1,767 Works

Is a picture worth a thousand words?

Jane Holland, Robin O'Sullivan & Richard Arnett
Background: It has previously been suggested that the use of illustrations in MCQs may have variable effects on individual items. This study examines the effect of illustrated questions, as opposed to pure text, to discern if any overall bias between the two formats is detectable. Summary of work: We reviewed 6 Histology MCQ papers from our Medical Junior Cycle. Classical test theory analysis was performed on all MCQs, which were then divided into two groups,...

Irish Hip Fracture Database National Report 2018

Emer Ahern, Louise Brent, Aisling Connolly, Michelle Fitzgerald, Conor Hurson, Fionnola Kelly, Carlo Lodola, Bibiana Savin, The Irish Hip Fracture Database Governance Committee & The National Office of Clinical Audit (NOCA)
The Irish Hip Fracture Database (IHFD) is a clinically led, web-based audit that measures the best practice standards of care, known as the Irish Hip Fracture Standards (IHFS) (Table 2), and outcomes of patients with hip fractures. The IHFD started as a collaboration between the Irish Gerontological Society (IGS) and the Irish Institute for Trauma and Orthopaedic Surgery (IITOS). The National Office of Clinical Audit (NOCA) was established in 2012 and has a specific focus...

National Audit of Hospital Mortality Report: December 2016

Brian Creedon, Simon Jones, Declan McKeown, Gerardine Sayers, Marina Cronin, Jennifer Martin, Grainne Cosgrove, Howard Johnson, Deirdre Murphy, Deirdre Burke, The National Audit of Hospital Mortality Governance Committee & The National Office of Clinical Audit (NOCA)
Measuring quality of care is one of the essential components to improving the quality of modern healthcare. Clinical audits are key to this process. The purpose of clinical audit is to identify learning opportunities to inform quality assurance and improvement initiatives to further enhance the structure, process and outcome of care. Through the governance structures established by the National Office of Clinical Audit (NOCA), the National Audit of Hospital Mortality (NAHM) was deployed to 44...

National Audit of Hospital Mortality Annual Report 2018

Bridget Egan, Simon Jones, Declan McKeown, Alan Egan, Deirdre Burke, Aisling Connolly, Fionnola Kelly, The National Audit of Hospital Mortality Governance Committee & The National Office of Clinical Audit (NOCA)
This is the fourth National Audit of Hospital Mortality Annual Report. It provides mortality information across six key diagnoses: acute myocardial infarction (heart attack), heart failure, ischaemic stroke, haemorrhagic stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and pneumonia. These diagnoses were chosen based on clinical and methodological selection criteria in order to ensure a focus on quality, safety and improvement in acute hospital care; hospitals can also view all diagnoses locally via the National Quality Assurance Improvement...

The Progression of Crouch Gait in Bilateral Cerebral Palsy

Rory O'Sullivan
Cerebral palsy (CP) is due to an insult to the developing brain and is the most common cause of motor deficiency in young children and usually leads to muscle spasticity, weakness and joint contracture which have a significant effect on gait. Crouch gait, defined as excessive knee flexion in stance phase, is a prevalent pathological gait patterns associated with CP and is thought to increase the energy cosy of gait and contribute to increased forces...

Risk Factors for Intimate Partner Violence in Asylum Seeking and Refugee Populations: A Systematic Review

Riyad Elmoslemany
Background: Intimate partner violence is a serious public health problem. Asylum seekers and refugees are marginalised populations that are vulnerable to violence in general and may be vulnerable to intimate partner violence (IPV) in particular. More research exists on risk factors for IPV in the general population than in asylum seeking and refugee populations. Evidence is emerging that the prevalence of IPV in these populations is high but risk factors for IPV within these populations...

Understanding Bereavement Support for Staff in an Irish Higher Education Institute. How Are Staff Members Supported When They Experience Bereavement

Eric Clarke
Title: Understanding bereavement support for staff in an Irish Higher Education Institute. How are staff members supported when they experience bereavement?Background: While employers in Ireland typically grant some time off after the death of a loved one, there is no statutory entitlement to do so. As a result workplace policies may vary with limited discretionary leave available. Returning to work after bereavement may also be interpreted as a resumption of normal service where life and...

The Effects of the Retinoid Drug Acitretin on CLL Cells with Emphasis on CD38 Expression and Cell Homing

Sally Mohammed
Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia is a B- cell malignancy that has been the subject of a great deal of progress both in understanding disease pathophysiology and in the development of new therapies. The recognition of a subgroup of patients that responds poorly to standard therapy has inspired a plethora of research into improving treatment outcomes. Retinoids have well-reported effects as anti-proliferation agents and have an established role in promoting cell differentiation. These properties have led them...

