9,294 Works

Utilisation de la spectroscopie mécanique dans l'optimisation des traitements thermiques d'aciers au carbone

Ronan Martin
This work is motivated by the industrial need to improve the thermal treatments of carbon steels used for the production of files. It aims at clearly defining the role that carbon plays in hardness and wear resistance of files. Three steel grades with different carbon content have been studied. The samples underwent various austenizing treatments, including treatments under carburizing atmosphere, followed by a quenching process leading to an essentially martensitic microstructure. This microstructure has been...

The influence of pool geometry and induced flow patterns in rock scour by high-velocity plunging jets

Pedro Filipe De Almeida Manso
The dissipation of energy of flood discharges from water releasing structures of dams is often done by plunging jets diffusing in water and impacting on the riverbed downstream. The construction of expensive concrete structures for energy dissipation can be avoided but the assessment of the scour evolution is mandatory for dam safety. The scour growth rate and shape depend on the riverbed geology. The geometry of scour may influence the turbulent flow pattern in the...

Minkowski sums of polytopes:combinatorics and computation

Christophe Weibel
Minkowski sums are a very simple geometrical operation, with applications in many different fields. In particular, Minkowski sums of polytopes have shown to be of interest to both industry and the academic world. This thesis presents a study of these sums, both on combinatorial properties and on computational aspects. In particular, we give an unexpected linear relation between the f-vectors of a Minkowski sum and that of its summands, provided these are relatively in general...

Indirect detection of nitrogen-14 in solid-state NMR spectroscopy

Simone Cavadini
This thesis describes new methods for the detection of 14N nuclei by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance. So far, the low natural abundance (0.4 %) 15N isotope has been widely used to study nitrogen-containing samples because of its spin-1/2 nature. The limited use of the spin-1 isotope 14N (natural abundance 99.6 %) in NMR is due to its strong quadrupolar coupling constant, which leads to very broad spectra that are difficult to excite uniformly and equally...

Impact of phosphorylation of alpha-synuclein in Parkinson's disease

Samareh Azeredo Da Silveira Lajaunias
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by the degeneration of dopamineric neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta projecting to the striatum, and by the deposition of cytoplasmic protein inclusions. It is further defined by the persistent presence of the α-synuclein (α-syn) protein in these inclusions. Moreover, mutations of α-syn as well as a triplication of the α-syn gene have been identified as a cause of inherited PD. These rare familial cases indicate that modifications in...

Glass panel under shear loading:use of glass envelopes in building stabilization

Danijel Mocibob
The latest trends in contemporary architecture are fully transparent pavilions: a single storey building free of any steel or concrete frame, where glass panels are used as unique vertical structural elements to support the roof and as wind bracing to stabilize and stiffen the building. In this application, individual glass panel is supported on two sides (roof and foundation) and subjected to in-plane shear force (lateral wind), out-of-plane distributed load (perpendicular wind) and in-plane compression...

Modeling study of the interannual variability in global tropospheric hydroxyl radical and methane concentrations over the last two decades

Jérôme Drevet
Methane (CH4) is a major greenhouse gas whose global warming potential is 23 times more important than carbon dioxide (CO2). CH4 concentrations have steadily increased since the beginning of the industrial era, reaching an unprecedent level (almost 1800 ppb at present times). CH4 is currently considered as a one of the major driver of the climate change and its warming potential has leaded the Kyoto protocol to plan a significative reduction of its emissions. The...

Comportement du ballast sous l'action du bourrage et du trafic ferroviaire

Chiara Paderno
The geometry of the railway track is degraded under traffic load, and must be maintained periodically. This degradation is due to the arrangement of ballast particles under loads and vibrations, which results into irreversible plastic settlements. Tamping is a procedure of maintenance, used to restore the correct geometrical position of the ballasted tracks. However, the penetration of the vibrating tines into the ballast causes an increase in the fine particles content by rupture of the...

Impact of Carbon-Nanotube Substrate Coating in Neuronal Networks

Luca Gambazzi
The interest in new materials and their application in the neuroscience are growing incredibly fast. Current research interests are increasingly focusing on new artificial materials and their direct effects on the central nervous systems so that it would be possible use them to restore the original nervous function lost due to neuronal diseases or trauma. This thesis is part of the international Neuronano project and has been funded by the European Commission 6th Framework Programme....

