9,132 Works

Charge qubit in a triple quantum dot with tunable coherence

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ISSN:2643-1564

The Role of Crystal Accumulation and Cumulate Remobilization in the Formation of Large Zoned Ignimbrites: Insights From the Aso-4 Caldera-forming Eruption, Kyushu, Japan

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The Aso-4 caldera-forming event (86.4 ± 1.1 ka, VEI-8) is the second largest volcanic eruption Earth experienced in the past 100 ka. The ignimbrite sheets produced during this event are some of the first ever described compositionally zoned pyroclastic flow deposits exhibiting clear compositional, mineralogical and thermal gradients with stratigraphic position. Large quantities of the deposits are composed of crystal-poor, highly evolved juvenile pumices, while late-erupted pyroclastic flows are in many cases dominated by crystal-rich...

Tuning DNA–nanoparticle conjugate properties allows modulation of nuclease activity

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Enzyme–nanoparticle interactions can give rise to a range of new phenomena, most notably significant enzymatic rate enhancement. Accordingly, the careful study and optimization of such systems is likely to give rise to advanced biosensing applications. Herein, we report a systematic study of the interactions between nuclease enzymes and oligonucleotide-coated gold nanoparticles (spherical nucleic acids, SNAs), with the aim of revealing phenomena worthy of evolution into functional nanosystems. Specifically, we study two nucleases, an exonuclease (ExoIII)...

Mitral annular disjunction in patients with severe aortic stenosis: Extent and reproducibility of measurements with computed tomography

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Objectives To determine with CT the prevalence and extent of mitral annular disjunction (MAD) in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) and its association with mitral valve disease and arrhythmia. Methods We retrospectively evaluated 408 patients (median age, 82 years; 186 females) with severe aortic stenosis undergoing ECG-gated cardiac CT with end-systolic data acquisition. Baseline and follow-up data were collected in the context of a national registry. Two blinded, independent observers evaluated the presence...

Occurrence and Fate of Agriculturally Derived Natural Estrogens in the Environment

It is alarming that hormonally active substances are regularly detected in surface waters worldwide. Until now, few studies have been conducted on the role of agriculture as a potential source for endocrine disrupting substances, such as the natural estrogens 17α-estradiol (E2α), 17β-estradiol (E2β), estrone (E1), and estriol (E3), in surface waters. This could be of particular concern because female livestock animals excrete natural estrogens during different stages of the estrous cycle and pregnancy through urine...

Predicting fear and perceived health during the COVID-19 pandemic using machine learning: A cross-national longitudinal study

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During medical pandemics, protective behaviors need to be motivated by effective communication, where finding predictors of fear and perceived health is of critical importance. The varying trajectories of the COVID-19 pandemic in different countries afford the opportunity to assess the unique influence of ‘macro-level’ environmental factors and ‘micro-level’ psychological variables on both fear and perceived health. Here, we investigate predictors of fear and perceived health using machine learning as lockdown restrictions in response to the...

A mathematical model of the metastatic bottleneck predicts patient outcome and response to cancer treatment

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Metastases are the main reason for cancer-related deaths. Initiation of metastases, where newly seeded tumor cells expand into colonies, presents a tremendous bottleneck to metastasis formation. Despite its importance, a quantitative description of metastasis initiation and its clinical implications is lacking. Here, we set theoretical grounds for the metastatic bottleneck with a simple stochastic model. The model assumes that the proliferation-to-death rate ratio for the initiating metastatic cells increases when they are surrounded by more...

The Impact of Vertical Densification on Public Lighting in Informal Settlements: Using Virtual Environments as an Evaluation Tool for Policy Making

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There are a variety of reasons to support the premise that public lighting is beneficial to urban communities. At the same time, a key challenge for the provision of public lighting in informal settlements is their constant physical transformation. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the application of virtual environments (VEs) in lighting planning and policymaking. Despite the fact that VEs offer the opportunity to explore an environment by freely navigating through it,...

The Marsquake catalogue from InSight, sols 0–478

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The InSight (Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport) mission began collecting high quality seismic data on Mars in February 2019. This manuscript documents the seismicity observed by SEIS, InSight’s seismometer, from this time until the end of March 2020. Within the InSight project, the Marsquake Service (MQS) is responsible for prompt review of all seismic data collected by InSight, detection of events that are likely to be of seismic origin, and curation...