Case-based Reporting and Analysis to Enhance the Value and Use of Routine Health Facility Data for Health Policy, Programming and Research: Case Study of a New Malaria Surveillance System in The Gambia

Samuel Emetu Anya
A sustained decline in the burden of malaria from 2003 to 2007 in The Gambiahighlighted the need for real-time data to monitor the changing epidemiology ofmalaria. The aim of the studies described in this thesis was to determine thevalue and use of routine case-based health facility data for malaria policy,programming and research.To achieve this aim, individual, rather than aggregate, malaria case records atthe six sentinel sites were analysed by age, sex, month, season and location.The...

A study of the androgen mediated transcriptome and AR interactome in AI resistant breast cancer

Rachel Bleach
Aromatase inhibitors (AI) are the vanguard treatment for hormone receptor positive, postmenopausal breast cancer, however, acquired resistance occurs in up to 40% of patients. AI therapies, by their mechanism of action, create a predominantly androgenic steroid environment. In this study, a multi-omic approach was undertaken to elucidate the role of the androgen receptor (AR) in AI resistant breast cancer. Evidence from this study suggests that cancer cells adapt to utilise the adrenal prohormone, androstenedione and/or...

Improving the Inpatient Management of Central Diabetes Insipidus Post- Transsphenoidal Pituitary Surgery

Pamela Moorehouse
Central diabetes insipidus is a common complication of transsphenoidal pituitary surgery. Damage to the pituitary stalk during surgery results in the disruption of water homeostasis, resulting in increased thirst and the production of large volumes of dilute urine. While symptomatic central diabetes insipidus can be managed with the administration of desmopressin, it has the potential to progress to severe dehydration, hypernatremia and become a life-threatening medical emergency. This project utilised the DMAIC framework and associated...

Improving Compliance with a Novel Pre-Operative Assessment Pathway for Neurosurgical Referrals.

Natasha Lynch
The clinical presentation of neurosurgical patients tends to be sporadic in nature. These patients present to healthcare settings across the country before being referred to the National Referral Centre for Neurosurgery and Neurology in Ireland. The growing demands on the healthcare sector, such as an ageing population and finite resources, has limited the luxury of in-patient pre-operative assessment days prior to surgery. The organisation in question had established a nurse-led pre-operative assessment clinic for elective...

Activation of the resident Skeletal Stem Cell (SSC) for articular cartilage regeneration.

Matthew Philip Murphy
The aim of this PhD thesis is to validate that a commonly performed surgical therapy used to treat patients with osteoarthritis (OA), microfracture (MF), can activate tissue-resident Skeletal Stem Cells (SSC) from distal femurs. In Chapter 1 we introduce the topics related to the thesis including; OA overview, stem cell therapies and current stem cell trials used for OA. In Chapter 2 we show that with age there is a reduction in the number of...

How to Empower Professionals and the Public to Improve Mental Health Care: Exploring Educational Initiatives

Dolores Keating
Irish mental health policy emphasises early intervention, interdisciplinary working, the recovery philosophy and, perhaps most importantly, partnership between healthcare professionals, patients, caregivers and the community. Pharmacists have frequent contact with people experiencing mental health problems but appear to lack the confidence to engage effectively in mental health care. This thesis explores how educational interventions can empower pharmacists and members of the public to better support people experiencing mental health problems. Pharmacy students were found generally...

The effect of a Pilates-based core exercise group on balance and gait in ambulant children with Cerebral Palsy: A Randomised Control Trial

Clodagh Coman
Children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) demonstrate dysfunctional core muscleactivation contributing to problems with postural control for functional activitiesand walking. Pilates-based core exercises aim to improve postural control byencouraging coordinated activation of deep core stabilising muscles duringfunctional movements.This thesis will present the findings of a blinded assessor, parallel, randomisedcontrolled trial (RCT), with 46 participants, on the effect of Pilates-based coreexercises on balance and gait in ambulant children with spastic CP, ages sevento 17 years.The primary objectives...

Activation of the resident Skeletal Stem Cell (SSC) for articular cartilage regeneration.

Matthew Philip Murphy
The aim of this PhD thesis is to validate that a commonly performed surgical therapy used to treat patients with osteoarthritis (OA), microfracture (MF), can activate tissue-resident Skeletal Stem Cells (SSC) from distal femurs. In Chapter 1 we introduce the topics related to the thesis including; OA overview, stem cell therapies and current stem cell trials used for OA. In Chapter 2 we show that with age there is a reduction in the number of...

