60,810 Works

Supplementary material from \"Model recommendations meet management reality: implementation and evaluation of a network-informed vaccination effort for endangered Hawaiian monk seals\"

Stacie J. Robinson, Michelle M. Barbieri, Samantha Murphy, Jason D. Baker, Albert L. Harting, & Charles L. Littnan
Where disease threatens endangered wildlife populations, substantial resources are required for management actions such as vaccination. While network models provide a promising tool for identifying key spreaders and prioritizing efforts to maximize efficiency, population-scale vaccination remains rare, providing few opportunities to evaluate performance of model-informed strategies under realistic scenarios. Because the endangered Hawaiian monk seal could be heavily impacted by disease threats such as morbillivirus, we implemented a prophylactic vaccination programme. We used contact networks...

Correlation between mutations and mRNA expression of APC and MUTYH genes: new insight into hereditary colorectal polyposis predisposition

Gitana Aceto, Fabiana Fantini, Sabrina De Iure, Marta Di Nicola, Giandomenico Palka, Rosa Valanzano, Patrizia Di Gregorio, Vittoria Stigliano, Maurizio Genuardi, Pasquale Battista, Alessandro Cama & Maria Curia
Abstract Background Transcript dosage imbalance may influence the transcriptome. To gain insight into the role of altered gene expression in hereditary colorectal polyposis predisposition, in the present study we analyzed absolute and allele-specific expression (ASE) of adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) and mutY Homolog (MUTYH) genes. Methods We analyzed DNA and RNA extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of 49 familial polyposis patients and 42 healthy blood donors selected according similar gender and age. Patients...

Subjective burden among spousal and adult-child informal caregivers of older adults: results from a longitudinal cohort study

Marloes Oldenkamp, , Joris Slaets, Ronald Stolk, Rafael Wittek & Nynke Smidt
Abstract Background Pressures on informal caregivers are likely to increase due to increasing life expectancy and health care costs, which stresses the importance of prevention of subjective burden. The present study examined the correlates of overall subjective burden and multiple burden dimensions among spousal and adult-child caregivers of Dutch older adults, both cross-sectional and longitudinal (12-months follow-up). Methods In 2010 and 2011 baseline and follow-up data was collected in a sample of informal caregivers and...

Capturing patients’ needs in casemix: a systematic literature review on the value of adding functioning information in reimbursement systems

Maren Hopfe, Gerold Stucki, , Conal Twomey, & Birgit Prodinger
Abstract Background Contemporary casemix systems for health services need to ensure that payment rates adequately account for actual resource consumption based on patients’ needs for services. It has been argued that functioning information, as one important determinant of health service provision and resource use, should be taken into account when developing casemix systems. However, there has to date been little systematic collation of the evidence on the extent to which the addition of functioning information...

Metagenomic and metatranscriptomic inventories of the lower Amazon River, May 2011

Brandon Satinsky, Caroline Fortunato, Mary Doherty, Christa Smith, , Nicholas Ward, Alex Krusche, Patricia Yager, Jeffrey Richey, Mary Moran & Byron Crump
Abstract Background The Amazon River runs nearly 6500 km across the South American continent before emptying into the western tropical North Atlantic Ocean. In terms of both volume and watershed area, it is the world’s largest riverine system, affecting elemental cycling on a global scale. Results A quantitative inventory of genes and transcripts benchmarked with internal standards was obtained at five stations in the lower Amazon River during May 2011. At each station, metagenomes and...

Automation of antimicrobial activity screening

Samuel Forry, Megan Madonna, , Nancy Lin & Madeleine Pasco
Abstract Manual and automated methods were compared for routine screening of compounds for antimicrobial activity. Automation generally accelerated assays and required less user intervention while producing comparable results. Automated protocols were validated for planktonic, biofilm, and agar cultures of the oral microbe Streptococcus mutans that is commonly associated with tooth decay. Toxicity assays for the known antimicrobial compound cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) were validated against planktonic, biofilm forming, and 24 h biofilm culture conditions, and several...

