286,291 Works

Supplementary material from \"The largest early-diverging angiosperm family is mostly pollinated by ovipositing insects and so are most surviving lineages of early angiosperms\"

, Lian-Jie Zhang, , Zhong-Hui Ma, & Susanne S. Renner
Insect pollination in basal angiosperms is assumed to mostly involve ‘generalized' insects looking for food, but direct observation of ANITA grade (283 species) pollinators are sparse. We present new data for numerous Schisandraceae, the largest ANITA family, from fieldwork, nocturnal filming, electron microscopy, barcoding and molecular clocks to infer pollinator/plant interactions over multiple years at sites throughout China to test the extent of pollinator specificity. Schisandraceae are pollinated by nocturnal gall midges that lay eggs...

Supplementary material from \"Parenting behaviour is highly heritable in male stickleback\"

Alison M. Bell, Rebecca Trapp & Jason Keagy
Parental care is critical for fitness, yet little is known about its genetic basis. Here, we estimate the heritability of parenting behaviour in a species famous for its diversity and its behavioural repertoire: three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Male three-spined stickleback are the sole providers of paternal care that is necessary for offspring survival; therefore, this system offers the opportunity to study the inheritance of parental behaviour when selection is primarily acting on males. Fanning behaviour...

Supplementary material from \"Parenting behaviour is highly heritable in male stickleback\"

Alison M. Bell, Rebecca Trapp & Jason Keagy
Parental care is critical for fitness, yet little is known about its genetic basis. Here, we estimate the heritability of parenting behaviour in a species famous for its diversity and its behavioural repertoire: three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Male three-spined stickleback are the sole providers of paternal care that is necessary for offspring survival; therefore, this system offers the opportunity to study the inheritance of parental behaviour when selection is primarily acting on males. Fanning behaviour...

An Eigenvalue test for spatial principal component analysis

&
Abstract Background The spatial Principal Component Analysis (sPCA, Jombart (Heredity 101:92-103, 2008) is designed to investigate non-random spatial distributions of genetic variation. Unfortunately, the associated tests used for assessing the existence of spatial patterns (global and local test; (Heredity 101:92-103, 2008) lack statistical power and may fail to reveal existing spatial patterns. Here, we present a non-parametric test for the significance of specific patterns recovered by sPCA. Results We compared the performance of this new...

Bifunctional enzyme ATIC promotes propagation of hepatocellular carcinoma by regulating AMPK-mTOR-S6 K1 signaling

, , , Ling Zhou, &
Abstract Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the cancer types with poor prognosis. To effectively treat HCC, new molecular targets and therapeutic approaches must be identified. 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase/inosine monophosphate (IMP) cyclohydrolase (ATIC), a bifunctional protein enzyme, catalyzes the last two steps of the de novo purine biosynthetic pathway. Whether ATIC contributes to cancer development remains unclear. Methods ATIC mRNA levels in different types of human HCC samples or normal tissues were determined from...

A two-month follow-up evaluation testing interventions to limit the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistant bacteria among Maasai of northern Tanzania

Casey Roulette, Mark Caudell, Jennifer Roulette, Robert Quinlan, Marsha Quinlan, Murugan Subbiah & Douglas Call
Abstract Background In sub-Saharan Africa, efforts to control antimicrobial resistance (AMR) are aggravated by unregulated drug sales and use, and high connectivity between human, livestock, and wildlife populations. Our previous research indicates that Maasai agropastoralistsâ who have high exposure to livestock and livestock products and self-administer veterinary antibioticsâ harbor antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli). Here, we report the results of a public health intervention project among Maasai aimed at reducing selection and transmission of...