Development of a Novel Pro-angiogenic SDF-1α Gene-Activated Collagen Scaffold for Diabetic Wound Healing

Diabetes is a disease that arises due to the loss or impairment of the body’s ability to control the blood glucose level. Hyperglycemia leads to alterations in the structural functions of both macro and microvascular systems, causing vascular complications in diabetic patients such as the diabetic foot ulcer. In diabetic wounds, inadequate angiogenesis is one of the significant pathological factors hindering the progression to regular healing events. During wound healing, various cells orchestrate to promote...

MicroRNAs as Novel Therapeutics and Diagnostics in Alzheimer’s Disease

Aidan Kenny
Advances in therapeutics for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has stagnated for almost 2 decades and there is an increasing interest in deviating from standard targets and strategies which have repeatedly failed in clinical trials. It is a widespread belief in the field that targeting multiple components of AD pathology and applying treatments at earlier stages of AD are key to the development of a cure. Approaches which the short non-coding molecules MicroRNAs (miRNAs) could greatly aid....

Assessing platelet function using a novel microtitre platelet aggregation assay

Aaron Peace
Assessing platelet function using a novel microtitre platelet aggregation assay

New carboxylate and hydroxamate inhibitors of prostaglandin-H-synthase and their metal complexes

Ahmed Al Agha
The thesis describes new carboxylate and hydroxamate inhibitors of prostaglandin-H-synthase (PGHS) as well as the synthesis and structures of metal complexes of the hydroxamates which were synthesised. This enzyme, also called cyclooxygenase (COX), has two active sites a cyclooxygenase (COX) active site which is the target for aspirin and a peroxidase (POX) active site, upon which the COX site depends. The thesis is divided in to three chapters. The first chapter describes the attempted synthesis...

Acid-sensing ion channel receptor-3 expression in nasal mucosa and its role in allergic rhinitis

Allergie rhinitis affects a large proportion of the worldwide population, and its constituent symptoms include nasal blockage, rhinorrhoea and nasal pruritus. Tissue acidosis is a component of inflammation and ischaemia, and this occurs in inflammatory conditions, such as that found in the mucosa of patients with allergic rhinitis. Acid sensing ion channels, ASICs, are a family of ligand-gated cation channels, activated by acid (pH 7.4 — 5.5), which belong to the amiloride-sensitive degenerin/epithelial Na+ channel...

Development of novel collagen-calcium phosphate scaffolds suitable for bone tissue-engineering and bone repair

Amir A. Al-Munajjed
Various scaffolds have been used in in vitro and in vivo studies as either cell free bone grafts or as tissue engineered constructs. However, most of these scaffolds have not made the final step into clinical applications due to several limitations. The objective of this investigation was to develop novel composite scaffolds using an established, highly porous collagen scaffold and adding a mineral calcium phosphate phase. Two novel composite scaffolds were developed; (1) a collagen-calcium...

Studies on the generation of chemical diversity using hetero Diels Alder reactions and polyfunctional scaffolds

Simone Bruschi
In the first part of this work we developed four novel methodologies for the generation of nitroso dienophile from commercially available hydroxamic acid I which is trapped with appropriate diene through a hetero-Diels-Alder (HDA) reaction (Scheme 1). These procedures afforded cycloadduct in good yields, employing reagents in a 1:1 ratio and only 5 mol.% catalyst loading. Remarkably, the crude reaction mixture showed the HDA adduct as the only compound present: this renders the reactions described...

AMP-Activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) Activation and Signalling Following Neuronal Excitotoxicity

Niamh M C Connolly
Toxic stimulation of neurons, excitotoxicity, is a pathological process implicated in ischaemic stroke and neurodegenerative diseases. Excess glutamate in the synaptic cleft leads to severe ionic influx into the neuron, energetic stress and the activation of the AMP-activated protein Kinase (AMPK), a key regulator of energetic homeostasis. Interestingly, AMPK activation during excitotoxicity can be both cytoprotective and cytotoxic, but the molecular switches that determine whether neurons undergo necrosis or apoptosis or tolerate an excitotoxic insult...

The Application of Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging (QMRI) to Identify Neuroanatomical Endophenotypes in Epilepsy

To date, efforts to identify genetic risk factors for common forms of epilepsy have been largely limited by the heterogeneity of epilepsy phenotypes and susceptibility genes. In an effort to characterize homogenous phenotypes for epilepsy, this thesis aimed to apply the latest techniques in quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (QMRI) to identify relevant neuroanatomical quantitative traits (QTs) that may represent endophenotypes for epilepsy. Two epilepsy syndromes were considered: mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) and juvenile myoclonic...

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