286,291 Works

A comparative assessment of the glucose monitor (SD Codefree) and auto analyzer (BT-3000) in measuring blood glucose concentration among diabetic patients

Osman Kanwugu, Gideon Helegbe, Paul Aryee, Nathaniel Akontatiba, Jacob Ankrah, , Frank Anaba & Benjamin Ahenkora
Abstract Objective The aim of this study was to determine how well the measurements from a glucometer (SD Codefree) correlated with those from a standard auto analyser (BT-3000) using blood samples from diabetic and non-diabetic patients at the Bolgatanga Regional Hospital in Ghana. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a total of 150 randomly selected patients; 100 diabetic patients (4 type 1 and 96 type II) and 50 non diabetic patients. Ante-cubital venous and finger...

Pulmonary challenge with carbon nanoparticles induces a dose-dependent increase in circulating leukocytes in healthy males

Marieke Berger, Johannes De Boer, René Lutter, Michiel Makkee, Peter Sterk, Elles Kemper & Jaring Van Der Zee
Abstract Background Inhalation of particulate matter, as part of air pollution, is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Nanoparticles (< 100 nm) are likely candidates for triggering inflammatory responses and activation of coagulation pathways because of their ability to enter lung cells and pass bronchial mucosa. We tested the hypothesis that bronchial segmental instillation of carbon nanoparticles causes inflammation and activation of coagulation pathways in healthy humans in vivo. Methods This was an investigator-initiated, randomized...

Source area of the 1858 earthquake swarm in the central Ryukyu Islands revealed by the observations of Father Louis Furet

Takuma Oda & Mamoru Nakamura
Abstract We estimated the location and magnitude of earthquakes constituting the 1858 earthquake swarm in the central Ryukyu Islands using the felt earthquakes recorded by Father Louis Furet who lived in Naha, Okinawa Island, in the middle of the nineteenth century. First, we estimated the JMA seismic intensity of the earthquakes by interpreting the words used to describe the shaking. Next, using the seismic intensity and shaking duration of the felt earthquakes, we estimated the...

Priming astrocytes with TNF enhances their susceptibility to Trypanosoma cruzi infection and creates a self-sustaining inflammatory milieu

Andrea Silva, Rafael Silva, Daniel Gibaldi, Rafael Mariante, Jessica Dos Santos, Isabela Pereira, &
Abstract Background In conditions of immunosuppression, the central nervous sty 5ystem (CNS) is the main target tissue for the reactivation of infection by Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease. In experimental T. cruzi infection, interferon gamma (IFNγ)+ microglial cells surround astrocytes harboring amastigote parasites. In vitro, IFNγ fuels astrocyte infection by T. cruzi, and IFNγ-stimulated infected astrocytes are implicated as potential sources of tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Pro-inflammatory cytokines trigger behavioral alterations. In...

Perilipin-2 modulates dietary fat-induced microbial global gene expression profiles in the mouse intestine

, Elise Bales, Diana Ir, Charles Robertson, James McManaman, Daniel Frank & John Parkinson
Abstract Background Intestinal microbiota are critical determinants of obesity and metabolic disease risk. In previous work, we showed that deletion of the cytoplasmic lipid droplet (CLD) protein perilipin-2 (Plin2) modulates gut microbial community structure and abrogates long-term deleterious effects of a high-fat (HF) diet in mice. However, the impact of Plin2 on microbiome function is unknown. Results Here, we used metatranscriptomics to identify differences in microbiome transcript expression in WT and Plin2-null mice following acute...

De novo assembly of Phlomis purpurea after challenging with Phytophthora cinnamomi

, Dina Neves, Francisco GarcĂ­A-Breijo, Maria Pais & Alfredo Cravador
Abstract Background Phlomis plants are a source of biological active substances with potential applications in the control of phytopathogens. Phlomis purpurea (Lamiaceae) is autochthonous of southern Iberian Peninsula and Morocco and was found to be resistant to Phytophthora cinnamomi. Phlomis purpurea has revealed antagonistic effect in the rhizosphere of Quercus suber and Q. ilex against P. cinnamomi. Phlomis purpurea roots produce bioactive compounds exhibiting antitumor and anti-Phytophthora activities with potential to protect susceptible plants. Although...

