5,045 Works

Effect of Cargo Loading on Occupant Injury and Seat Deformation in Motor-Vehicle Crashes

David C. Viano & Chantal S. Parenteau
Purpose: NHTSA studied interior loose objects in the 2000-04 NASS-CDS as part of rulemaking on cargo retention testing in FMVSS 208. This study extends the investigation of cargo and loose interior object loading on occupant injury and seat deformation by cargo in motor-vehicles crashes using NASS-CDS data.Methods: 1996-2011 NASS-CDS was used to investigate the effects of loose interior objects and seat responses on occupant injury in motor vehicle crashes. Crashes were grouped by front, side,...

A predictive framework to assess response of invasive invertebrates to climate change: pest mite species of Australian grains

Matt Hill
Climate change is set to place enormous pressure on both biodiversity and agricultural production. Important vectors of agricultural damage, such as pest invertebrates, are likely to respond to climate change in different ways. Differing pest invertebrate responses in grain crops will translate to shifts in outbreak frequency and persistence of pests, changes to pest species assemblages, and alter biocontrol by natural enemies. Successful management will thus require predictions of how climate change will affect individual...

ZrCl4-Catalyzed C-O Bond to C-N Bond Formation: Synthesis of 1,2,3-Triazoles and Their Biological Evaluation

, , , Sheri Venkata Reddy, & Helmut Hugel
A simple and efficient protocol was developed for the synthesis of aryl azides directly from aryl carbinols using ZrCl4 as a Lewis acid catalyst. The azides were converted to novel triazoles under click reaction conditions, which were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against various strains.

Rekindle the imagination with Awe and spark the change for education

Kris Kitchen
Rekindle the imagination with Awe and spark the change for education- draft This will become a short story/book too. Book Rough Draft

Crash Pulse Optimization for Occupant Protection at Various Impact Velocities

Daisuke Ito, Yusuke Yokoi & Koji Mizuno
Objective: Vehicle deceleration has a large influence on occupant kinematic behavior and injury risks in crashes, and the optimization of the vehicle crash pulse that mitigates occupant loadings has been the subject of substantial research. These optimization research efforts focused on only high-velocity impact in regulatory or new car assessment programs though vehicle collisions occur over a wide range of velocities. In this study, the vehicle crash pulse was optimized for various velocities with a...

Contour map of the top of the regional geothermal reservoir of Sicily (Italy)

Domenico Montanari, Cinzia Albanese, Raimondo Catalano, Antonio Contino, Maurizio Fedi, Gianluca Gola, Marina Iorio, Mauro La Manna, Salvatore Monteleone, Eugenio Trumpy, Vera Valenti & Adele Manzella
An integrated review of existing geological and geophysical data – partly acquired during oil and gas exploration – combined with new data provided by deep geothermal studies of selected key areas, was used for the 3D modeling and mapping of the top of the geothermal reservoir developed at a regional scale in Sicily (Central Mediterranean). The resulting 1:500,000 scale map covers the area of the whole Sicily (about 25,700 km2) and is devoted to represent...

The antifungal metabolites obtained from the rhizospheric Aspergillus sp. YIM PH30001 against pathogenic fungi of Panax notoginseng

Kai Liu, , , , , , &
Eight anthraquinones (1–8), three xanthones (11–13) and two phenols (9–10) were isolated from Aspergillus sp. associated with Panax notoginseng, and their structures were determined as ziganein-1-methyl ether (1), 8-O-methylchrysophanol (2), averythrin (3), averufin (4), 8-O-methyl averufin (5), versicolorin B (6), averantin (7), methyl-averantin (8), arugosin C (9), diorcinol (10), sterigmatocystin (11), demethylsterigmatocystin (12) and dihydrosterigmatocystin (13) by spectroscopic analyses. Compounds 1, 2 and 5 were the novel isolates from genus Aspergillus. Compounds 3, 6 and...

Artemisia annua as a possible contraceptive agent: a clue from mammalian rat model

Amos O. Abolaji, , Patrick E. Ebong, , Ebenezer O. Farombi &
In a previous study, we evaluated the maternal and fetal safety of antimalarial herb Artemisia annua with artemisinin yield of 1.09%. Here, we attempted to ascertain the contraceptive claim of A. annua. Sexually matured female Wistar rats (180–220 g) were allotted into four study groups of six rats each. The control group received normal saline, while the A. annua-treated groups received 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg of A. annua for 2 weeks, followed by mating...

Two 3-D metal organic frameworks containing 2,2′-bipyridine-5,5′-dicarboxylic acid: synthesis, structure, and magnetic properties

Ming Fang, Tao Wang, , , Li Shen &
Two metal organic frameworks, {[M(H2BPDC)(SO4)]}n (M = Mn (1), Zn (2)); BPDC = 2,2′-bipyridine-5,5′-dicarboxylic anion), have been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. The structure analyses of 1 and 2 reveal that the two compounds have similar 3-D structures. Compound 1 crystallizes in the orthorhombic system with space group Pnma, while 2 displays a monoclinic system with space group P21/n. Magnetic investigation suggests that weak antiferromagnetic coupling exists between adjacent Mn2+ ions in 1. Two metal organic...

