1,555 Works

The genomics of transplant-related outcomes and familial renal disease

Caragh Stapleton
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a growing global health concern with an age-standardized global prevalence of approximately 10%. Of those with CKD, approximately 2% will go on to require renal replacement therapy within any given 5-year period. Renal transplantation is accepted as the most clinically- and cost-effective treatment for end-stage kidney failure. In this thesis, we set out to examine the impact of common genetic variation on renal transplant function as well as a common...

An investigation into the expression, content and function of exosomes in an experimental model of epilepsy

Epilepsy is a serious neurological disease characterised by recurrent unprovoked seizures affecting 65 million people worldwide. Current anti-epileptic therapies target only symptomatic seizures and are not fully effective in ameliorating disease pathophysiology. Temporal lobe epilepsy is the most common form of epilepsy in adults and a third of temporal lobe epilepsy patients are drug refractory, and the underlying pathophysiology remains to be fully elucidated. Recent work revealed microRNAs serve important functions in cells, in post-transcriptional...

The role of sub-epidermal moisture measurement versus traditional risk assessment and visual skin assessment in the prediction of pressure ulcer risk among adults undergoing surgery.

Ana Lucia M. De Oliveira
Aim: To compare the predictive ability of sub-epidermal moisture measurement versus traditional risk assessment and visual skin assessment as a means of detecting early pressure ulcer damage development among adults undergoing surgery. Method: A non-experimental, comparative, prospective, descriptive design was used. Participants who gave their informed consent had their skin assessed over the areas that were weight bearing during surgery, using visual skin assessment and the sub-epidermal moisture measurement. Visual pressure ulcers were graded according...

Exploring the experiences of patients with primary and secondary, non-cancer related, lower limb lymphoedema during the intensive and maintenance phases of Complex Decongestive Therapy and its’ impact on their lives

Mary Costello
IntroductionLymphoedema is an incurable, progressive condition, which results in the swelling of a limb or limbs and impairs mobility (Lymphatic Framework, 2006). The psychosocial impact of lower limb lymphoedema is also devastating as body image and quality of life are greatly affected (Lasinski et al, 2012). Although lymphoedema is a chronic condition, it is manageable through treatment modalities which include manual lymphatic drainage, compression bandaging, compression hosiery, skin care and exercise, otherwise known as Complex...

The Impact of Technology on Medication Safety in Paediatric Critical care

Introduction:Evidence for the benefits of health information technology (HIT) in the paediatricsetting is currently limited. In 2012, electronic-prescribing, standardisedconcentration infusions (SCIs) and smart-pump technology were implemented intothe paediatric critical care unit (PCCU) in Our Lady’s Children’s Hospital, Crumlin.Aim:To assess the impact of this new HIT on PCCU medication errors.Methodology:A Delphi consensus process developed a list of novel or previously unaddressedmedication errors. The results, combined with published medication errorsdefinitions, were applied to three further studies: a...

Recommendation for Future Development of Colorectal Cancer Surgery in Ireland and Guidelines for the Management of Rectal Cancer in Ireland

Deborah McNamara
Recommendation for Future Development of Colorectal Cancer Surgery in Ireland and Guidelines for the Management of Rectal Cancer in Ireland issued by the Irish Association of Coloproctology on 5th September 2010.

Transcriptional Regulation and Epigenetics in Cardiovascular Cells: Role of the Mineralocorticoid Receptor

Lisa Deng, Lutz Hein & Achim Lother
The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), a ligand-activated transcription factor, plays an important role in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease. Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation or histone modifications in addition to the DNA sequence are decisive regulators of cell type-specific transcriptional activity and gene expression by controlling chromatin accessibility. In this review, we summarise the current knowledge about the impact of MR on gene expression in cardiovascular cells. We discuss studies investigating the interaction of MR...

View on Aldosterone and the Brain Revisited

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The mineralocorticoid hormone aldosterone has been investigated almost exclusively with respect to cardiovascular function, as the main effects of aldosterone are related to water-electrolyte balance and the control of the blood pressure. This overview is focused on less traditional and long-time neglected effects of aldosterone on the brain and behavior. Preclinical studies by our research group brought evidence on causal relationships between aldosterone and anxiety as well as aldosterone and depression-like behavior. Aldosterone was found...

Aldosterone/Mineralocorticoid Receptor Downstream Targets as Novel Therapeutic Targets to Prevent Cardiovascular Remodeling

Jaime Ibarrola, Frederic Jaisser & Natalia López-Andrés
The incidence of heart failure (HF) is increasing because of aging of the population. Despite optimal therapy, patients with HF experience disease progression associated with high mortality rates. HF is still the first cause of hospital admission in subjects aged >65 years. The obvious solution for HF epidemics is to prevent new-onset HF with therapies directed specifically to mechanistic targets that are involved in the transition to HF. The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and its natural...