Increasing the field of view of adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy

Marie Laslandes, Matthias Salas, Christoph Hitzenberger & Michael Pircher
An adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AO-SLO) set-up with two deformable mirrors (DM) is presented. It allows high resolution imaging of the retina on a 4°x4° field of view (FoV), considering a 7 mm pupil diameter at the entrance of the eye. Imaging on such a FoV, which is larger compared to classical AO-SLO instruments, is allowed by the use of the two DMs. The first DM is located in a plane that is conjugated...

BRAIN Journal - Conscience in Language Teaching and its Relationship with Language Proficiency and Emotional Intelligence of EFL Teachers

Sedighe Jalili Kalangestani
The present study aimed to explore the relationship among Iranian EFL teachers’ language teaching conscience, language proficiency, and emotional intelligence. To this purpose, 82 homogenized language teachers, M.A. students and M.A. holders in TEFL, English literature, and English translation, both males and females, were taken as the participants. The result of the data analysis showed that there was a statistically significant relationship between the language teaching conscience and the emotional intelligence of Iranian EFL teachers,...

Supplementary material from \"Ribosome flow model with extended objects\"

Yoram Zarai, Michael Margaliot & Tamir Tuller
We study a deterministic mechanistic model for the flow of ribosomes along the mRNA molecule, called the ribosome flow model with extended objects (RFMEO). This model encapsulates many realistic features of translation including non-homogeneous transition rates along the mRNA, the fact that every ribosome covers several codons, and the fact that ribosomes cannot overtake one another. The RFMEO is a mean-field approximation of an important model from statistical mechanics called the totally asymmetric simple exclusion...

Ten years analysis of stillbirth in a tertiary hospital in sub-Sahara Africa: a case control study

Paul Tolefac, Rita Tamambang, Eugene Yeika, Lawrence Mbwagbaw & Thomas Egbe
Abstract Objective Stillbirth measures provide means to assess adequacy of maternal and perinatal care in a given population. The aim of this study was to describe the determinants of stillbirth in Douala general hospital, Cameroon. Results Determinants of stillbirth in this hospital are: maternal age ≥35 years (OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.26–2.54, p = 0.001), pre-eclampsia/eclampsia (OR 2.97, 95% CI 0.87–8.89, p value of 0.03), diabetes in pregnancy (OR 9.97, 95% CI 1.15–86.86, p =...

SPEN, a new player in primary cilia formation and cell migration in breast cancer

Stéphanie Légaré, Catherine Chabot & Mark Basik
Abstract Background The primary cilium is a microtubule-based and nonmotile organelle functioning as a cellular antenna that is involved in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, and migration. In breast cancer cells, the primary cilium is a structure that decreases in incidence with increasing degrees of transformation and may be biologically more important in estrogen receptor (ERα)-negative breast cancer cells. Split ends (SPEN) is an ERα corepressor that we have identified as a tumor suppressor...

Evaluating the role of Pleistocene refugia, rivers and environmental variation in the diversification of central African duikers (genera Cephalophus and Philantomba)

Stephan Ntie, Anne Davis, Katrin Hils, Patrick Mickala, Henri Thomassen, Katy Morgan, Hadrien Vanthomme, Mary Gonder & Nicola Anthony
Abstract Background This study aims to assess the role that Pleistocene refugia, rivers and local habitat conditions may have played in the evolutionary diversification of three central African duiker species (Cephalophus dorsalis, C. callipygus and Philantomba monticola). Genetic data from geo-referenced feces were collected from a wide range of sites across Central Africa. Historical patterns of population genetic structure were assessed using a ~ 650 bp fragment of the mitochondrial control region and contemporary patterns...