Quantitative evaluation of interaction force of fibrinogen at well-defined surfaces with various structures

, Yuuki Inoue & Kazuhiko Ishihara
The effects of functional groups and structures at the surface of biomaterials on protein adsorption were examined using direct interaction force measurements. Three kinds of surface structures were evaluated: polymer brushes, self-assembled monolayers with low molecular weight compounds, and surfaces with conventional polymer coatings. These surfaces had various functional groups including phosphorylcholine (PC) group. The surface characterization demonstrated that surface wettability and flexibility depended on both the structure of the surface and the functional groups...

Spectroscopic and structural properties of complexes of 3,3′-bis(2-benzimidazolyl)-2,2′-bipyridine with copper(I) and silver(I)

Abdurrahman Şengül, Özgür Kurt, Philip David Felix Adler & Simon J. Coles
The pseudo-tetrahedral complexes [CuL2]PF6·7H2O·CH3OH (1) and [AgL2]CF3SO3·H2O (2) (L = 3,3′-bis(2-benzimidazolyl)-2,2′-bipyridine) have been synthesized and characterized through crystal structure analyses, electrochemistry, and spectroscopic methods. X-ray structural analyses of 1 and 2 indicate that sterically constrained N4 ligands L are cis and behave as bidentate chelates to a single metal ion in a pseudo-tetrahedral fashion through the benzimidazole. As two benzimidazolyl rings exhibit considerable steric hindrance, the bipyridine unit of L remains uncoordinated. The pseudo-tetrahedral cation...

Geometry and nonlinear dynamics underlying excitability phenotypes in biophysical models of membrane potential

Marco Herrera-Valdez
The main goal of this dissertation was to study the bifurcation structure underlying families of low dimensional dynamical systems that model cellular excitability. One of the main contributions of this work is a mathematical characterization of profiles of electrophysiological activity in excitable cells of the same identified type, and across cell types, as a function of the relative levels of expression of ion channels coded by specific genes. In doing so, a generic formulation for...

Distribution of sea spiders (Pycnogonida, Arthropoda) off northern Norway, collected by MAREANO

, Arne Hassel, Roger N. Bamber & Lene Buhl-Mortensen
Knowledge of sea spider (Pycnogonida, Arthropoda) distribution and habitat preferences within Norwegian waters is scarce. During the MAREANO programme from 2007 to 2009, 3909 pycnogonid specimens representing 21 species and nine genera were collected. Pycnogonida were found at a total of 60 stations from 78 to 2609 m depth using van Veen grab, RP-sledge and beam trawl. Nymphon, the dominant genus, constituted 52% of the specimens sampled. Cilunculus battenae was recorded for the first time...

Syntheses of 2-Aryl Benzothiazoles via Photocatalyzed Oxidative Condensation of Amines with 2-Aminothiophenol in the Presence of BODIPY Derivatives

A simple, convenient, and efficient new method for synthesis of 2-aryl benzothiazoles under mild conditions with nonmetal catalyst has been developed. Boron–dipyrromethene (BODIPY) dyes were used as photocatalysts for aerobic oxidative reactions of amine with 2-aminothiophenol. The approach will be very useful for the synthesis of benzothiazole derivatives and the development of photocatalytic reactions.

Optimization of Food Waste Bioevaporation Process Using Response Surface Methodology

A proven bioevaporation process was used to treat food waste (FW) by mixing ground FW with biodried sludge (BS). Organic loading (OL), moisture content (MC), and air flow rate (Qg) showed significant influences on FW bioevaporation performance. Single-parameter experiments for MC and Qg were conducted and ranges were determined to be 55–67 wt% and 0.04–0.14 m3/kg TSmixture · h, respectively. In order to optimize the FW bioevaporation process, a central composite design (CCD) and response...

Effect of CH/P Exchange on the Fluxional Behavior of Bullvalene, Semibullvalene, and Barbaralane: A DFT Investigation

Deepika Sharma, , Pooja Maheshwari, Asha Gurjar &

Is all archaeology at present a postcolonial one? Constructive answers from an eccentric point of view

Jaime Pagán-Jiménez
A discussion on archaeological practices and compromises of the discipline in different socio-political contexts.

In vitro antioxidant activity of Retama monosperma (L.) Boiss.

Zoubir Belmokhtar &
The relationship between the antioxidant activity and the phenolic contents (total polyphenol, flavonoid and condensed tannin) of Retama monosperma (Fabaceae), used commonly in the traditional medicine of Mediterranean regions, was investigated. The antioxidant activities of the various fractions (toluene, chloroform, ethyl acetate and butanol) of the hydromethanolic extract of the seeds, stems and flowers have been evaluated using in vitro 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) radical scavenging activities and Phosphomolybdic acid assays and were compared to ascorbic...