Investigating the Role of Mineralocorticoid Receptor Signaling in Cancer Biology in the Genomic Era

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In the last decades, advances that take place in the next-generation sequencing and bioinformatics research have helped reveal tissue- and cancer-specific gene expression patterns and mutation landscapes. Indeed, such data are now easily accessible via online genome browsers and different types and levels of public data compendia. Appropriate use of these tools eventually can lead to better patient stratification for diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy of cancers. Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), encoded by NR3C2 gene, has long...

Advances in the Development of Non-steroidal Mineralocorticoidreceptor Antagonists

Felipe L. Pérez-Gordillo, & Mercedes Martín-Martínez
Aldosterone plays an important role in the regulation of blood pressure, body fluid, and electrolyte homeostasis. Overactivation of aldosterone/mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) pathway leads to hypertension, atherosclerosis, vascular damage, heart failure, and chronic kidney disease and is involved in many other diseases associated with endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, fibrosis, and metabolic disorders. Aldosterone is a final product of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), and its production is activated by angiotensin II, while angiotensin-(1–7) negatively regulates angiotensin II-mediated aldosterone...

Investigating the Role of Mineralocorticoid Receptor Signaling in Cancer Biology in the Genomic Era

&
In the last decades, advances that take place in the next-generation sequencing and bioinformatics research have helped reveal tissue- and cancer-specific gene expression patterns and mutation landscapes. Indeed, such data are now easily accessible via online genome browsers and different types and levels of public data compendia. Appropriate use of these tools eventually can lead to better patient stratification for diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy of cancers. Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), encoded by NR3C2 gene, has long...

Mineralocorticoid Receptor and Leptin: A Dangerous Liaison in the Obese Heart

Gema Marin-Royo, María Luaces, Victoria Cachofeiro & Ernesto Martínez-Martínez
Multiple factors have been proposed as being responsible for cardiac damage in the context of obesity, including aldosterone/mineralocorticoid receptor and leptin. Aldosterone exerts proinflammatory, prooxidant and profibrotic actions, which can play a key role in the development of cardiac damage associated with different pathologies, through binding of mineralocorticoid receptor (MR). Moreover, its pharmacological blockade has demonstrated to improve these situations. Different studies have demonstrated that aldosterone is inappropriately elevated in obesity and MR antagonism improves...

Aldosterone Regulation of Protein Kinase Signaling Pathways and Renal Na+ Transport by Non-genomic Mechanisms

Warren Thomas & Brian Harvey
Aldosterone is the key regulating hormone of whole-body fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. Perturbations in aldosterone synthesis and over-activation of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) can lead to excess salt reabsorption and hypertension. The cortical collecting duct (CCD) is the main site of action in the kidney for aldosterone regulation of whole-body sodium homeostasis through actions on the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) and the Na/K-ATPase (Na/K pump). Aldosterone stimulates ENaC trafficking into the apical cell membranes in...

COLT: A New Weapon to Disseminate Knowledge

Bernard C. Rossier, Michelle Rossier & Jean-Pierre Kraehenbühl
Too few researchers receive adequate pre- or postgraduate training to conduct a rigorous scientific study. In the digital age, new tools are emerging, and the development of distance education could improve this worrying situation. In this context, Health Science e-Training (HSeT), a nonprofit Swiss foundation, has developed new pedagogical concepts and tools under customized online training (COLT). For the ADMIRE Cost network, we have used an article-based e-learning (ABL) tool that allowed the students to...

Investigation of the Functional Roles of Calcium Channels, Inflammatory Cytokines and Tumour Micro-Environmental Factors in a Human In Vitro Model of Breast Cancer Calcification

Shane O'Grady
Microcalcifications are frequently the sole mammographic indicator of breast cancer with several studies suggesting that their presence may also be indicative of increased tumour grade, HER2 overexpression and poor prognosis. Despite their widespread diagnostic usage, the mechanism by which microcalcifications form and their contribution to tumour progression remain poorly understood. Previously, our lab established an in vitro model using a murine cell line. In order to advance our understanding of these vital diagnostic markers, we...

Musculoskeletal Clinical Vignettes: a case based text

John M. O'Byrne, Richie Downey, Iain Feeley, Martin Kelly, Lauren Tiedt, Mark E. Murphy, Ellen Stuart &
Musculoskeletal conditions are an extremely common presentation to general practitioners, emergency departments and hospitals. Although the clinical examination for each joint involves a similar approach (the ‘Look, Feel, Move’ format), be it the shoulder, hip or knee, many students can find the subtle differences between each examination difficult. They may also struggle to generate an appropriate differential diagnosis, based upon the history and examination. Commonly presenting musculoskeletal conditions in general practice and orthopaedics are presented...

