1,609 Works

Case-based Reporting and Analysis to Enhance the Value and Use of Routine Health Facility Data for Health Policy, Programming and Research: Case Study of a New Malaria Surveillance System in The Gambia

Samuel Emetu Anya
A sustained decline in the burden of malaria from 2003 to 2007 in The Gambiahighlighted the need for real-time data to monitor the changing epidemiology ofmalaria. The aim of the studies described in this thesis was to determine thevalue and use of routine case-based health facility data for malaria policy,programming and research.To achieve this aim, individual, rather than aggregate, malaria case records atthe six sentinel sites were analysed by age, sex, month, season and location.The...

A study of the androgen mediated transcriptome and AR interactome in AI resistant breast cancer

Rachel Bleach
Aromatase inhibitors (AI) are the vanguard treatment for hormone receptor positive, postmenopausal breast cancer, however, acquired resistance occurs in up to 40% of patients. AI therapies, by their mechanism of action, create a predominantly androgenic steroid environment. In this study, a multi-omic approach was undertaken to elucidate the role of the androgen receptor (AR) in AI resistant breast cancer. Evidence from this study suggests that cancer cells adapt to utilise the adrenal prohormone, androstenedione and/or...

Guidelines for the development of multiple choice items & assessments.

Jane Holland & Niall Stevens
All assessment methods have varying strengths and weaknesses, and it is appropriate that multiple formats, such as MCQs, OSCEs and portfolios, are used within a robust programme of assessment for undergraduate and postgraduate medical programmes. This booklet is designed to provide guidance to RCSI staff on the development of multiple choice items and assessments specifically. As such, it is an introduction to multiple facets of this process, such as item writing, assessment blueprinting, standard setting...

Knowledge, Behavior and Attitude of Nurses Regarding Prevention of Central Line Associated Blood Stream Infections

Iyad Salem Ahmad Al-Yateem
The level of knowledge of nursing staff handling patients with Central Venous Catheters has been reported internationally as one of the factors contributing to the increasing incidence of Central Line Associated Blood Stream Infections (Alkubati et al., 2015; Chen et al., 2015). This study aimed to identify the Level of knowledge, behavior, and attitude of nurses in Adult and Hemodialysis Units in a military hospital in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia regarding Central Line Associated...

Attitudes of Emergency Nurses to Evidence Based Practice in the Emergency Department of a Multi-Specialty Hospital

Ciara Rooney
Background: Despite the growing body of evidence produced by and for nurses, moving evidence from research into practice remains challenging. These challenges can be attributed in part, to attitudes of nurses towards evidence based practice. This study examined attitudes to evidence based practice among Emergency Department nurses and factors which influenced these attitudes such as: years of experience in nursing, country of education, practice outside country of education, perception of the culture of the organisation,...

Attitudes of Emergency Nurses to Evidence Based Practice in the Emergency Department of a Multi-Specialty Hospital

Ciara Rooney
Background: Despite the growing body of evidence produced by and for nurses, moving evidence from research into practice remains challenging. These challenges can be attributed in part, to attitudes of nurses towards evidence based practice. This study examined attitudes to evidence based practice among Emergency Department nurses and factors which influenced these attitudes such as: years of experience in nursing, country of education, practice outside country of education, perception of the culture of the organisation,...

Aldosterone-Mineralocorticoid Receptor: Cell Biology to Translational Medicine

Brian Harvey
This book is an open access dissemination of the EU COST Action ADMIRE in Aldosterone/Mineralocorticoid Receptor (MR) physiology and pathophysiology. Aldosterone is the major hormone regulating blood pressure. Alterations in blood levels of aldosterone and genetic mutations in the MR receptor are major causes of hypertension and comorbidities. Many of the drugs in clinical use, and in development for treating hypertension, target aldosterone and MR actions in the kidney and cardiovascular system. The ADMIRE book...

Bioinspired Star-Shaped Poly(L-Lysine) Polypeptides; 2 Efficient Polymeric Nanocarriers for the Delivery of DNA 3 to Mesenchymal Stem Cells

David Walsh, Robert Murphy, Angela Panarella, Rosanne Raftery, Brenton Cavanagh, Jeremy C. Simpson, Fergal O'Brien, Andreas Heise &
The field of tissue engineering is increasingly recognizing that gene therapy can be employed for modulating in vivo cellular response thereby guiding tissue regeneration. However, the field lacks a versatile and biocompatible gene delivery platform capable of efficiently delivering transgenes to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), a cell type often refractory to transfection. Herein, we describe the extensive and systematic exploration of three architectural variations of star-shaped poly(l-lysine) polypeptide (star-PLL) with varying number and length of...

A qualitative exploration of adolescents with severe haemophilia and their caretakers regarding their future transition to adult services

Objective: To qualitatively explore the views of adolescents with severe haemophilia A or haemophilia B and their caretakers such as parents and multidisciplinary staff relating to transition from child to adult services.Methods: Qualitative design using semi-structured interviews based upon the Critical Incident Technique (CIT).Results: Thematic analysis using the CIT approach identified five themes all of which pertained to either the positive or negative aspects of the transition programme for adolescents with severe haemophilia and their...

