1,454 Works

A System for Estimating Drug Delivery from a Dry Powder Inhaler by Analysis of Acoustic Recordings of Time-Stamped Inhaler Events

Inhaled medications are the mainstay of therapy in the treatment of chronic respiratory diseases like asthma and COPD because they allow delivery of the active ingredient directly to the site of action. Poor adherence to inhaled controller medications has been estimated to account for up to 60% of asthma-related hospitalizations and increased rates of 30- and 60- day hospital readmissions in patients with COPD. Numerous electronic monitoring devices have been developed over the last four...

An Investigation of Dysregulated Neutrophil Activity in Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency

Sarah A. Landers
Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency (AATD) is characterised by excessive neutrophil degranulation and a protease: anti-protease imbalance leading to premature emphysema. Current specialised treatment for AATD consists of once weekly infusion of plasma purified AAT. Neutrophil degranulation is under the control of small GTP-binding proteins, including Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 2 (Rac2). The molecular basis for aberrant neutrophil degranulation in AATD has not been elucidated to date. The aim of this study was to fully...

A National Study of Wellbeing of Hospital Doctors in Ireland

The working environment for hospital doctors in Ireland has undergone radical change in recent years with hospital posts becoming unattractive to doctors in training and to consultants. For young medical graduates, the tensions between training requirements and service demands have contributed to a ‘brain drain’ with over half leaving to work abroad after graduation. Many consultant posts are vacant or are filled on a temporary basis, impacting on the quality of patient care. This study...

Training doctors to manage patients with multimorbidity

Background Multimorbidity is defined as the presence of two or more chronic diseases in an individual patient. It presents significant clinical, organisational, and educational challenges which are increasingly being addressed by academic and clinical bodies. The overall aim of this project was to assess the training needs, if any, of doctors managing patients with multimorbidity, and to develop an intervention aimed specifically at addressing these needs. The objectives were to thoroughly examine the published literature...

Training doctors to manage patients with multimorbidity

Background Multimorbidity is defined as the presence of two or more chronic diseases in an individual patient. It presents significant clinical, organisational, and educational challenges which are increasingly being addressed by academic and clinical bodies. The overall aim of this project was to assess the training needs, if any, of doctors managing patients with multimorbidity, and to develop an intervention aimed specifically at addressing these needs. The objectives were to thoroughly examine the published literature...

Using Nanotechnology for the Treatment of Recurrent Infection Caused by Staphylococcus Aureus

Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is an opportunistic pathogen causing a wide variety of infections which range in seriousness. Treatment of S. aureus infections is challenging due its ability to a) form protective biofilms, b) survive intracellularly, and c) the emergence of resistant strains. Upon recovery, patients are at high risk of recurrent infection. We hypothesise that recurrent infection is due to the ability of S. aureus to evade the immune system and administered antibacterials by...

Psychometric evaluation of a functional walking test for children with cerebral palsy

Aoife Doyle
The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Functional Walking Test (FWT) for a sample of ambulant children with Cerebral Palsy (CP). This included a review of the reliability, validity and sensitivity of the FWT. CP is a lifelong condition that challenges the individual child and their family. The majority of children with CP will walk either with or without the need for assistive mobility aids. These children will, however,...

The chronic actions of epidermal growth factor on colonic epithelial CI-secretion

Magdalena S. Mroz
Background: The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) plays a critical role in regulating transport processes in the intestine. Since EGFR signalling can become dysregulated in several conditions of intestinal disease, the receptor may contribute to disturbances in fluid and electrolyte transport often associated with such disorders. Several previous studies have focused on investigating acute actions of EGF on epithelial transport function. Here, we sought to elucidate molecular mechanisms involved in mediating chronic actions of EGF...

Identification and characterization of novel a11bB3-integrin binding proteins in human platelets

Rand Alhashmi
The pathological role of platelets in cardiovascular disease is well established. The major platelet cell adhesion molecule, am,(33 has been a target for research into anti-thrombotic agents. It is a cell-surface cell adhesion molecule belonging to the integrin family and it plays a critical role in platelet function. It is present on the plasma membrane of circulating platelets in an inactive or quiescent state. Following vascular injury or thrombotic triggers, it ‘activates’ by undergoing a...

