459 Works

Ecological response of tree saplings to simulated climate change along an elevational gradient (CLIMARBRE)

María Paula Sanginés De Cárcer
Switzerland will face higher temperature increases than the global average, which will have strong impacts on the mountain ecosystems. How tree species will respond to future climate change scenarios, and what mechanisms will they adopt, remains as a gap of knowledge in ecological research. Foresters will have to make short-term decisions and plan future managements under the great uncertainty of climate change and they demand answers to know if the current species will cope with...

Deciphering the subcapsular epithelial cells in human fetal and postnatal thymus

Diane Sophie Elodie Hemon
Most papers related to thymus focus on the cortical and medullary epithelial cells whereas the subcapsular layer is ignored. In this thesis, we are providing new informations about the subcapsular thymic epithelial cells (TECs) by comparing them to cortical TECs, medullary TECs, Hassall's corpuscles (HCs) and the epidermis. We have demonstrated that TECs located in the subcapsular region are polarized cells adhering to an organized basement membrane and that they are interconnected in a tridimensional...

Modelling Architecture Styles

Anastasia Mavridou
Software systems tend to increase over time in size and complexity. Their development usually spans a long period of time and often results in systems that are hard to understand, debug and maintain. Architectures are common means for organising coordination between components in order to build complex systems and make them manageable. They allow thinking on a higher plane and avoiding low-level mistakes. Grouping architectures that share common characteristics into architecture styles assists component re-use...

Inferring the age and strength of mutations evolving under positive selection

Nicky Louise Ormond
A fundamental goal of population genetics is to determine and quantify the interplay of mutation, natural selection, genetic drift and migration in shaping allelic frequency changes that underpin evolution-ary change. In this dissertation, I present computational, empirical and experimental approaches to address this goal. In the first chapter, I develop an approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) approach that co-estimates the selection strength and age of fixed beneficial mutations in single populations, by integrating a range of...

Exploring the potency of normal and pathological human thymic epithelial cells

Tiphaine Mélodie Chantal Arlabosse
Thymic epithelial cells (TECs) are organised in a unique 3D network that is critical for the development of efficient and self-tolerant T-cells. We report for the first time that the human thymus of all ages, even old and involuted, contains a significant number (up to 30%) of clonogenic TECs with extensive growth potential. All clonogenic TECs derive from a common EpCAM+ precursor, which within 48h in culture undergoes a molecular switch and gives rise to...

A Semantic Framework for Architecture Modelling

Eduard Baranov
Architectures are common means for organising coordination between components in order to build complex systems and to make them manageable. They allow thinking on a higher plane and avoiding low-level mistakes. Architectures provide means for ensuring correctness-by-construction by enforcing global properties characterising the coordination between components. In this work, we consider the following questions of architecture modelling: 1) how to model architectures; 2) how to compose them if several properties enforced by different architectures are...

Models and Algorithms in Biological Network Evolution with Modularity

Min Ye
Networks are commonly used to represent key processes in biology; examples include transcriptional regulatory networks, protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks, metabolic networks, etc. Databases store many such networks, as graphs, observed or inferred. Generative models for these networks have been proposed. For PPI networks, current models are based on duplication and divergence (D&D): a node (gene) is duplicated and inherits some subset of the connections of the original node. An early finding about biological networks is...

Ductility and strain rate-dependency of adhesively-bonded timber joints

Myrsini Angelidi
One of the most important characteristics of load-bearing structures is ductility, i.e. the ability of a material or a structure to sustain inelastic deformation prior to failure, without loss of resistance. The topic of this PhD Thesis was to develop ductile adhesively bonded timber joints, in order to compensate for the inherent lack of ductility of timber. After the rate-dependent true tensile and compressive properties of the acrylic adhesive had been established (including Poisson ratio,...

