch gibt Einblick in die Medienwelten postmigrantischer Jugendkulturen im deutschsprachigen Europa, vor allem in der Schweiz. Anhand zahlreicher Beispiele wird gezeigt, wie Vorstellungen von Ethnizität und Herkunft im Umgang mit digitaler Fotografie und Online-Kommunikation angeeignet, aber auch reproduziert werden. Im Zentrum stehen die intermedialen Praktiken, durch...

SIMLIN: a bioinformatics tool for prediction of S-sulphenylation in the human proteome based on multi-stage ensemble-learning models

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Background S-sulphenylation is a ubiquitous protein post-translational modification (PTM) where an S-hydroxyl (−SOH) bond is formed via the reversible oxidation on the Sulfhydryl group of cysteine (C). Recent experimental studies have revealed that S-sulphenylation plays critical roles in many biological functions, such as protein regulation and cell signaling. State-of-the-art bioinformatic advances have facilitated high-throughput in silico screening of protein S-sulphenylation sites, thereby significantly reducing the time and labour costs traditionally required for the experimental investigation...

Changes in employment localization and accessibility: The case of Switzerland between 1939 and 2008 - Recomposed Data

The main goal of this work is to study the spatial repartition of jobs, in particular the non- agricultural ones, and to try to find a relationship between the evolution in their repartition and the concomitant evolution of accessibility. In order to study the spatial repartition of jobs through time, only two sources can be chosen. The first is the population census, which currently records, for all active persons, an array of information regarding their...

Organizational vulnerability of digital threats: A first validation of an assessment method

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We present a Strengths, Vulnerability, and Intervention Assessment related to Digital Threats (SVIDT) method, which provides a problem structuring and decision support for organizational vulnerability and resilience management with respect to changes of the digital transition. The method starts from (i) a multi-level actor analysis, (ii) identifies strengths and weaknesses of organizations, (iii) constructs digital threat scenarios and provides judgment-based expert assessments on the organization's vulnerability, (iv) develops intervention scenarios for tangible threat scenarios, and...

Stochastic Gene Expression Influences the Selection of Antibiotic Resistance Mutations

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Bacteria can resist antibiotics by expressing enzymes that remove or deactivate drug molecules. Here, we study the effects of gene expression stochasticity on efflux and enzymatic resistance. We construct an agent-based model that stochastically simulates multiple biochemical processes in the cell and we observe the growth and survival dynamics of the cell population. Resistance-enhancing mutations are introduced by varying parameters that control the enzyme expression or efficacy. We find that stochastic gene expression can cause...

Reproducible Colonization of Germ-Free Mice With the Oligo-Mouse-Microbiota in Different Animal Facilities

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The Oligo-Mouse-Microbiota (OMM12) is a recently developed synthetic bacterial community for functional microbiome research in mouse models (Brugiroux et al., 2016). To date, the OMM12 model has been established in several germ-free mouse facilities world-wide and is employed to address a growing variety of research questions related to infection biology, mucosal immunology, microbial ecology and host-microbiome metabolic cross-talk. The OMM12 consists of 12 sequenced and publically available strains isolated from mice, representing five bacterial phyla...

Lowering the Latency of Data Processing Pipelines Through FPGA based Hardware Acceleration

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Web search engines often involve a complex pipeline of processing stages including computing, scoring, and ranking potential answers plus returning the sorted results. The latency of such pipelines can be improved by minimizing data movement, making stages faster, and merging stages. The throughput is determined by the stage with the smallest capacity and it can be improved by allocating enough parallel resources to each stage. In this paper we explore the possibility of employing hardware...

Lifetimes of interstellar dust from cosmic ray exposure ages of presolar silicon carbide

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Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 117 (4)

A flood-risk-oriented, dynamic protection motivation framework to explain risk reduction behaviours

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Private risk reduction behaviours can significantly reduce the negative impacts of flooding and flash floods. Over the past decades, researchers have used various socio-cognitive models or threat and coping mechanisms to explain individual protective behaviours. However, these models ignore the fact that people are not equally ready to act upon a danger, and they (the models) give limited insights into the effectiveness of communication strategies to foster risk reduction behaviours. Therefore, we explored the current...

Brown Adipose Crosstalk in Tissue Plasticity and Human Metabolism

Infants rely on brown adipose tissue (BAT) as a primary source of thermogenesis. In some adult humans, residuals of brown adipose tissue are adjacent to the central nervous system and acute activation increases metabolic rate. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) recruitment occurs during cold acclimation and includes secretion of factors, known as batokines, which target several different cell types within BAT, and promote adipogenesis, angiogenesis, immune cell interactions, and neurite outgrowth. All these processes seem to...

Neural oscillations in human auditory cortex revealed by fast fMRI during auditory perception

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Previous work pointed to the neural and functional significance of infraslow neural oscillations below 1 Hz that can be detected and precisely located with fast functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). While previous work demonstrated this significance for brain dynamics during very low-level sensory stimulation, we here provide the first evidence for the detectability and functional significance of infraslow oscillatory blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) responses to auditory stimulation by the sociobiological relevant and more complex category...

Fingerprints of a second order critical line in developing neural networks

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Patterns of biological activity with properties similar to critical states of statistical mechanics have received much attention, as they were mostly seen as indicators of computational optimality. Commonly, a single regime around an isolated critical point is expected. Our experimental data and our network simulations of developing neural cultures indicate the possibility of transitions between different critical regimes. In the latter, the addition of further fundamental neurophysiological principles to the standard neurodynamics branching model generates...

On cycling risk and discomfort: urban safety mapping and bike route recommendations

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Bike usage in Smart Cities becomes paramount for sustainable urban development. Cycling provides tremendous opportunities for a more healthy lifestyle, lower energy consumption and carbon emissions as well as reduction of traffic jams. While the number of cyclists increase along with the expansion of bike sharing initiatives and infrastructures, the number of bike accidents rises drastically threatening to jeopardize the bike urban movement. This paper studies cycling risk and discomfort using a diverse spectrum of...

TRY plant trait database – enhanced coverage and open access

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Plant traits—the morphological, anatomical, physiological, biochemical and phenological characteristics of plants—determine how plants respond to environmental factors, affect other trophic levels, and influence ecosystem properties and their benefits and detriments to people. Plant trait data thus represent the basis for a vast area of research spanning from evolutionary biology, community and functional ecology, to biodiversity conservation, ecosystem and landscape management, restoration, biogeography and earth system modelling. Since its foundation in 2007, the TRY database of...

Reintroducing Heart Sounds for Early Detection of Acute Myocardial Ischemia in a Porcine Model – Correlation of Acoustic Cardiography With Gold Standard of Pressure-Volume Analysis

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Background: Acoustic cardiography is a hybrid technique that couples heart sounds recording with ECG providing insights into electrical-mechanical activity of the heart in an unsupervised, non-invasive and inexpensive manner. During myocardial ischemia hemodynamic abnormalities appear in the first minutes and we hypothesize a putative diagnostic role of acoustic cardiography for prompt detection of cardiac dysfunction for future patient management improvement. Methods and Results: Ten female Swiss large white pigs underwent permanent distal coronary occlusion as...

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