Le strategie del rivestimento nell'architettura olandese contemporanea:Neutelings Riedijk Architecten, UNstudio, Wiel Arets

Giampiero Sanguigni
The thesis wants to analyze "the strategies of wrapping in Dutch contemporary architecture" and wants to re-define, in a systematic way, some aspects that have not been investigated by those publications and authors that, since the beginning of the '90s until today, have spoken about the recent development of the architectural culture in the Netherlands. In the previous decade an idea stratified itself of a Dutch architecture as a collective and identity phenomenon, linked to...

Virus Inactivation by Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Fenton-like Processes

Jessica Ivana Nieto Juarez
Human enteric viruses in water sources cause a great public health risk. Conventional disinfection treatments are not able to completely inactive viruses. However, advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have recently been shown to effectively inactivate pathogens. One of the most promising AOPs is the Fenton process. In the framework of this work, the main objective was to characterize the fate of viruses upon inactivation by homogeneous and heterogeneous Fenton and Fenton-like processes, as well as to...

A colloidal approach to eye lens protein mixtures:relevance for cataract formation

Nicolas Dorsaz
A broad and constantly growing class of diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, sickle-cell or cataract, involves protein association phenomena as an essential aspect. The common denominator of all the members of this class of molecular condensation diseases is an attractive energy of interaction between specific biologic molecules which produces condensation into dense, frequently insoluble mesoscopic phases. Understanding interprotein interactions is essential since it is the subtle interplay between interprotein attraction, repulsion and solution entropy that...

Analysis and Design of Ultra-Wideband Antennas in the Spectral and Temporal Domains

Gabriela Quintero Díaz De León
Formal research on Ultra-wideband (UWB) technology started in the U.S. in 2002; where its definition was formulated and the frequency allocation in that country established. However, the first ultra-wideband transmission was done during the confirmation of Maxwell's equations by Heinrich Hertz in 1886, the first ever reported radio transmission. Sparks or very short pulses were sent and received at a distance away from its source. UWB antennas have existed since those times, but technology has...

Synthesis and characterization of novel polyelectrolytes based on double-charged cationic monomers

Ricardo Losada Mateo
Bis-1,3(N,N,N-trimethylammonium)-2-propylmethacrylate dichloride (di-M) and bis-1,3(N,N,N-trimethylammonium)-2-propylacrylate dichloride (di-A), two new double-charged monomers, were the subject of the research reported in this thesis. These monomers provided the opportunity to study polymerization processes while very strong electrostatic interactions are present, under conditions for which data has not yet been reported. Moreover, linear flexible synthetic polyelectrolytes (PEL) with a charge density in the range of DNA molecules became available. The monomers were used to synthesize homo-, co-, and terpolymers...

Elucidating the role of post-translational modifications of alpha-synuclein using semisynthesis:phosphorylation at Tyrosine 125 and monoubiquitination at Lysine 6

Mirva Hejjaoui
Alpha-synuclein (α-syn) is a natively unfolded protein that is closely linked to Parkinson’s disease (PD) by genetic, neuropathologic and biochemical evidence. Aggregated and fibrillar forms of α-syn are the main components of intracellular protein inclusions found in PD patients’ brains, termed Lewy Bodies (LB). Both in animal models and in vitro, α-syn forms fibrillar aggregates that resemble those observed in PD brain tissues. Although disease-associated mutations have been shown to promote the fibrillization of α-syn,...

Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Hyaline Fibromatosis Syndrome

Julie Deuquet Ariosa
Hyaline Fibromatosis Syndrome (HFS) is a rare inherited disease that is characterized by an accumulation of an unidentified hyaline material, largely affecting connective tissues. Patients afflicted with HFS present a wide range of clinical symptoms such as nodules, papules, hyperplasia of the gingiva, joint contractions, thickness and hyperpigmentation of the skin, and osteopenia. Depending of the severity and the delay of appearance of these symptoms, the life expectancy varies between 2 years and > 30...

Transport properties of cluster-assembled magnetic nanostructures

Giulia Di Domenicantonio
The aim of this thesis is to get a deeper understanding of magnetic properties of small clusters when they are embedded in a host material. The study was motivated by the observation of the very peculiar properties that clusters present in the gas phase or when deposited on a substrate. The intriguing perspective is that those properties would be preserved in a solid state sample that could be used for technological applications. Preformed and well...

