9,181 Works

Novel compartment-specific biosensors reveal a complementary subcellular distribution of bioactive Furin and PC7

Pierpaolo Ginefra
Proprotein Convertases (PCs) constitute a family of serine proteases that activate various hormones, growth factors and cell adhesion molecules by mediating endoproteolytic cleavage of their secreted inactive precursors during their transit in the secretory pathway. Their physiological roles in most tissues, in cancer and other diseases have remained nowadays poorly defined, partly because of technical hurdles in clearly distinguishing functionally overlapping PC activities from each other. Related to this, a major unsolved question is where,...

On Smart-Buildings and their Integration into the Smart-Grid

Olivier Valentin Henri Van Cutsem
Today's electrical grid is undergoing deep changes, resulting from the large integration of distributed Renewable Energy Sources (RES) in an effort to decarbonize the generation of electrical energy. In addition to the emergence of this volatile electricity production, the worldwide demand for electricity increases due to a growing population and the intensified electrification of buildings. Smart-buildings represent promising assets for supporting the electrical grid in balancing demand with a supply based on non-dispatchable RES. A...

Simulation numérique du ralentissement d'ions dans la matière

Patrick Miazza

On the dynamics of human locomotion and co-design of lower limb assistive devices

Jesse Van Den Kieboom
Recent developments in lower extremities wearable robotic devices for the assistance and rehabilitation of humans suffering from an impairment have led to several successes in the assistance of people who as a result regained a certain form of locomotive capability. Such devices are conventionally designed to be anthropomorphic. They follow the morphology of the human lower limbs. It has been shown previously that non-anthropomorphic designs can lead to increased comfort and better dynamical properties due...

MATHICSE Technical Report: A posteriori error estimation for the stochastic collocation finite element approximation of the heat equation with random coefficients

Fabio Nobile & Eva Vidlicková
In this work we present a residual based a posteriori error estimation for a heat equation with a random forcing term and a random diffusion coefficient which is assumed to depend affinely on a finite number of independent random variables. The problem is discretized by a stochastic collocation finite element method and advanced in time by the θ-scheme. The a posteriori error estimate consists of three parts controlling the finite element error, the time discretization...

In vivo evaluation of gene editing and prosthetic strategies to restore vision in small and large animal models of retinal degeneration

Paola Vagni
Inherited retinal diseases (IRDs) form a group of diverse disorders that lead to the degeneration of the light-sensing cells of the retina: the photoreceptors. IRDs are among the leading causes of blindness in working-age adults living in industrialized countries and their treatment has been a long-term challenge in medicine. Given the heterogeneity of IRDs in terms of causative genes and symptoms, finding a common therapy is not a real possibility. Conversely, it is important to...

Construction of MOF/Polymer Composites for Metal Ion Capture

Daniel Teav Sun
Metal ion capture is of environmental and economic significance. The industrial revolutions have discharged increasing amounts of heavy and precious metals into complex water sources. The key is that these types of metal ions tend to be at trace amounts in water mixtures containing high concentrations of inorganic and organic interferents. It is extremely difficult to extract and concentrate such species from these complex water mixtures. In this thesis, we show that novel inner pore...

Investigating Scrape-Off Layer transport in alternative divertor geometries on the TCV tokamak

Roberto Maurizio
Thermonuclear fusion is a potentially clean and limitless energy source that can substantially change the current global electricity generation mix, which is highly dependent on limited fossil fuels. This thesis contributes to the development of fusion energy with experiments on the TCV tokamak, addressing power exhaust in the divertor, which remains a major issue for a fusion tokamak reactor. A large fraction of the heating power needed to keep the plasma at the parameters required...

Atomistic modeling of the solid-liquid interface of metals and alloys

Edoardo Baldi
Solidification is a phase transformation of utmost importance in material science, for it largely controls materials' microstructure on which a wide range of mechanical properties depends. Almost every human artifact undergoes a transformation that leads to a solid phase, be it via well-established manufacturing processes as casting or forging, or more recent technological advances such as 3D printing. This thesis aims to study some fundamental aspects of solidification, focussing in particular on metals and alloys....

