9,846 Works

Use of lentiviral vectors for modelling and treating Parkinson's disease

Christophe Lo Bianco
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the progressive degeneration of the dopaminergic nigrostriatal pathway and the abnormal appearance of intracellular inclusions named Lewy bodies (LBs). Over the past few years, the discovery of genes involved in hereditary forms of the disease led to new insights into the pathogenesis of PD. Mutations in the α-synuclein gene have been associated with autosomal dominant PD, and mutations in parkin with autosomal recessive-juvenile parkinsonism (AR-JP). α-synuclein...

Transgenic SOD1 mice as a model for developing amyotrophic lateral sclerosis therapies

Sandrine Guillot
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by a loss of motor neurons in the brain (brainstem and cortex) and the spinal cord that leads to a motor neurological symptomatology. Approximately 10% of ALS cases have a familial form of ALS. Among the familial cases, 20% are caused by dominantly inherited mutations (around 100 different mutations) in the protein Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1). To date, genetic ALS models on mutated SOD1 (SOD1G93A,...

Immunoisolated cell implants for intracerebral delivery of anti-Aß single chain Fv antibodies in the APP23 Alzheimer's mouse model

Osiris Marroquin Belaunzaran
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent neurodegenerative disease in the elderly population. AD currently affects approximately 27 million people worldwide. A pathological hallmark of AD is the accumulation and deposition of the amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide in neuritic plaques and cerebral blood vessels in the brain. The amyloid cascade hypothesis postulates that any treatment reducing the production of Aβ or facilitating its clearance is likely to prevent or delay cognitive decline. Passive immunization with...

Impact of phosphorylation of alpha-synuclein in Parkinson's disease

Samareh Azeredo Da Silveira Lajaunias
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by the degeneration of dopamineric neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta projecting to the striatum, and by the deposition of cytoplasmic protein inclusions. It is further defined by the persistent presence of the α-synuclein (α-syn) protein in these inclusions. Moreover, mutations of α-syn as well as a triplication of the α-syn gene have been identified as a cause of inherited PD. These rare familial cases indicate that modifications in...

Characterisation of high-burnup LWR fuel rods through gamma tomography

Stefano Caruso
Current fuel management strategies for light water reactors (LWRs), in countries with high back-end costs, progressively extend the discharge burnup at the expense of increasing the 235U enrichment of the fresh UO2 fuel loaded. In this perspective, standard non-destructive assay (NDA) techniques, which are very attractive because they are fast, cheap, and preserve the fuel integrity, in contrast to destructive approaches, require further validation when burnup values become higher than 50 GWd/t. This doctoral work...

Simulation of shear-driven flows:transition with a free surface and confined turbulence

Roland Bouffanais
The research work reported in the present dissertation is aimed at the analysis of complex physical phenomena involving instabilities and nonlinearities occurring in fluids through state-of-the-art numerical modeling. Solutions of intricate fluid physics problems are devised in two particularly arduous situations: fluid domains with moving boundaries and the high-Reynolds-number regime dominated by nonlinear convective effects. Shear-driven flows of incompressible Newtonian fluids enclosed in cavities of varying geometries are thoroughly investigated in the two following frameworks:...

Turbulence in basic toroidal plasmas

Stefan Müller
This thesis work contributes to the improvement of the experimental assessment of turbulence in fusion-relevant toroidal plasmas via the construction and dedicated exploitation of the TORPEX basic toroidal plasma experiment. Several contributions to the construction phase of TORPEX between November 2001 and March 2003 are presented, including design studies of the magnetic-field configurations and the concept and realization of the IT system. For the studies of fluctuations and turbulence, a toroidal magnetic field complemented by...

Error-related EEG potentials in brain-computer interfaces

Pierre Ferrez & José Del R. Millán
People with severe motor disabilities (spinal cord injury (SCI), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), etc.) but with intact brain functions are somehow prisoners of their own body. They need alternative ways of communication and control to interact with their environment in their everyday life. These new tools are supposed to increase their quality of life by giving these people the opportunity to recover part of their independence. Therefore, these alternative ways have to be reliable and...