PAX7 is required for patterning the esophageal musculature

Daisuke Chihara, Anthony Romer, , Michael Rudnicki & Robert Krauss
Abstract Background The mammalian esophageal musculature is unique in that it makes a transition from smooth to skeletal muscle, with most of this process occurring after birth. In order to better understand the mechanisms that control esophageal musculature development, we investigated the roles in this process of the paired box transcription factor, PAX7, a principal regulator of skeletal myogenic progenitor cells. Previous studies showed that Pax7 is important for determining the esophageal muscle composition. Results...

Enrichment dynamics of Listeria monocytogenes and the associated microbiome from naturally contaminated ice cream linked to a listeriosis outbreak

Andrea Ottesen, , Elizabeth Reed, James White, Nur Hasan, , Gina Ryan, Karen Jarvis, Christopher Grim, , Darcy Hanes, Marc Allard, Rita Colwell, Eric Brown & Yi Chen
Abstract Background Microbiota that co-enrich during efforts to recover pathogens from foodborne outbreaks interfere with efficient detection and recovery. Here, dynamics of co-enriching microbiota during recovery of Listeria monocytogenes from naturally contaminated ice cream samples linked to an outbreak are described for three different initial enrichment formulations used by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the International Organization of Standardization (ISO), and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Enrichment cultures were analyzed using DNA...

Whole mitochondrial genomes unveil the impact of domestication on goat matrilineal variability

Licia Colli, , Irene Cardinali, Anna Olivieri, Marco Capodiferro, Marco Pellecchia, Marcin Rzepus, Wahid Zamani, , Francesca Gandini, Seyed Vahidi, Saif Agha, Ettore Randi, Vincenza Battaglia, Maria Sardina, Baldassare Portolano, Hamid Rezaei, Petros Lymberakis, Frédéric Boyer, Eric Coissac, François Pompanon, Pierre Taberlet, Paolo Ajmone Marsan & Alessandro Achilli
Abstract Background The current extensive use of the domestic goat (Capra hircus) is the result of its medium size and high adaptability as multiple breeds. The extent to which its genetic variability was influenced by early domestication practices is largely unknown. A common standard by which to analyze maternally-inherited variability of livestock species is through complete sequencing of the entire mitogenome (mitochondrial DNA, mtDNA). Results We present the first extensive survey of goat mitogenomic variability...

The effectiveness of interventions to treat obesity in survivors of childhood brain tumors: a systematic review protocol

, Marlie Valencia, Laura Banfield, Ruth Chau, Adam Fleming, Sheila Singh, Sarah Burrow, Russell De Souza, &
Abstract Background Pediatric brain tumors are the most common solid tumors in children. Advances in understanding the hallmarks of cancer biology and novel therapies have led to an increasing number of survivors of childhood brain tumors (SCBT). However, these survivors are at an increased risk of obesity and cardiometabolic disorders that affect their quality of life and lifespan. It is important to define effective strategies to treat and prevent obesity in this population. This systematic...

Social structure and Escherichia coli sharing in a group-living wild primate, Verreaux’s sifaka

Andrea Springer, Alexander Mellmann, Claudia Fichtel & Peter Kappeler
Abstract Background Epidemiological models often use information on host social contacts to predict the potential impact of infectious diseases on host populations and the efficiency of control measures. It can be difficult, however, to determine whether social contacts are actually meaningful predictors of transmission. We investigated the role of host social structure in the transmission of Escherichia coli in a wild population of primates, Verreaux’s sifakas (Propithecus verreauxi). Using multilocus sequence typing (MLST), we compared...