Oligomeric forms of amyloid-β protein in plasma as a potential blood-based biomarker for Alzheimer’s disease

Min Wang, , Jee-Young Han, So Park, , In Chun, Sang Kim, Byoung Lee, Gwang Kim, Ji Yu, , Sung Kang, Young Park, Young Youn, Seong An &
Abstract Background Soluble amyloid-β (Aβ) oligomers are the major toxic substances associated with the pathology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The ability to measure Aβ oligomer levels in the blood would provide simple and minimally invasive tools for AD diagnostics. In the present study, the recently developed Multimer Detection System (MDS) for AD, a new enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for measuring Aβ oligomers selectively, was used to detect Aβ oligomers in the plasma of patients with AD...

Health care professionals’ attitudes towards population-based genetic testing and risk-stratification for ovarian cancer: a cross-sectional survey

Katie Hann, Lindsay Fraser, Lucy Side, Sue Gessler, Jo Waller, Saskia Sanderson, Madeleine Freeman, Ian Jacobs & Anne Lanceley
Abstract Background Ovarian cancer is usually diagnosed at a late stage when outcomes are poor. Personalised ovarian cancer risk prediction, based on genetic and epidemiological information and risk stratified management in adult women could improve outcomes. Examining health care professionals’ (HCP) attitudes to ovarian cancer risk stratified management, willingness to support women, self-efficacy (belief in one’s own ability to successfully complete a task), and knowledge about ovarian cancer will help identify training needs in anticipation...

Construction of a simulation model and evaluation of the effect of potential interventions on the incidence of diabetes and initiation of dialysis due to diabetic nephropathy in Japan

Takehiro Sugiyama, Sayuri Goryoda, Kaori Inoue, Noriko Sugiyama-Ihana & Nobuo Nishi
Abstract Background The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is a growing public health concern in Japan. We developed a simulation model to predict the number of people with diabetes and those on dialysis due to diabetic nephropathy. In addition, we used the model to simulate the impact of possible interventions on the number of people with diabetes and those on dialysis due to diabetic nephropathy in the near future. Methods A simulation model with aging chains...

Low distribution of genes encoding virulence factors in Shigella flexneri serotypes 1b clinical isolates from eastern Chinese populations

, , , Chen Ying, , Song Cheng, Bing Gu & Ping Ma
Abstract Background The ability of Shigella to invade, colonize, and eventually kill host cells is influenced by many virulence factors. However, there is no analysis of related genes in Jiangsu Province of China so far. Shigella flexneri was collected from 13 cities of Jiangsu Province through the provincial Centers for Disease Control (CDC) for analysis of distribution of major virulence genes (ipaH, ipaBCD, ial, virF, virB, sigA, set1A, sepA, sat, pic, set1B and sen) detected...

Additional file 1: Table S1. of Comprehensive analysis of differentially expressed genes associated with PLK1 in bladder cancer

Zhe Zhang, , , , , , , &
The siRNA sequences of the target genes. (DOCX 15Â kb)

A deep sequencing approach to estimate Plasmodium falciparum complexity of infection (COI) and explore apical membrane antigen 1 diversity

Robin Miller, Nicholas Hathaway, Oksana Kharabora, , Antoinette Tshefu, Steven Meshnick, Steve Taylor, Jonathan Juliano, & Jeffrey Bailey
Abstract Background Humans living in regions with high falciparum malaria transmission intensity harbour multi-strain infections comprised of several genetically distinct malaria haplotypes. The number of distinct malaria parasite haplotypes identified from an infected human host at a given time is referred to as the complexity of infection (COI). In this study, an amplicon-based deep sequencing method targeting the Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen 1 (pfama1) was utilized to (1) investigate the relationship between P. falciparum...

Enteral vitamin A for reducing severity of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in extremely preterm infants: a randomised controlled trial

, Sanjay Patole, Karen Simmer &
Abstract Background Intramuscular vitamin A supplementation decreases the risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in very-low-birth-weight preterm infants without significant adverse effects. However, intramuscular vitamin A supplementation is not widely accepted because of the discomfort and risk of trauma associated with repeated injections. Enteral vitamin A supplementation has not been studied adequately in the clinical trials. Enterally administered water-soluble vitamin A is absorbed better than the fat-soluble form. We hypothesised that enteral administration of a water-soluble...