Topological defects and gravity in theories with extra dimensions

Ewald Rössl
Recent proposals of large and infinite extra dimensions triggered a strong research activity in theories in which our universe is considered as a sub-manifold of some higher-dimensional space-time, a so-called 3-brane. In this context, it is generally assumed that some mechanism is at work which binds Standard Model particles to the 3-brane, an effect often referred to as the localization of matter on the brane. Gravity, however, is allowed to propagate in general also in...

Advanced trends in nonlinear optics applied to distributed optical-fibre sensors

Dario Alasia
The distributed optical-fibre sensors based on the properties of Brillouin scattering is the central object of this thesis. In the past decade, optical fibres have gained a large interest as sensors: attractive solutions based on the non-linear stimulated Brillouin scattering have been proposed in the early 90s and the possibility to achieve long-range fully distributed strain measurements has been extensively demonstrated. The Brillouin interaction is responsible for the coupling between two optical waves and an...

Optical properties of In(Ga)As/GaAs quantum dot-based devices emitting at 1.3[mu]m

Alexander Markus
Self-assembled quantum-dots (QDs) represent a distributed ensemble of zero dimensional structures with a near-singular density of states. Implemented as the active medium in a diode laser their unique properties lead to improved and often novel characteristics as compared to bulk or quantum-well (QW) devices. In particular In(Ga)As QD lasers on GaAs substrates are of largest interest as the spectral range of their emission wavelength reaches further into the infrared than that of QW lasers of...

Characterization of electrical discharge machining plasmas

Antoine Descoeudres
Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) is a well-known machining technique since more than fifty years. Its principle is to use the eroding effect on the electrodes of successive electric spark discharges created in a dielectric liquid. EDM is nowadays widely-used in a large number of industrial areas. Nevertheless, few studies have been done on the discharge itself and on the plasma created during this process. Further improvements of EDM, especially for micro-machining, require a better control...

Gravitating field-theoretical branes and their excitations

Katarzyna Zuleta Estrugo
This thesis is devoted to studying field-theoretical branes in warped geometries, with emphasis on brane excitations and properties of background solutions. Firstly, we examine the features of a model in which our universe is represented by a local string-like defect embedded in a six-dimensional space-time with warped geometry. We demonstrate that in order to satisfy the dominant energy condition, the metric exterior to the defect's core must depend on its thickness. As a result of...

Contextualized and personalized location-based services

Shijun Yu
Advances in the technologies of smart mobile devices and tiny sensors together with the increase in the number of web resources open up a plethora of new mobile information services where people can acquire and disseminate information at any place and any time. Location-based services (LBS) are characterized by providing users with useful and local information, i.e. information that belongs to a particular domain of interest to the user and can be of use while...

Oleaginous plant seeds and seed by-products for water treatment

Julien Boucher
The treatment of water is needed for the supply of adequate quantity and quality of drinking water, as well as before the discharge of wastewater to the environment. Treatment technologies are often costly, involve chemicals that may have detrimental effects to health and the environment, or may not be available locally. Consequently, there is a need to find sustainable alternative technologies, adapted for small-scale water treatment units and for developing countries. Oleaginous plant seeds represent...

Web-based tools for energy management in large companies applied to food industry

Damien Muller
This thesis presents a methodology for energy management in large companies and its implementation through a web application and through a prototype of a simulation platform. By combining existing tools in an innovative manner and by making use of recent web technology developments, the methodology adopted provides engineers and managers with tools capable of guaranteeing an efficient and sustainable energy management. Although the methodology presented in this work is based on the experience acquired in...