Evaluation of forensic DNA mixture evidence: protocol for evaluation, interpretation, and statistical calculations using the combined probability of inclusion

Frederick Bieber, John Buckleton, Bruce Budowle, John Butler & Michael Coble
Abstract Background The evaluation and interpretation of forensic DNA mixture evidence faces greater interpretational challenges due to increasingly complex mixture evidence. Such challenges include: casework involving low quantity or degraded evidence leading to allele and locus dropout; allele sharing of contributors leading to allele stacking; and differentiation of PCR stutter artifacts from true alleles. There is variation in statistical approaches used to evaluate the strength of the evidence when inclusion of a specific known individual(s)...

A potent anti-inflammatory peptide from the salivary glands of horsefly

Lin Wei, , , Min Li, , Xue Qiao, , Fei Xiong, Jing Wu & Wei Xu
Abstract Background A diverse group of physiologically active peptides/proteins are present in the salivary glands of horsefly Tabanus yao (Diptera, Tabanidae) that facilitate acquisition of blood meal. However, their roles in the regulation of local inflammation remains poorly understood. Methods Induction expression profiles of immune-related molecules in the salivary glands of T. yao was analyzed by quantitative PCR (qPCR) after bacterial feeding. A significantly up-regulated molecule (cecropin-TY1) was selected for anti-inflammatory assay in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated...

Autoimmune inner ear disease in a melanoma patient treated with pembrolizumab

Matthew Zibelman, Natasha Pollak & Anthony Olszanski
Abstract Background Immune related adverse events affecting various organ systems are a recognized potential consequence of immune checkpoint inhibition. However, autoimmune inner ear disease is one complication not previously associated with the use of checkpoint inhibitors, though it has been reported after adoptive cell immunotherapy. Case Presentation Here we present what we believe is the first case of autoimmune inner ear disease resulting from treatment with an immune checkpoint inhibitor in a patient with metastatic...

Probiotic B420 and prebiotic polydextrose improve efficacy of antidiabetic drugs in mice

Lotta Stenman, Aurélie Waget, Céline Garret, François Briand, Rémy Burcelin, Thierry Sulpice & Sampo Lahtinen
Abstract Background Gut microbiota is now known to control glucose metabolism. Previous studies have shown that probiotics and prebiotics may improve glucose metabolism, but their effects have not been studied in combination with drug therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate whether probiotics and prebiotics combined with drug therapy affect diabetic outcomes. Methods Two different study designs were used to test gut microbiota modulating treatments with metformin (MET) or sitagliptin (SITA) in male...

Overall survival after reirradiation of spinal metastases – independent validation of predictive models

Daniel Buergy, Lena Siedlitzki, Judit Boda-Heggemann, Frederik Wenz & Frank Lohr
Abstract Background It is unknown if survival prediction tools (SPTs) sufficiently predict survival in patients who undergo palliative reirradiation of spinal metastases. We therefore set out to clarify if SPTs can predict survival in this patient population. Methods We retrospectively analyzed spinal reirradiations performed (n = 58, 52 patients, 44 included in analysis). SPTs for patients with spinal metastases were identified and compared to a general palliative score and to a dedicated SPT to estimate prognosis in...

Web-based infectious disease surveillance systems and public health perspectives: a systematic review

, , &
Abstract Background Emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases are a significant public health concern, and early detection and immediate response is crucial for disease control. These challenges have led to the need for new approaches and technologies to reinforce the capacity of traditional surveillance systems for detecting emerging infectious diseases. In the last few years, the availability of novel web-based data sources has contributed substantially to infectious disease surveillance. This study explores the burgeoning field of...

Systematic review of management strategies to control chronic wasting disease in wild deer populations in North America

, , &
Abstract Background Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a contagious, fatal prion disease affecting cervids in a growing number of regions across North America. Projected deer population declines and concern about potential spread of CWD to other species warrant strategies to manage this disease. Control efforts to date have been largely unsuccessful, resulting in continuing spread and increasing prevalence. This systematic review summarizes peer-reviewed published reports describing field-applicable CWD control strategies in wild deer populations in...