Resonating-valence-bond approaches to high-temperature superconductivity

Samuel Bieri
This thesis is devoted to a theoretical study of high-temperature superconductivity from the viewpoint of a doped Mott insulator. To this end, the square-lattice t-J model is analyzed by variational and mean-field approaches. The thesis focuses on the construction of excitations and on spectral properties in the framework of Anderson's concept of resonating-valence-bond wavefunctions. The quantum dimer model as a toy model for the resonating-valence-bond phase of Mott insulators is also explored. In the first...

Polarization properties of semiconductor quantum dot and dash lasers

Philipp Ridha
Self-assembled quantum-dots (QDs) represent a distributed ensemble of zero dimensional structures, each presenting a near-singular density of states. The QD size, shape, areal density and optical properties depend on growth parameters, such as growth temperature, growth rate and amount of InAs deposed. QDs are very suitable for optoelectronic device applications as during the epitaxial QD growth the phase transition relieves the strain elastically without introducing defects. Embedded in the active medium of a semiconductor laser...

Conception d'un modèle d'Endo/Exo-squelettes anthropomorphique

Samuel Kung
Today, there is an increasing requirement for very accurate computer visualization technology to simulate the interaction between the human body and essential elements of our everyday environment, such as clothing and accessories, buildings and architecture. The virtual environment is ideal for planning and developing studies in ergonomics which will influence the design of furniture, cars and buildings. The ability to simulate products and structures in their real environment is very attractive, for many reasons, and...

Cellular Responses to Bacterial Pore-Forming Toxins

Rodrigo Manuel Gonzalez
Pore-forming toxins (PFTs) represent the largest class of bacterial protein toxins and constitute major virulence factors produced by pathogenic bacteria during infection. Pore formation appears to be an ancient form of attack, which is also found in hydrozoans, plants and humans. Bacteria secrete PFTs in the medium as water-soluble monomeric proteins that diffuse and bind to target cells via specific receptors. After binding, monomers undergo multimerization and insertion into the plasma membrane, which leads to...

How adeno-associated virus Rep78 relocalises Cdc25B to arrest the cell cycle:the multiple interactions of Rep78 with cellular regulatory, replication and recombination proteins

Florence Magnin
Adeno-associated virus (AAV) is a small DNA virus belonging to the family of the parvoviridae. AAV infects the human population, however no disease has been associated with this virus. On the contrary, AAV was reported to have oncosuppressive activities. The AAV genome contains two genes: the Rep gene encoding four non-structural proteins (Rep78, 68, 52 and 40) and the Cap gene encoding the three capsid proteins. Rep78 is implicated in transcription, replication and site-specific integration...

Location verification and key management in wireless networks

Srdan Capkun
This thesis is primarily concerned with two security mechanisms for wireless networks: location verification and key management. These mechanisms are potential building blocks in the security architectures of a range of applications. Under location verification, we consider mechanisms for secure encounter, distance and position verification. Possible applications of location verification mechanisms include node tracking, secure topology discovery, secure positioning and the detection of node removal and stealing. Key management protocols are used to ensure that...

Optogenetic Probing of Cortical Synaptic Circuits Measured Through in Vivo Whole-Cell Recordings in the Mouse Barrel Cortex

Céline Matéo
Although neocortex underlies higher-order brain functions, little is known about the synaptic interactions that drive neocortical microcircuit function in vivo. The neocortex is spontaneously active in vivo so I explored how such spontaneous network activity affects in vivo the interactions between excitatory and inhibitory neurons in the barrel cortex. To this aim, I have focused on the layer 2/3 microcircuit of the C2 barrel column driving sensory processing for the C2 whisker, and combined in...

Small Molecule Based Approaches to Inhibit Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF) Activities and Elucidate its Role in Health and Disease

Hajer Ouertatani-Sakouhi
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a major mediator in innate immunity and inflammation and a potential therapeutic target in multiple inflammatory, infectious and autoimmune diseases including cancer. Current therapeutic strategies for targeting MIF focus on modulating its biological activities using anti-MIF neutralizing antibodies or developing inhibitors of its tautomerase activity. Although the identity of its natural substrate remains unknown, several small molecule inhibitors have been reported to be effective inhibitors of MIF tautomerase activity...

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