Musculoskeletal Clinical Vignettes: a case based text

John M. O'Byrne, Richie Downey, Iain Feeley, Martin Kelly, Lauren Tiedt, Mark E. Murphy, Ellen Stuart &
Musculoskeletal conditions are an extremely common presentation to general practitioners, emergency departments and hospitals. Although the clinical examination for each joint involves a similar approach (the ‘Look, Feel, Move’ format), be it the shoulder, hip or knee, many students can find the subtle differences between each examination difficult. They may also struggle to generate an appropriate differential diagnosis, based upon the history and examination. Commonly presenting musculoskeletal conditions in general practice and orthopaedics are presented...

The assessment of maternal haemodynamic profile via transthoracic bioreactance as a screening tool for the early prediction of preeclampsia (PE) and normotensive fetal growth restriction (FGR).

Cathy Monteith
Preeclampsia (PE) and Fetal Growth Restriction (FGR) are common complications of pregnancy. Data presented in this thesis, which mainly originate from the single centre prospective HAEMODYNAMIC Assessment iN pregnancy anD neonataL Echocardiography assessment (HANDLE) study, consolidate knowledge of the haemodynamics of normal pregnancy and the changes and predictive capability in those affected by PE & FGR. The HANDLE study recruited 422 low risk nulliparous women at their first antenatal visit. Following exclusion and patient self-withdrawal...

The Views And Experiences Of Physiotherapists On Physiotherapy Service Provision For People With Neurological Conditions In Primary Care: A Qualitative Study

Physiotherapy is associated with positive health outcomes and is highly valued among community dwelling neurological patients. However, research highlights a deficiency in the quality of physiotherapy services for neurological patients in the community setting in Ireland. Given the significant burden of neurological conditions and the potential of a quality physiotherapy service to alleviate some of this burden, this study explored physiotherapy service provision for neurological patients in primary care with a view to providing a...

Three dimensional movement analysis of the upper limb during activities of daily living, in children with obstetric brachial plexus palsy: comparison with typically developing children

Julia Mahon
Residual shoulder dysfunction and deformity impacts on functional performance in children with obstetric brachial plexus palsy (OBPP). Clinical understanding of dynamic movement patterns of the upper limb is difficult with observation alone. Three-dimensional gait analysis has contributed significantly to understanding and management of gait dysfunction. In contrast, upper limb kinematic analysis is in its infancy due to the inherent challenges it presents. The aims of this study were to: determine test-retest reliability of three-dimensional upper...

The Concurrent Validity Of The 7-Item BBS 3P With Other Clinical Measures Of Balance In A Sample Of Elderly Community-Dwelling Adults

Effective balance screening and treatment is vital to minimise the potential detrimental effects that may result from unidentified and untreated balance impairment in the vulnerable community-dwelling elderly population. Therefore, an appropriate screening measure for balance with established psychometric properties, is required for use in the community-dwelling elderly population. This research study aims to address the gap in the current evidence base, by identifying the psychometric properties of the 7-item BBS-3P and determining its suitability as...

The effect of a balance exercise class on activity limitations in people with parkinson’s disease

Anne Belton
SUMMARY Introduction Parkinson’s disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disease in the world today. Postural instability is one the four cardinal signs and causes reduced balance and can lead falls. Falls may have significant consequences. In addition PwPD experience increasing disability, reduced mobility, fear of falling and reduced quality of life. Pharmacology has been the cornerstone of treatment thus far, but may limited in treating postural instability. Increasing evidence suggests that physiotherapy...

The effect of a balance exercise class on activity limitations in people with parkinson’s disease

Anne Belton
SUMMARY Introduction Parkinson’s disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disease in the world today. Postural instability is one the four cardinal signs and causes reduced balance and can lead falls. Falls may have significant consequences. In addition PwPD experience increasing disability, reduced mobility, fear of falling and reduced quality of life. Pharmacology has been the cornerstone of treatment thus far, but may limited in treating postural instability. Increasing evidence suggests that physiotherapy...

Three dimensional movement analysis of the upper limb during activities of daily living, in children with obstetric brachial plexus palsy: comparison with typically developing children

Julia Mahon
Residual shoulder dysfunction and deformity impacts on functional performance in children with obstetric brachial plexus palsy (OBPP). Clinical understanding of dynamic movement patterns of the upper limb is difficult with observation alone. Three-dimensional gait analysis has contributed significantly to understanding and management of gait dysfunction. In contrast, upper limb kinematic analysis is in its infancy due to the inherent challenges it presents. The aims of this study were to: determine test-retest reliability of three-dimensional upper...

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