General and Efficient Transesterification of β-Keto Esters with Various Alcohols Using Et3N as a Brønsted Base Additive

, &
Transesterification of β-keto esters with a wide variety of allyl, benzyl, propargyl, and alkyl alcohols using, for the first time, commercially available and inexpensive Et3N as a Brønsted base additive, is efficiently performed in toluene at reflux. The corresponding esters are exclusively obtained in 57–98% yields with no trace amounts of γ,δ-ketones, usually expected from the decarboxylative Carroll rearrangement.

In vitro biological activities and fatty acid profiles of Pistacia terebinthus fruits and Pistacia khinjuk seeds

Pelin Köseoğlu Yılmaz, Ersin Kılınç, Veysel Tolan, Ufuk Kolak, & Nesrin Ha¸Imi
This study reports in vitro anticholinesterase, antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of the n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethanol and ethanol–water extracts prepared from Pistacia terebinthus L. fruits and Pistacia khinjuk Stocks seeds as well as their total phenolic and flavonoid contents, and fatty acid compositions. Ethanol and ethanol–water extracts of both species exhibited higher anticholinesterase activity than galanthamine. Among ABTS, DPPH and CUPRAC assays, the highest antioxidant capacity of the extracts was found in the last one. P....

Dispacamide E and other bioactive bromopyrrole alkaloids from two Indonesian marine sponges of the genus Stylissa

Sherif S. Ebada, Mai Hoang Linh, Arlette Longeon, Nicole J. De Voogd, Emilie Durieu, Laurent Meijer, , Abdel Nasser B. Singab, Werner E.G. Müller & Peter Proksch
Chemical investigation of methanolic extracts of the two Indonesian marine sponges Stylissa massa and Stylissa flabelliformis yielded 25 bromopyrrole alkaloids including 2 new metabolites. The structures of all isolated compounds were unambiguously elucidated based on extensive 1D and 2D NMR, LR-MS and HR-MS analyses. All isolated compounds were assayed for their antiproliferative and protein kinase inhibitory activities. Several of the tested compounds revealed selective activity(ies) which suggested preliminary SARs of the isolated bromopyrrole alkaloids.

Alnuheptanoid A: a new diarylheptanoid derivative from Alnus japonica

, Mostafa A. Fouad, Ahmed Abdel-Lateff, Tatsufumi Okino & Gamal A. Mohamed
Extensive chromatographic investigation of the ethanolic extract of Alnus japonica Steud stem bark led to the isolation of a new diarylheptanoid named alnuheptanoid A [(5S)-7-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-5-methoxyheptan-3-one] (8), together with seven known diarylheptanoid derivatives: platyphyllenone (5), (5S)-1,7-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-5-methoxyheptan-3-one (6), 1-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-7-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4-hepten-3-one (7), hirsutenone (9), (5R)-O-methylhirsutanonol (10), hirsutanonol (11) and oregonin (13), three triterpenes: α-amyrin (1), betulinaldehyde (3) and betulinic acid (4), and two sterols: β-sitosterol (2) and daucosterol (12). Compound 6 was isolated for the first time from natural...

Tunable morphology and surface wettability of an amphiphilic azobenzene derivative and its melamine-induced self-assembly

Hao Jiang, , , Guang Yang, Gang Zou &
Herein, a series of novel hydrogen-bonded complexes derived from 4-[[(dodecyloxy)benz-4-yl]azo]benzoic acid (DBA) and melamine are reported. The morphology and surface wettability of the resulting self-assembled supramolecular architectures can be easily modulated not only by varying the molar ratios of DBA and melamine, but also by external UV irradiation. Based on the results of atomic force microscope, X-ray diffractometer and contact angle measurements, orientation of the coassembled units with different molar ratios of DBA and melamine...

Investigation into adsorption and photocatalytic degradation of gaseous benzene in an annular fluidized bed photocatalytic reactor

, , &
The adsorption and photocatalytic degradation of gaseous benzene were investigated considering the operating variables and kinetic mechanism using nano-titania agglomerates in an annular fluidized bed photocatalytic reactor (AFBPR) designed. The special adsorption equilibrium constant, adsorption active sites, and apparent reaction rate coefficient of benzene were determined by linear regression analysis at various gas velocities and relative humidities (RH). Based on a series of photocatalytic degradation kinetic equations, the influences of operating variables on degradation efficiency,...

Antifouling properties of zinc oxide nanorod coatings

Marwan Al-Fori, Sergey Dobretsov, &
In laboratory experiments, the antifouling (AF) properties of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod coatings were investigated using the marine bacterium Acinetobacter sp. AZ4C, larvae of the bryozoan Bugula neritina and the microalga Tetraselmis sp. ZnO nanorod coatings were fabricated on microscope glass substrata by a simple hydrothermal technique using two different molar concentrations (5 and 10 mM) of zinc precursors. These coatings were tested for 5 h under artificial sunlight (1060 W m−2 or 530 W...

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  • 2014

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