On the optimal sampling design for the Graph Total Variation decoder: recovering piecewise-constant graph signals from a few vertex measurements

Rodrigo Cerqueira Gonzalez Pena
Compressed Sensing teaches us that measurements can be traded for offline computation if the signal being sensed has a simple enough representation. Proper decoders can exactly recover the high-dimensional signal of interest from a lower-dimensional vector of that signal's observations. In graph domains -- like social, similarity, or interaction networks -- the relevant signals often have to do with the network's cluster structure. Partitioning a graph into different communities induces a piecewise-constant signal, an object...

Copper battery for heat to power conversion and energy storage

Sunny Isaïe Maye
An important part of the electricity production relies on heat conversion. Indeed power plants burn fuels like natural gas, coal or use nuclear fission to produce heat that can be transformed into electricity through a thermodynamic cycle and the mechanical work of a turbine. However, with such methods, high efficiencies are only reached with high temperatures according to the Carnot theory. Large amounts of waste heat or low-temperature heat are not converted into electrical power...

Study of brain metabolic dysfunctions in animal models of mood disorder using magnetic resonance spectroscopy

Antoine Timothée Cherix
Mood disorders, in particular depression, are a major burden of our society. Due to the poor knowledge of the biological basis of these diseases, classification remains based on arbitrary symptomatic parameters. As a result, the existing pharmacological treatments have difficulties targeting relevant pathophysiological processes leading to high level of non-responding patients. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) provides an outstanding means of measuring biochemical processes in vivo and can help identifying metabolic pathways that are associated with...

Multi-memristive synaptic architectures for training neural networks

Irem Boybat Kara
Highly data-centric AI workloads require that new computing paradigms be adopted because the performance of traditional CPU- and GPU-based systems are limited by data access and transfer. Training deep neural networks with millions of tunable parameters takes days or even weeks using relatively powerful heterogeneous systems, and it consumes more than hundreds of kilowatts of power. In-memory computing with memristive devices is a very promising avenue to accelerate deep learning because computations take place within...

Synthesis and characterization of iron-clathrochelates and their applications in materials science

José Luis Bila
This thesis focuses on the design and the synthesis of mono- and dinuclear iron clathrochelate complexes and their applications in materials science. Dinuclear iron clathrochelate complexes can be synthesized in different oxidation states: i. as negatively charged FeII-FeII complexes or ii. as neutral FeII-FeIII complexes. These compounds display interesting magnetic properties. The negatively FeII-FeII complexes are antiferromagnetic, whereas the neutral FeII-FeIII complexes are paramagnetic. In addition, an interconversion between the two redox states can be...

Tissue-specific circadian transcriptional regulation

Jake Yeung
Circadian rhythms in physiology and behavior evolved to resonate with daily cycles in the external environment. In mammals, organs orchestrate temporal physiology over the 24-hour day, which requires extensive gene expression rhythms targeted to the right tissue. Although a core set of gene products oscillate across virtually all cell-types, gene expression profiling across tissues over the 24-hour day showed that rhythmic gene expression programs are tissue-specific. We highlight recent progress in uncovering how the circadian...

Computing Cyclic Isogenies between Principally Polarized Abelian Varieties over Finite Fields

Marius Lorenz Vuille
Abelian varieties are fascinating objects, combining the fields of geometry and arithmetic. While the interest in abelian varieties has long time been of purely theoretic nature, they saw their first real-world application in cryptography in the mid 1980's, and have ever since lead to broad research on the computational and the arithmetic side. The most instructive examples of abelian varieties are elliptic curves and Jacobian varieties of hyperelliptic curves, and they come naturally equipped with...

Three Essays in Banking and Finance

Damien Olivier Klossner
This thesis develops three models that study the motivation of various agents to take on debt, and the impact that excessive financial leverage can have on social welfare. In the chapter "Short-term Bank Leverage and the Value of Liquid Reserves", the incentive of a bank to take on leverage stems from the fact that its short-term debt provides liquidity benefits to depositors, at the cost of exposing the bank to the risk of runs. In...