Dual RNA-seq reveals no plastic transcriptional response of the coccidian parasite Eimeria falciformis to host immune defenses

, Simone Spork, Christoph Dieterich, Richard Lucius & Emanuel Heitlinger
Abstract Background Parasites can either respond to differences in immune defenses that exist between individual hosts plastically or, alternatively, follow a genetically canalized (“hard wired”) program of infection. Assuming that large-scale functional plasticity would be discernible in the parasite transcriptome we have performed a dual RNA-seq study of the lifecycle of Eimeria falciformis using infected mice with different immune status as models for coccidian infections. Results We compared parasite and host transcriptomes (dual transcriptome) between...

Effect of maternal vitamin D3 supplementation on maternal health, birth outcomes, and infant growth among HIV-infected Tanzanian pregnant women: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

Christopher Sudfeld, Karim Manji, Christopher Duggan, Said Aboud, Alfa Muhihi, David Sando, , &
Abstract Background Vitamin D has significant immunomodulatory effects on both adaptive and innate immune responses. Observational studies indicate that adults infected with HIV with low vitamin D status may be at increased risk of mortality, pulmonary tuberculosis, and HIV disease progression. Growing observational evidence also suggests that low vitamin D status in pregnancy may increase the risk of adverse birth and infant health outcomes. As a result, antiretroviral therapy (ART) adjunct vitamin D3 supplementation may...

A yeast fermentate improves gastrointestinal discomfort and constipation by modulation of the gut microbiome: results from a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled pilot trial

Iris Pinheiro, Larry Robinson, An Verhelst, Massimo Marzorati, Björn Winkens, Pieter Abbeele & Sam Possemiers
Abstract Background Constipation and symptoms of gastrointestinal discomfort such as bloating are common among otherwise healthy individuals, but with significant impact on quality of life. Despite the recognized contribution of the gut microbiome to this pathology, little is known about which group(s) of microorganism(s) are playing a role. A previous study performed in vitro suggests that EpiCor® fermentate has prebiotic-like properties, being able to favorably modulate the composition of the gut microbiome. Therefore, the aim...

Plasmodium vivax genetic diversity and heterozygosity in blood samples and resulting oocysts at the Thai–Myanmar border

, Chiara Andolina, Richard Paul, Nicholas Day, , Charles Woodrow & Mallika Imwong
Abstract Background Polyclonal blood-stage infections of Plasmodium vivax are frequent even in low transmission settings, allowing meiotic recombination between heterologous parasites. Empirical data on meiotic products are however lacking. This study examined microsatellites in oocysts derived by membrane feeding of mosquitoes from blood-stage P. vivax infections at the Thai–Myanmar border. Methods Blood samples from patients presenting with vivax malaria were fed to Anopheles cracens by membrane feeding and individual oocysts from midguts were obtained by...

The SPARK Tool to prioritise questions for systematic reviews in health policy and systems research: development and initial validation

Elie Akl, Racha Fadlallah, Lilian Ghandour, Ola Kdouh, Etienne Langlois, John Lavis, Holger SchĂźnemann & Fadi El-Jardali
Abstract Background Groups or institutions funding or conducting systematic reviews in health policy and systems research (HPSR) should prioritise topics according to the needs of policymakers and stakeholders. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a tool to prioritise questions for systematic reviews in HPSR. Methods We developed the tool following a four-step approach consisting of (1) the definition of the purpose and scope of tool, (2) item generation and reduction, (3)...

Pre-pregnancy weight, gestational weight gain, and the gut microbiota of mothers and their infants

Maggie Stanislawski, Dana Dabelea, Brandie Wagner, Marci Sontag, Catherine Lozupone & Merete Eggesbø
Abstract Background Recent evidence supports that the maternal gut microbiota impacts the initial infant gut microbiota. Since the gut microbiota may play a causal role in the development of obesity, it is important to understand how pre-pregnancy weight and gestational weight gain (GWG) impact the gut microbiota of mothers at the time of delivery and their infants in early life. In this study, we performed 16S rRNA gene sequencing on gut microbiota samples from 169...