Classification with class-independent quality information for biometric verification

Krzysztof M. Kryszczuk
Biometric identity verification systems frequently face the challenges of non-controlled conditions of data acquisition. Under such conditions biometric signals may suffer from quality degradation due to extraneous, identity-independent factors. It has been demonstrated in numerous reports that a degradation of biometric signal quality is a frequent cause of significant deterioration of classification performance, also in multiple-classifier, multimodal systems, which systematically outperform their single-classifier counterparts. Seeking to improve the robustness of classifiers to degraded data quality,...

The role of the electric field in simulations of plasma microturbulence

Paolo Angelino
The ultimate goal of magnetic confinement fusion research is to develop an electricity producing power plant based on thermonuclear fusion reactions. Among the most promising magnetic confinement devices, as leading concepts for future power plants, are tokamaks. Plasma turbulence typically produces much larger rates of particle and energy diffusion than one would otherwise expect (for example taking into account only collisions between particles), and is a main source of present-day difficulties in achieving controlled fusion....

MR-compatible robotics to investigate human motor control

Roger Gassert
Robotic interfaces can dynamically interact with humans performing movements and can be used to study neuromuscular adaptation. Such devices can produce computer controlled dynamics during movement and measure the interaction force and movement trajectory. On the other hand, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can provide insight into the functional organization and plasticity of the brain. Using a robotic interface in conjunction with fMRI could allow neuroscientists to investigate the brain mechanisms of manipulation and motor...

Biomimetic catalysis with immobilized transition metal complexes

Alexander Schiller
The tetradentate chelate ligand tris[(1-vinylimidazol-2-yl)methyl]amine (10) was synthesized in five steps from commercially available starting materials. Upon reaction with MCl2 (M = Zn, Cu, Ni, Co) in the presence of NH4PF6, the complexes [M(10)Cl]PF6 (M = Zn (11), Cu (12), Co (14)) and [Ni(10)Cl]2(PF6)2 (13) were obtained. The structure of all complexes was determined by single crystal X-ray crystallography. Immobilization of 11 and 12 was achieved by copolymerization with ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) to obtain P11-Zn...

Multilevel preconditioners for elliptic problems with multiple scales

Klaus Sapelza
The purpose of this thesis is to investigate methods for the solution of multiscale problems both from the mathematical and numerical point of view, with a particular concern on applications to flows through heterogeneous porous media. After an overview of the recent developments in this vast field, a study of two representative multiscale techniques is carried out. The multiscale finite element method and a conjugate gradient iterative method preconditioned with an overlapping Schwarz domain decomposition...

Modelling the IEEE 802.11 protocol in wireless multi-hop networks

Mathilde Durvy
IEEE 802.11 is probably the most widely used, medium access control protocol in current wireless networks. In the Wireless LAN (i.e., single-hop) setting, its performance is by now quite well understood. However, in the multi-hop setting where relay nodes are used to achieve end-to-end communication, there is, to date, no widely accepted model. Consequently, when confronted with experimental results, people often find it hard to interpret them. The goals of this thesis are (i) to...

Organic pollutants in Swiss compost and digestate

Rahel Christine Brändli
Composting (aerobic treatment of organic wastes) and digestion (anaerobic treatment of organic wastes combined with biogas production) are important waste management strategies with increasing significance in the European Union and Switzerland. Most of the compost produced is applied to agricultural soils, which hereby recycles nutrients and influences soil properties beneficially. However, compost can contain pollutants that may be hazardous for the soil ecosystem. The problem related to heavy metals had been recognised and measures for...

Low firing temperature thick-film piezoresistive composites:properties and conduction mechanism

Sonia Vionnet Menot
Thick-film technology has found applications on miniaturised hybrid circuits in various fields (automotive electronics, televisions, ...). This technology is also now widely used for the fabrication of force and pressure sensors that use the piezoresistive properties of thick-film resistors. The goal of this work has been generated by the fact that usual piezoresistive pastes / inks were optimised for applications on alumina, which is the standard substrate for thick-film technology, but ill suited for more...

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