In vitro modeling of early mouse development

Mehmet Ugur Girgin
Previous attempts to recapitulate embryogenesis in a developmentally relevant context started with aggregates composed of a few thousand ESCs, termed embryoid bodies (EB), that upon induction of differentiation reveal a surprising level of autonomous cell fate patterning, in some cases giving rise to spatially arranged ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm layers. However, cell fate patterning and morphogenesis in EBs is poorly reproducible and cannot be controlled. These limitations necessitate further research on the self-organization potential of...

Beyond the patch: on landscape-explicit metapopulation dynamics

Jonathan Giezendanner
Climate change threatens biodiversity and species distribution all over the world at unprecedented rates. Human induced changes to landscape structure and habitat are redefining the relation between species and their environment. Understanding, characterizing and modeling the relation between complex landscape features and geographical species presence, the subject of this thesis, have thus gained paramount importance in order to make informed decisions on near- and far-term management strategies for species and landscape protection. The present thesis...

Novel Analytical Methods for Allergy-Related Studies

Mikaël Frossard
Managing and treating diseases require a deep understanding of the pathologies coupled with accurate diagnostic procedures. The constant development and improvement of bioanalytical methods reflect the need of diagnosis ameliorations with respect to accuracy, sensitivity and efficiency. The field of allergy diagnosis is a good example. Despite affecting almost a third of the population in western countries, allergies still present complex challenges for the physicians in terms of diagnosis and allergen characterization. This thesis presents...

Personalizable intervention systems to promote healthy behavior change

Igor Kulev
Adopting healthy behaviors can prevent the onset of many adverse health conditions. However, behavior changes are difficult to make, and often, people who like to improve their behaviors do not know how to do that. Personalizable intervention systems could assist them to achieve healthy behavior change. These systems decide what would be the optimal intervention for the target user based on his or her characteristics, including current and past behavior patterns. In this thesis, we...

Methodology for the identification of promising integrated biorefineries

Ayse Dilan Celebi
Steady increase in global energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, and depletion of fossil energy resources, together with increased attention towards sustainable development has prompted researchers to discover economical and environmentally competitive non-petroleum alternatives and biomass is considered to be one of the most promising renewable sources of energy and carbon of this matter to address the aforementioned issues within a biorefinery platform. A biorefinery is an integrated processing facility that converts biomass into transportation fuels,...

Structural and functional characterisation of the KRAB-domain associated protein 1

Giulia Fonti
KAP1 (KRAB-domain associated protein 1) plays a fundamental role in regulating gene expression in mammalian cells by recruiting different transcription factors and altering the chromatin state. In doing so, KAP1 acts both as a platform for macromolecular interactions and as an E3 SUMO ligase. This work sheds light on the overall organization of the full-length protein combining solution scattering data, integrative modeling and single-molecule experiments. We show that KAP1 is an elongated antiparallel dimer with...

Ultrafast X-ray Spectroscopy of Heme Proteins

Dominik Kinschel
With the advent of X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) time-resolved X-ray spectroscopic techniques have advanced to the femtosecond regime. These are element selective techniques which offer unique insight into the electronic and chemical environment and dynamics of a sample. Specifically, X-ray emission spectroscopy probes the occupied density of states and is sensitive to the spin and local structure of the element of interest, whereas X-ray absorption spectroscopy is a tool for probing the unoccupied density of...

Sweat monitoring with CMOS compatible technology: ISFETS and beyond

Francesco Bellando
In recent years, sweat has gained increasing attention from the scientific community as a new analyte for health monitoring. The main advantage with respect to the "Gold Standard" for laboratory analysis, i.e. blood, is of course the possibility of performing non-invasive assays, granting the maximum comfort for the user. Sweat contains a wide collection of relevant biomarkers, such as ions (Na+, K+, Mg+, Ca++...) and biomolecules (lactate, cortisol, cholesterol...). The most widespread technology for wearable...

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