Pessary or Progesterone to Prevent Preterm delivery in women with short cervical length: the Quadruple P randomised controlled trial

Maud Van Zijl, Bouchra Koullali, Christiana Naaktgeboren, Ewoud Schuit, Dick Bekedam, Etelka Moll, Martijn Oudijk, Wilhelmina Van Baal, Marjon De Boer, Henricus Visser, Joris Van Drongelen, Flip Van De Made, Karlijn Vollebregt, Moira Muller, Mireille Bekker, Jozien Brons, Marieke Sueters, , Maureen Franssen, Nico Schuitemaker, Erik Van Beek, Hubertina Scheepers, Karin De Boer, Eveline Tepe, … & Eva Pajkrt
Abstract Background Preterm birth is in quantity and in severity the most important topic in obstetric care in the developed world. Progestogens and cervical pessaries have been studied as potential preventive treatments with conflicting results. So far, no study has compared both treatments. Methods/design The Quadruple P study aims to compare the efficacy of vaginal progesterone and cervical pessary in the prevention of adverse perinatal outcome associated with preterm birth in asymptomatic women with a...


Ilan Benjamin & John Karnes
Animation of the ethanol/silica liquid/solid interface. (November 2016)

Incorporating genomic, transcriptomic and clinical data: a prognostic and stem cell-like MYC and PRC imbalance in high-risk neuroblastoma

, , & John Cunningham
Abstract Background Previous studies suggested that cancer cells possess traits reminiscent of the biological mechanisms ascribed to normal embryonic stem cells (ESCs) regulated by MYC and Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2). Several poorly differentiated adult tumors showed preferentially high expression levels in targets of MYC, coincident with low expression levels in targets of PRC2. This paper will reveal this ESC-like cancer signature in high-risk neuroblastoma (HR-NB), the most common extracranial solid tumor in children. Methods...

Using machine learning algorithms to identify genes essential for cell survival

Santosh Philips, Heng-Yi Wu & Lang Li
Abstract Background With the explosion of data comes a proportional opportunity to identify novel knowledge with the potential for application in targeted therapies. In spite of this huge amounts of data, the solutions to treating complex disease is elusive. One reason being that these diseases are driven by a network of genes that need to be targeted in order to understand and treat them effectively. Part of the solution lies in mining and integrating information...

Identification of common oncogenic and early developmental pathways in the ovarian carcinomas controlling by distinct prognostically significant microRNA subsets

Vladimir Kuznetsov, & Anna Ivshina
Abstract Background High-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HG-SOC) is the dominant tumor histologic type in epithelial ovarian cancers, exhibiting highly aberrant microRNA expression profiles and diverse pathways that collectively determine the disease aggressiveness and clinical outcomes. However, the functional relationships between microRNAs, the common pathways controlled by the microRNAs and their prognostic and therapeutic significance remain poorly understood. Methods We investigated the gene expression patterns of microRNAs in the tumors of 582 HG-SOC patients to identify...

Weekday snacking prevalence, frequency, and energy contribution have increased while foods consumed during snacking have shifted among Australian children and adolescents: 1995, 2007 and 2011–12 National Nutrition Surveys

Flávia Fayet-Moore, Véronique Peters, Andrew McConnell, Peter Petocz & Alison Eldridge
Abstract Background There are limited data on the evolution of eating habits, including snacking, in Australia. This study aimed to understand snacking trends among Australian children over three previous National Nutrition Surveys. Methods Data were analysed from a single weekday 24-h recall in the National Nutrition Surveys 1995, 2007, 2011–12 among children 2-16y (n = 8258). A snacking occasion was defined as an eating occasion that occurred between meals based on time of day. Results...

Metabolic network model guided engineering ethylmalonyl-CoA pathway to improve ascomycin production in Streptomyces hygroscopicus var. ascomyceticus

, Cheng Wang, &
Abstract Background Ascomycin is a 23-membered polyketide macrolide with high immunosuppressant and antifungal activity. As the lower production in bio-fermentation, global metabolic analysis is required to further explore its biosynthetic network and determine the key limiting steps for rationally engineering. To achieve this goal, an engineering approach guided by a metabolic network model was implemented to better understand ascomycin biosynthesis and improve its production. Results The metabolic conservation of Streptomyces species was first investigated by...

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