Potential efficacy of therapies targeting intrahepatic lesions after sorafenib treatment of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma

Takeshi Terashima, Tatsuya Yamashita, Rika Horii, Kuniaki Arai, Kazunori Kawaguchi, Kazuya Kitamura, Taro Yamashita, Yoshio Sakai, , Masao Honda & Shuichi Kaneko
Abstract Background We investigated the contribution of subsequent therapy for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma refractory or intolerant to sorafenib. Further, we investigated the impact of sorafenib on overall survival using individual data. Methods We reviewed the medical records of patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma treated with sorafenib. Survival after sorafenib treatment and overall survival were defined as the time when we discovered that patients were either refractory or intolerant to sorafenib and the period from the...

ToPASeq: an R package for topology-based pathway analysis of microarray and RNA-Seq data

Ivana Ihnatova & Eva Budinska
Abstract Background Pathway analysis methods, in which differentially expressed genes are mapped to databases of reference pathways and relative enrichment is assessed, help investigators to propose biologically relevant hypotheses. The last generation of pathway analysis methods takes into account the topological structure of a pathway, which helps to increase both specificity and sensitivity of the findings. Simultaneously, the RNA-Seq technology is gaining popularity and becomes widely used for gene expression profiling. Unfortunately, majority of topological...

Postpartum women’s use of medicines and breastfeeding practices: a systematic review

Moni Saha, Kath Ryan & Lisa Amir
Abstract The objectives of this article are to systematically review i) the extent of medicine use in postpartum women, and ii) the impact of maternal medicine use (excluding contraceptives and galactogogues) on breastfeeding outcomes (initiation and/or duration). PubMed, Medline (Ovid), Scopus (Elsevier), Cinahl (EBSCO), PsycINFO (Ovid), Embase (Ovid) and Web of Science (ISI) databases were searched to find original studies on medicine use in women after the birth. Additional studies were identified by searching Google...

A β-glucosidase hyper-production Trichoderma reesei mutant reveals a potential role of cel3D in cellulase production

, , , Wei Wei, , Lei Qin, , , & Zhan Chen
Abstract Background The conversion of cellulose by cellulase to fermentable sugars for biomass-based products such as cellulosic biofuels, biobased fine chemicals and medicines is an environment-friendly and sustainable process, making wastes profitable and bringing economic benefits. Trichoderma reesei is the well-known major workhorse for cellulase production in industry, but the low β-glucosidase activity in T. reesei cellulase leads to inefficiency in biomass degradation and limits its industrial application. Thus, there are ongoing interests in research...

Degeneration of aflatoxin gene clusters in Aspergillus flavus from Africa and North America

, & Peter Cotty
Abstract Aspergillus flavus is the most common causal agent of aflatoxin contamination of food and feed. However, aflatoxin-producing potential varies widely among A. flavus genotypes with many producing no aflatoxins. Some non-aflatoxigenic genotypes are used as biocontrol agents to prevent contamination. Aflatoxin biosynthesis genes are tightly clustered in a highly conserved order. Gene deletions and presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in aflatoxin biosynthesis genes are often associated with A. flavus inability to produce aflatoxins....

Clinical signs in functional (psychogenic) gait disorders: a brief survey

Leonard Sokol & Alberto Espay
Abstract Clinical signs are critical in ascertaining the functional nature of a gait disorder. Four signs of gait impairment have been documented in the course of examining patients with clinically definite functional (psychogenic) movement disorders: â huffing and puffingâ during standing and walking, manipulation-resistance dorsiflexion of the first toe, fixed plantar flexion and inversion, and marked discrepancy between ambulation with and without swivel chair assistance. While large studies are needed to ascertain their prevalence, sensitivity,...

Comprehensive RNA-seq transcriptomic profiling in the malignant progression of gliomas

Tao Jiang, Chuan Bao Zhang, Zheng Zhao, Wen Wang, & Zheng Wang
Comprehensive RNA-seq transcriptomic profiling in the malignant progression of gliomas

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