Functional analysis of Bicc1 and novel interacting proteins in renal tubule cell metabolism and polycystic kidneys

Lucía Carolina Leal Esteban
Genetic disorders known as ciliopathies develop polycystic kidneys, including autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive polycystic kidney diseases (ADPKD and ARPKD). Several signaling pathways including the cAMP/PKA pathway are implicated in driving cystic growth. However, the mechanisms underlying cysts formation is still elusive. Renal cysts also arise in patients and in mouse models with mutations in the RNA-binding protein Bicaudal-C (Bicc1). Bicc1 binds specific mRNAs such as adenylate cyclase VI (AC6) mRNA for translational repression. Conducting...

IRGC Resource guide on Resilience

Marie-Valentine Florin & Igor Linkov
An edited collection of authored pieces comparing, contrasting, and integrating risk and resilience with an emphasis on ways to measure resilience

From 2D to 3D Characterization of Materials Subjected to Extreme Pressure and Temperature Conditions

Farhang Nabiei
Planetesimal were the first planetary objects to form in the solar system, which later grew to make the proto-planets. Most of these bodies were differentiated as a result of internal heating. Several differentiated bodies have, then, been accreted following the giant impacts to create the terrestrial planets. As a result of these impacts, the newly formed Earth was molten and completely differentiated. Subsequent crystallization has given rise to Earth's current structure. In order to bring...

Brain-Controlled Neuroprosthetic Therapies And Mechanisms Of Recovery After Spinal Cord Injury

Galyna Pidpruzhnykova
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is the second leading cause of paralysis, which induces abrupt impairments with devastating consequences for the quality of life of patients. Despite significant progress in SCI treatment through neurorehabilitation training and spinal cord stimulation (SCS) techniques, there is still no cure for SCI and the mechanisms of recovery are poorly understood. My thesis represents a series of studies which investigate the neural mechanisms underlying locomotor recovery after SCI and leverage these...

Stochastic partial differential equations driven by Lévy white noises:generalized random processes, random field solutions and regularity

Thomas Marie Jean-Baptiste Humeau
We study various aspects of stochastic partial differential equations driven by Lévy white noise. This driving noise, which is a generalization of Gaussian white noise, can be viewed either as a generalized random process or as an independently scattered random measure. After unifying these approaches and establishing appropriate stochastic integral representations, we show that a necessary and sufficient condition for a Lévy white noise to have values in the space of tempered Schwartz distributions, is...

Nanoionics Phenomena and Devices with Oxide Thin Films

Mahmoud Hadad
The number of studies on solid state ionic thin films (Nanoionics) has increased dramatically over last decades due to their high potential in micro and nanoscale technologies. Micro solid oxide fuel cells (micro-SOFC), and resistive switching memories (ReRAMs) are the most promising topics in this field, having impacts on portable energy sources, and future non-volatile memories. One can also add the new discovery of giant electrostriction (GES) in Gd-doped ceria (CGO), proposing ion conducting thin...

Spin transport in topological insulator-based nanostructures

Kristina Vaklinova
With the advent of spintronics, significant research effort is made to realize efficient injection, transport, manipulation, and detection of spin. The material platforms and device architectures suitable for this purpose 3D topological insulators (TIs) are a class of Dirac materials, which possess 2D spin-polarized helical surface states due to their strong SO coupling. This property offers research possibilities in several directions, specifically (i) to gain a deeper understanding of the electronic properties of massless Dirac...

Risk Governance Guidelines for Bioenergy Policies

Marie-Valentine Florin, Belinda Cleeland, Chris Bunting, Sam Keam, Céline Chapuis & Alexandre Sabbag
This report comprises an overview of bioenergy developments and policies, a commentary on these developments which highlights some of the opportunities and risks of bioenergy, and presents the International Risk Governance Council’s risk governance guidelines for bioenergy policies.

Functional Characterization of Nucleoid Associated Proteins Acting as Global Transcription Factors in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Nina Theres Odermatt
The fatal lung disease tuberculosis is caused by the airborne Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a versatile pathogen adapted to rapidly changing environments. Instead of being eradicated by phagocytic cells of its human host, bacilli tune macrophages to support their own growth and even mask their presence from the immune system for several decades. Rapid adjustment of gene expression is critical for bacterial survival and heavily relies on nucleoid-associated proteins (NAPs). NAPs contribute to active DNA management by...