Search for new physics in top quark production with additional leptons in proton-proton collisions at √s = 13 TeV using effective field theory

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Events containing one or more top quarks produced with additional prompt leptons are used to search for new physics within the framework of an effective field theory (EFT). The data correspond to an integrated luminosity of 41.5 fb−1 of proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV at the LHC, collected by the CMS experiment in 2017. The selected events are required to have either two leptons with the same charge or more than...

Estimating the cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 with imperfect serological tests: Exploiting cutoff-free approaches

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Large-scale serological testing in the population is essential to determine the true extent of the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Serological tests measure antibody responses against pathogens and use predefined cutoff levels that dichotomize the quantitative test measures into sero-positives and negatives and use this as a proxy for past infection. With the imperfect assays that are currently available to test for past SARS-CoV-2 infection, the fraction of seropositive individuals in serosurveys is a biased estimator of...

Editorial

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Chimia, 75 (1)

Zielkonflikte zwischen Umwelt- und Datenschutz: Von der Möglichkeit, Daten preiszugeben, um die Umwelt zu retten

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Was Bits & Bäume verbindet: Digitalisierung nachhaltig gestalten

Review of data-driven energy modelling techniques for building retrofit

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In order to meet the ambitious emission-reduction targets of the Paris Agreement, energy efficient transition of the building sector requires building retrofit methodologies as a critical part of a greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions mitigation plan, since in 2050 a high proportion of the current global building stock will still be in use. This paper reviews current retrofit methodologies with a focus on the contrast between data-driven approaches that utilize measured building data, acquired through either 1)...

Methods of yield stability analysis in long-term field experiments. A review

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In the face of a changing climate, yield stability is becoming increasingly important for farmers and breeders. Long-term field experiments (LTEs) generate data sets that allow the quantification of stability for different agronomic treatments. However, there are no commonly accepted guidelines for assessing yield stability in LTEs. The large diversity of options impedes comparability of results and reduces confidence in conclusions. Here, we review and provide guidance for the most commonly encountered methodological issues when...

Modeling and Analysis of the SCION Dataplane in Tamarin

Batch crystallization of rhodopsin for structural dynamics using an X-ray free-electron laser

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Rhodopsin is a membrane protein from the G protein-coupled receptor family. Together with its ligand retinal, it forms the visual pigment responsible for night vision. In order to perform ultrafast dynamics studies, a time-resolved serial femtosecond crystallography method is required owing to the nonreversible activation of rhodopsin. In such an approach, microcrystals in suspension are delivered into the X-ray pulses of an X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) after a precise photoactivation delay. Here, a millilitre batch...

COVAX Needs a Political Future

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The financial strengthening and institutional development of the new multilateral vaccine platform COVAX is in the health-, economy- and security-related interests of Western states, argue Michèle Gemünden and Jan Thiel in this CSS Policy Perspective. However, unilateral pre-sale contracts weaken this new multilateral procurement mechanism, which aims to ensure access to vaccines for all risk groups and medical personnel worldwide, regardless of the purchasing power of the respective states. The latter should therefore work towards...

Case Vectors: Spatial Representations of the Law Using Document Embeddings

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Law as Data, 2019 (11)

Analyzing Cookies Compliance with the GDPR

Volume IV. The DUNE far detector single-phase technology

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The preponderance of matter over antimatter in the early universe, the dynamics of the supernovae that produced the heavy elements necessary for life, and whether protons eventually decay—these mysteries at the forefront of particle physics and astrophysics are key to understanding the early evolution of our universe, its current state, and its eventual fate. DUNE is an international world-class experiment dedicated to addressing these questions as it searches for leptonic charge-parity symmetry violation, stands ready...

Generation, Manipulation, and Detection of Complex States of Microwave Radiation

Superconducting circuits represent a platform actively researched for its potential use in quantum information processing. The large couplings achieved between artificial atoms build out of lossless Josephson junctions and microwave photons are one of the most prominent features, directly implementing in a circuit the toy models of quantum electrodynamics (QED). The strong light-matter interaction enables the preparation of microwave radiation fields in non-classical states, such as states in the single photon manifold with anti-bunched statistics,...

Recent advances in carbon capture storage and utilisation technologies: a review

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Human activities have led to a massive increase in CO2 emissions as a primary greenhouse gas that is contributing to climate change with higher than 1∘C global warming than that of the pre-industrial level. We evaluate the three major technologies that are utilised for carbon capture: pre-combustion, post-combustion and oxyfuel combustion. We review the advances in carbon capture, storage and utilisation. We compare carbon uptake technologies with techniques of carbon dioxide separation. Monoethanolamine is the...

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