Design and Development of Multi-Targeted Metallodrugs as Potential Chemotherapeutic Agents

Reece G. Kenny
Cancer remains a major global health burden despite significant advances in treatmentregimens. Current drug treatments, including those involving platinum drugs, havedrawbacks including dose limiting toxic side effects and either acquired or intrinsicdrug resistance. The development of safer and more effective drug treatments remainsa major research focus. The platinum drugs in clinical use primarily target DNA.Our Group previously developed novel multi-targeted platinum(II) complexes capableof not only binding cancer cell DNA but also possessing the ability to...

Examining the relationships between attendance, online engagement and summative examinations performance

Jane C. Holland, Eric Clarke, Morag Monro, Evelyn Kelleher & Mark Glynn
Background: Non-attendance correlates with poor performance, but manual recording of attendance is problematic. Online activity reports may be a more efficient method of identifying at-risk students. Summary of work: This research is part of a prospective study examining physical attendance, online activity reports (Moodle), continuous assessments and summative examination performance. Ethical approval was granted by RCSI Ethics Committee. Two modules within the first year of the undergraduate medical program were identified for inclusion. Results: Data...

Is a picture worth a thousand words?

Jane C. Holland, Robin O'Sullivan & Richard Arnett
Background: It has previously been suggested that the use of illustrations in MCQs may have variable effects on individual items. This study examines the effect of illustrated questions, as opposed to pure text, to discern if any overall bias between the two formats is detectable. Summary of work: We reviewed 6 Histology MCQ papers from our Medical Junior Cycle. Classical test theory analysis was performed on all MCQs, which were then divided into two groups,...

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The Importance of Inhaler Technique in Measuring and Calculating Inhaler Adherence, and its Clinical Outcomes

Imran Sulaiman
Depending on the population studied, cross-sectional observational studies suggest that between 14%-90% of patients do not use their pressurized metered dose inhaler correctly, while 50-60% misuse a dry powder inhaler. This means that unless incorrect technique is acounted for a significant underestimation of how much medication the person actually obtained may be made. The aim of this thesis was to objectively determine the frequency and importance of inhaler technique errors and to combine these with...

Cardiovascular and temperature actions of cathinones

The main aims of these studies were to investigate cardiovascular and temperature actions of the main constituent of khat, cathinone, and to study possible gender differences. Also, since caffeine is often taken together with cathinone, the interaction between caffeine and cathinone was examined. Cathinone had cardiovascular effects in the anaesthetised rat similar to those of methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), and like MDMA, cathinone acts predominantly as an indirect sympathomimetic acting at the noradrenaline transporter. The indirect actions...

Quality of End-of-Life Care in Acute and Community Hospitals from Relatives' Perspectives and Stakeholder Perceptions of the Potential of their Views to Inform Positive Change in Care

Siobhan E. McCarthy
The study investigated the quality of end-of-life care in hospitals settings and the utility of bereaved relatives’ views for improving care. It was conducted over ten years utilizing a multi-phased mixed methods design. In Ireland, 30,000 people die each year. Two thirds die in hospital settings. Yet prior to the initiation of this study in 2007, there was little research examining bereaved relatives’ perspectives of the quality of end-of-life care in hospital settings. There was...

Exercise Beliefs In Elderly Nursing Home Residents: A Cross-Sectional, Case Control Study

Introduction The number of Irish older adults receiving long term care is steadily growing in line with increased life expectancy. Nursing home residents are typically sedentary, leading to poor health and functional outcomes in this population. There is a lack of research concerning the exercise beliefs of this inactive subgroup of the older adult population. Aims and Objectives The primary aim of this study was to examine the hypothesis that older adults in...

Exercise Beliefs In Elderly Nursing Home Residents: A Cross-Sectional, Case Control Study

Introduction The number of Irish older adults receiving long term care is steadily growing in line with increased life expectancy. Nursing home residents are typically sedentary, leading to poor health and functional outcomes in this population. There is a lack of research concerning the exercise beliefs of this inactive subgroup of the older adult population. Aims and Objectives The primary aim of this study was to examine the hypothesis that older adults in...

The Relationship Between Performance On Cognitive Screening Tests And Everyday Functioning In Older Adults With Mild Cognitive Impairment

Elaine Scally
Introduction: Occupational therapists (OTs) play an important role in evaluating the cognitive and functional abilities of older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in the acute hospital setting. Cognitive screening tools such as the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and the Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination (ACE-III) are regularly administered by acute hospital OTs to assist in predicting the functional capacities of individuals with MCI. However findings from clinical practice show that performance on cognitive screening tools is...

The Assessment Of The Usability Of The Vestibular Rehabilitation Application

Patricia Hassett
Introduction Vestibular rehabilitation is used for decreased vestibular function and dizziness. Adaptation exercises are one aspect of vestibular rehabilitation and are recommended in the treatment of these conditions. These exercises are predominantly paper-based which may lead to difficulty in progression of the exercises and monitoring of compliance. Aims and Objectives The aim of the study was to assess the usability of an electronic tablet application; the Vestibular Rehabilitation Application (VRA) in patients with a complaint...

Large-Amplitude Group Exercise Training Programme For Individuals With Mild To Moderate Parkinson’s Disease: A Pilot Intervention Study

Eimear R. Manley
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a complex neurodegenerative disorder, which affects the physical, psychological and functional status of individuals. It is the second most common neurodegenerative disease in the world today affecting approximately 8,000 people in Ireland. The most common motor disturbances related to PD are reduced balance and mobility which can lead to a reduction in physical functional performance and health-related quality of life. Pharmacology is the cornerstone of treatment in PD. However, even with...

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