Root cone angle is enlarged in docs1 LRR-RLK mutants in rice

, , , , , , , , , , , , &
Abstract Background The DEFECTIVE IN OUTER CELL LAYER SPECIFICATION 1 (DOCS1) gene belongs to the Leucine-Rich Repeat Receptor-Like Kinase (LRR-RLK) subfamily. It has been discovered few years ago in Oryza sativa (rice) in a screen to isolate mutants with defects in sensitivity to aluminum. The c68 (docs1–1) mutant possessed a nonsense mutation in the C-terminal part of the DOCS1 kinase domain. Findings We have generated a new loss-of-function mutation in the DOCS1 gene (docs1–2) using...

Root cone angle is enlarged in docs1 LRR-RLK mutants in rice

, , , , , , , , , , , , &
Abstract Background The DEFECTIVE IN OUTER CELL LAYER SPECIFICATION 1 (DOCS1) gene belongs to the Leucine-Rich Repeat Receptor-Like Kinase (LRR-RLK) subfamily. It has been discovered few years ago in Oryza sativa (rice) in a screen to isolate mutants with defects in sensitivity to aluminum. The c68 (docs1–1) mutant possessed a nonsense mutation in the C-terminal part of the DOCS1 kinase domain. Findings We have generated a new loss-of-function mutation in the DOCS1 gene (docs1–2) using...

Low-dose lymphocyte immunotherapy rebalances the peripheral blood Th1/Th2/Treg paradigm in patients with unexplained recurrent miscarriage

, Xin Zhen, , , , , , , &
Abstract Background The published results regarding lymphocytes immunotherapy for unexplained recurrent miscarriage (uRM) patients are conflicting due to different screening criteria and therapeutic protocols. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the effectiveness of immunotherapy using low-dose lymphocytes in patients with uRM and Th1/Th2/Treg paradigm disorders. Methods Sixty-four uRM patients who received low-dose lymphocytes immunotherapy served as the immunotherapy group, while the other 35 women who did not receive the treatment served as...

Comprehensive analysis of differentially expressed genes associated with PLK1 in bladder cancer

Zhe Zhang, , , , , , , &
Abstract Background The significance of PLK1 (polo-like kinase 1) has become increasingly essential as both a biomarker and a target for cancer treatment. Here, we aimed to determine the downstream genes of PLK1 and their effects on the carcinogenesis and progression of bladder cancer. Methods Specific siRNA was utilized to silence the target gene expression. The cell proliferation, invasion and migration of bladder cancer cells by MTT assay, BrdU assay and transwell assay. The differential...

Effects of supervised exercise on depressive symptoms in hemodialysis patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Takahiro Shimoda, Ryota Matsuzawa, , Kei Yoneki, , Takaaki Watanabe &
Abstract Background The reported prevalence rate of depressive symptoms in hemodialysis patients is 40%. Although appropriate management of these symptoms is important, they remain under-recognized and under-treated in hemodialysis patients. Here, we systematically reviewed relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the effects of supervised exercise training on depressive symptoms in hemodialysis patients. Methods MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, CINAHL, Web of Science, PsycINFO, and PEDro...

Living with ongoing whiplash associated disorders: a qualitative study of individual perceptions and experiences

Carrie Ritchie, Carolyn Ehrlich & Michele Sterling
Abstract Background Whiplash associated disorders (WAD) are the most common non-hospitalised injury resulting from a motor vehicle crash. Approximately 50% of individuals with WAD experience on-going pain and disability. Results from intervention trials for individuals with chronic WAD are equivocal and optimal treatment continues to be a challenge. It may be that traditional quantitative measures included in treatment trials have not captured the full benefits patients experience through participation in an intervention. The aim of...