Quantum optomechanics at room temperature

Hendrik Schütz
Why are classical theories often sufficient to describe the physics of our world even though everything around us is entirely composed of microscopic quantum systems? The boundary between these two fundamentally dissimilar theories remains an unsolved problem in modern physics. Position measurements of small objects allow us to probe the area where the classical approximation breaks down. In quantum mechanics, Heisenbergâs uncertainty principle dictates that any measurement of the position must be accompanied by measurement...

Spatially explicit modeling of cholera epidemics

Flavio Finger
Understanding the epidemiology of cholera, when and where it occurs and how it spreads, is key to its prevention and control. Models can help to apprehend cholera outbreaks by providing insight into critical epidemiological processes, and may be used to evaluate alternative intervention strategies or to predict the future course of epidemics. This thesis aims at advancing the evolution of spatially explicit epidemiological models of cholera outbreaks through methodological developments and practical applications. Over 160...

Unsteady fluid dynamics around a hovering flat plate wing

Swathi Badala Krishna
Insect flight is characterised by complex time-dependent flows in response to the unsteady wing movements. Biological fliers exploit the unsteady flow fields to modulate aerodynamic forces, thereby displaying unmatched flight performance, especially in hover. Naturally, this has inspired the creation of engineering models to replicate the flight behaviour. An in-depth understanding of the flow fields generated during hover and their dependence on the kinematics is paramount to achieve this goal. The two main kinematic components...

Physical Phenomena in Dynamic Failure of Concrete at the Mesoscale

Okan Yilmaz
The aim of the present thesis is to model numerically the dynamic failure behavior of concrete at the mesoscale. Concrete is the world's most widely used construction material and the structures made of it are subjected to dynamic loads during their long service lives. However, the physical mechanisms leading to its dynamic failure are not well understood. We consider concrete from a mesoscopic point of view, where coarse aggregates, mortar paste and the interfacial transition...

Theories of topologically-induced phenomena in skyrmion-hosting magnetoelectric insulators

Oleksandr Kriuchkov
There once was a harsh competition between different computer memory technologies, and now we cheer triumph for the Random Access-Memory (RAM) devices, -- cheap, fast, tiny, stable. The competing Magnetic Bubble Memory had faded away as magnetic bubbles are undesirably large and pretty much not robust, manifesting both low data density and high operational costs. However, what we do possess now are nanosize objects of topological nature, magnetic skyrmions, which are protected from continuous field...

Human Building Interaction System Design - Energy Awareness and Learning Approach

Nastaran Asadi Zanjani
This thesis presents an outlook to human building interaction. Those interactions happening inside living spaces usually invoke energy consumption. That's why they are important. People are dealing with buildings in order to meet their comfort requirement. The work explores methods giving awareness about energy-related behaviors to people and at the same time an advanced learning system connected to sensors and actuators is designed to learn occupants behaviors inside the buildings. It addresses a bottom-up approach...

Vision-Based Sense and Avoid Algorithms for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

Steven Adriaan Roelofsen
The field of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), also known as drones, is rapidly growing, both in terms of size and of number of applications. Civil applications range from mapping, inspection, search and rescue, taking aerial footage, to art show, entertainment and more. Currently, most applications have a human pilot supervising or controlling the vehicles, but UAVs are expected to gain more autonomy with time. To fly in general airspace, used by both general and commercial...

Diving into the dynamics of product evolution:analyzing technological discontinuities during the era of incremental change and cognitive convergence on a dominant design

Olivier Waeber
Three distinct stages describe the technological evolution of a product over time: ferment, convergence on a dominant design and an era of incremental change. Until recently, the era of incremental change has been characterized as stable and one that involves low levels of technological innovation. However, recent studies have indicated that this era of incremental change may actually be quite disruptive. This raises the question as to which processes and mechanisms in new product development...

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