Identification and characterization of novel a11bB3-integrin binding proteins in human platelets

Rand Alhashmi
The pathological role of platelets in cardiovascular disease is well established. The major platelet cell adhesion molecule, am,(33 has been a target for research into anti-thrombotic agents. It is a cell-surface cell adhesion molecule belonging to the integrin family and it plays a critical role in platelet function. It is present on the plasma membrane of circulating platelets in an inactive or quiescent state. Following vascular injury or thrombotic triggers, it ‘activates’ by undergoing a...

A cluster randomised trial of the leg ulcer prevention programme (LUPP) in venous leg ulcer patients within an Irish Community Care setting.

Emer Shanley
Objective: This purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a Leg Ulcer Prevention Programme (LUPP) on patient’s knowledge of, and attitudes and behaviours towards, leg ulcer prevention within the Irish community care setting. Method: The research design employed in this study was a multi-centre, open label, cluster, randomised controlled trial. Participants (average age 74.8 years) had attended the nurse-led clinic in the previous twelve months and had a history of venous leg...

Promoting Compliance with Inhaler Use in Asthma Patients

Elaine Mac Hale
Introduction: Asthma is a chronic airways disease characterised by recurrent attacks of breathlessness and wheezing, which vary in severity and frequency from person to person. Symptoms may occur several times a day or week in affected individuals, and for some people symptoms become worse during physical activity or at night. Intermittent relapse from periods o f stable asthma is the usual clinical course for most adults. Incorrect inhaler usage is a significant problem in asthma...

Software development for the use of a mathematical prediction tool for chemotherapy responsiveness in a clinical and in a research environment

Elisabeth Zink
Since cancer is the second most common cause of death in Ireland (Irish Cancer Society, 2013), there is great potential to improve personal treatment of cancer patients and to reduce the mortality rate. The search for biomarkers to predict the responsiveness to chemotherapy fails for certain cancer types due to their high heterogeneity. Integrating systems knowledge into biomarker research can improve the classification of patients into responder and non-responder. For instance the systems model APOPTO-CELL,...

Software development for the use of a mathematical prediction tool for chemotherapy responsiveness in a clinical and in a research environment

Elisabeth Zink
Since cancer is the second most common cause of death in Ireland (Irish Cancer Society, 2013), there is great potential to improve personal treatment of cancer patients and to reduce the mortality rate. The search for biomarkers to predict the responsiveness to chemotherapy fails for certain cancer types due to their high heterogeneity. Integrating systems knowledge into biomarker research can improve the classification of patients into responder and non-responder. For instance the systems model APOPTO-CELL,...

A Novel Assay of Platelet Function reveals Altered Platelet Activity during Healthy Pregnancy.

Maryam Alobaidly
It is well established that markers of platelet activation are elevated during normal pregnancy. For example, levels of platelet-derived thromboxane are persistently elevated in serum and urine of pregnant women, to levels equivalent to those observed in acute cardiovascular disease. In addition, other markers of platelet activation, such as elevated plasma levels of platelet derived P-Selectin and CD40Ligand, are elevated in pregnancy. However, the clinical significance of platelet activation during pregnancy is not understood. Furthermore,...

A Novel Assay of Platelet Function reveals Altered Platelet Activity during Healthy Pregnancy.

Maryam Alobaidly
It is well established that markers of platelet activation are elevated during normal pregnancy. For example, levels of platelet-derived thromboxane are persistently elevated in serum and urine of pregnant women, to levels equivalent to those observed in acute cardiovascular disease. In addition, other markers of platelet activation, such as elevated plasma levels of platelet derived P-Selectin and CD40Ligand, are elevated in pregnancy. However, the clinical significance of platelet activation during pregnancy is not understood. Furthermore,...

The impact on quality of services of the introduction of a nurse led admission and nurse led discharge process in a surgical day ward

Eileen M. Daly
The study investigated how the introduction of nurse led admission and discharge processes could impact on the quality of service delivered in a surgical day ward. The study used an adapted qualitative outcome analysis (QOA) methodology developed by Morse, Penrod and Hupcy (2000). This complex methodology has 2 phases and 7 steps. Phase 1 included an assessment of the current service using a SWOT analysis, a process mapping exercise and a retrospective documentation evaluation. Phase...