Feasibility and acceptability of two incentive-based implementation strategies for mental health therapists implementing cognitive-behavioral therapy: a pilot study to inform a randomized controlled trial

, Emily Becker-Haimes, Danielle Adams, Laura Skriner, Rebecca Stewart, Courtney Wolk, Alison Buttenheim, Nathaniel Williams, Patricia Inacker, Elizabeth Richey & Steven Marcus
Abstract Background Informed by our prior work indicating that therapists do not feel recognized or rewarded for implementation of evidence-based practices, we tested the feasibility and acceptability of two incentive-based implementation strategies that seek to improve therapist adherence to cognitive-behavioral therapy for youth, an evidence-based practice. Methods This study was conducted over 6 weeks in two community mental health agencies with therapists (n = 11) and leaders (n = 4). Therapists were randomized to receive either a financial or...

Posterior atrophy predicts time to dementia in patients with amyloid-positive mild cognitive impairment

Jung-Min Pyun, Young Park, , , Min Kang, Beom Kim, Young Youn, &
Abstract Background In patients with amyloid-positive mild cognitive impairment (MCI), neurodegenerative biomarkers such as medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) are useful to predict disease progression to dementia. Although posterior atrophy (PA) is a well-known neurodegenerative biomarker of Alzheimer’s disease, little is known about PA as a predictor in patients with amyloid-positive MCI. Methods We included 258 patients with amyloid-positive MCI with at least one follow-up visit, and who had low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) β-amyloid1–42 concentration....

Helios + Regulatory T cell frequencies are correlated with control of viral replication and recovery of absolute CD4 T cells counts in early HIV-1 infection

Raquel Matavele Chissumba, Eduardo Namalango, , Ivalda Macicame, , Christina Polyak, Merlin Robb, Nelson Michael, & Luc Kestens
Abstract Background The acute phase of HIV infection is characterized by massive depletion of CD4 T cells, high viral plasma levels and pronounced systemic immune activation. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) have the potential to control systemic immune activation but also to suppress antigen specific T and B cell response. The co-expression of FoxP3 and Helios transcription factors, has been described for identification of highly suppressive Tregs. The aim of this study was to characterize the...

The influence of HK2 blood group antigen on human B cell activation for ABOi-KT conditions

, , , & Yi Wang
Abstract Background It is well known that ABO blood group system incompatible kidney transplantation (ABOi-KT) is an effective strategy for end-stage renal disease. The main barrier for ABOi-KT is how to keep host B cell activation and blood group antibody titer in low levels. Moreover, the mechanism of B cell activation induced by blood group antigen was unclear in ABOi-KT. Results In this study, HK2 cells were identified to express blood group B antigen when...

Helios + Regulatory T cell frequencies are correlated with control of viral replication and recovery of absolute CD4 T cells counts in early HIV-1 infection

Raquel Matavele Chissumba, Eduardo Namalango, , Ivalda Macicame, , Christina Polyak, Merlin Robb, Nelson Michael, & Luc Kestens
Abstract Background The acute phase of HIV infection is characterized by massive depletion of CD4 T cells, high viral plasma levels and pronounced systemic immune activation. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) have the potential to control systemic immune activation but also to suppress antigen specific T and B cell response. The co-expression of FoxP3 and Helios transcription factors, has been described for identification of highly suppressive Tregs. The aim of this study was to characterize the...

Comparison of weighting approaches for genetic risk scores in gene-environment interaction studies

Anke Hüls, Ursula Krämer, Christopher Carlsten, Tamara Schikowski, Katja Ickstadt & Holger Schwender
Abstract Background Weighted genetic risk scores (GRS), defined as weighted sums of risk alleles of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), are statistically powerful for detection gene-environment (GxE) interactions. To assign weights, the gold standard is to use external weights from an independent study. However, appropriate external weights are not always available. In such situations and in the presence of predominant marginal genetic effects, we have shown in a previous study that GRS with internal weights from...

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