Proteomic Characterisation of Posttranslational Modifications of Histone Proteins in the Prenatally Stressed Mouse Brain

Elizabeth Brindley
Genetic factors have been widely implicated in the study of schizophrenia. Twin and adoption studies estimate the heritability at approximately 80%. The rate of discordance between monozygotic twins is estimated at 65%, indicating that other factors influence the risk of developing schizophrenia. Many environmental factors have been identified that affect one's likelihood of developing this disorder. Examples of these factors include exposure to drugs, psychological stress and nutritional deficiencies, especially during critical time periods, such...

The accuracy of ultrasound, thermography, photography and sub-epidermal moisture as a predictor of pressure ulcer presence – a systematic review

Ana Lucia M. De Oliveira
Aim: To determine the accuracy of SEM, ultrasound, thermography and photography in predicting pressure ulcer presence. Method: Systematic review. Background: Pressure ulcers are areas of skin damage that develop, normally over bony prominences, as a result of pressure and shear. Pressure ulcers are a healthcare problem that impacts in the individual, healthcare system and society. Risk factors such as mobility and nutritional status also influence the onset and aggravation of pressure ulcers. Thus risk assessment...

Investigation of molecular mechanisms of diaphragmatic defects in the nitrofen-induced rat model of congenital diaphragmatic hernia

Toshiaki Takahashi
Developmental mutations that inhibit normal formation of extracellular matrix (ECM) in fetal diaphragms have been identified in congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). FRAS1-related extracellular matrix 1 (FREM1) plays a critical role in the development of the fetal diaphragm. It has been demonstrated that a deficiency of FREM1 can lead to CDH both in humans and mice. Furthermore, FREM1-deficient fetuses exhibit a decreased level of mesenchymal cell proliferation in their developing diaphragms. FRAS1 and FRAS1-related extracellular matrix...

Detection of Glucose Based on Gold & Silver Nanoparticles using Z-scan Technique

Fatema Abdulwahab
Diabetes is a common chronic disease, characterized by defects in insulin action, secretion or both causing hyperglycemia. Diabetes can have serious long-term complications as it important to control blood glucose levels. Chemical and optical methods are used mainly in measuring glucose levels. Chemical methods require drawing blood several times a day which is uncomfortable for the patient. Optical sensor measurements are affected by physical and chemical parameters and environmental changes. In this study, we propose...

A profile of elderly fallers attending the emergency department and their patterns of healthcare utilisation

Sophie L. Lang
Introduction: Falls are the commonest reason why an older person presents to the Emergency Department (ED) in Ireland and can account for 20-40% of attendances (Aminzadeh and Dalziel 2002). As the population ages it is anticipated that the incidence of falls will increase (Barrett et al, 2011). A profile of the elderly faller could identify the healthcare services in which this population relies on. Aims and Objectives: The aims of this study were to...

A profile of elderly fallers attending the emergency department and their patterns of healthcare utilisation

Sophie L. Lang
Introduction: Falls are the commonest reason why an older person presents to the Emergency Department (ED) in Ireland and can account for 20-40% of attendances (Aminzadeh and Dalziel 2002). As the population ages it is anticipated that the incidence of falls will increase (Barrett et al, 2011). A profile of the elderly faller could identify the healthcare services in which this population relies on. Aims and Objectives: The aims of this study were to...

Experiences of staff and family members of inpatients with dementia where personal passports are used to support care in an acute setting

Susan Elizabeth O' Reilly
Background The National Dementia Strategy indicates that people with dementia represent up to 29% of acute hospital admissions. With the prevalence of dementia predicted to rise significantly, it is reasonable to assume that the number of people with dementia presenting at acute hospital services will also increase. Yet, the National Audit of Dementia Care in Acute Hospitals identified that inpatients with dementia had notably poorer care outcomes than inpatients without dementia. The effective use of...

Social Relationships, Depression and BMI in Older Irish Adults

Amanda Villiers-Tuthill
Older adults’ social relationships influence both mental and physical health outcomes, and reciprocal influences between loneliness and depression have been demonstrated over time. Social and mental health are both important considerations for Ireland’s ageing population. Obesity represents another public health concern among the ageing population, and is also associated with depression. ‘Social relationships’ is an umbrella term that encompasses both subjective relationship measures such as loneliness and relationship quality, and objective relationship measures such as...

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