1,454 Works

Torticollis of infancy: the reliability of visual estimation in the assessment of cervical spine active rotation and head tilt by physiotherapists and the impact of clinical experience on that reliability.

Anthea Seager
Introduction: Torticollis is a clinical sign of asymmetric neck posture. In infancy, the most common causes are muscular in nature and can be classified as Congenital Muscular Torticollis or Postural Torticollis. Assessment of neck function is essential for diagnosis and management of torticollis. A systematic review demonstrated a paucity of reliable and valid measurement tools, in particular for the assessment of postural side-flexion (head tilt) and active neck rotation, in the upright position. Furthermore, most...

The development of a novel antagonist for the treatment of cardiovascular disease

Rawan A. Alduaij
The binding of VWF to GpIb-α is a critical step for maintaining normal haemostasis. The interaction between VWF with GpIb initiates the adhesion and aggregation of platelets at an injury site in the blood vessel wall. This binding is specific to high shear conditions that are typically found in small arterioles where the shear rates vary between 500-5000 s-1 . However, excessive binding of GpIb-α and VWF under normal conditions can cause stroke or myocardial...

New Research on the Importance of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Function for Optimal Neutrophil Activity

Michelle M. White, Fatma Gargoum, Niall Browne, Killian Hurley, Noel G. McElvaney & Emer P. Reeves
Despite tremendous recent advances in our understanding of the molecular and cellular basis of cystic fibrosis (CF), there remains a paradox of why recruited neutrophils fail to eradicate bacterial infections in the airways of individuals with CF. The focus of this chapter is on new research authenticating the CF neutrophil as a key player in disease pathogenesis. Studies specifying intrinsic abnormalities due to a lack of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) function, along with...

Aldosterone/MR Signaling, Oxidative Stress, and Vascular Dysfunction

Ana M. Briones & Rhian M. Touyz
The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) is a transcription factor of the family of steroid receptors that classically binds the hormone aldosterone. The contribution of MR in the regulation of sodium retention and blood pressure is well known. However, MR is expressed in extrarenal tissues including endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells, and its activation leads to vascular remodeling, vascular stiffness, and endothelial dysfunction leading to vascular damage, an important pathophysiological process in hypertension and other cardiovascular...

Potential Benefit of Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists in Kidney Diseases

Since the last two decades, a major paradigm shift occurred in our understanding of the physiological and pathophysiological roles of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR). Expression of the MR in cells/tissues not involved in sodium/potassium balance and extracellular volume homeostasis, i.e., the primary role of the aldosterone/MR complex, paved the way to the discovery of unsuspected implications of MR in a variety of cellular processes and pathological consequences. It also opens the possibility for quick translation...

MicroRNAs in Aldosterone Production and Action

Scott M. MacKenzie, Josie Van Kralingen & Hannah Martin
The secretion of aldosterone by the adrenal cortex is a tightly regulated process. Loss of this control can result in severe hypertension and end-organ damage, so detailed understanding of the various mechanisms by which the body regulates aldosterone biosynthesis is key. The emergence of microRNAs (miRNAs) as negative regulators of numerous physiological processes has naturally led to their study in the context of aldosterone production. We summarise several studies that have demonstrated a significant role...

Post-Translational Modification of MR Activity

Diego Alvarez De La Rosa & Natalia Serrano-Morillas
The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that transduces the effects of aldosterone and glucocorticoids in a tissue- and cell type-specific ways. Differential regulation of MR by post-translational modifications (PTMs) has been proposed to play a key role in modulating its function. In addition, modifications of other proteins that physically or functionally interact with MR add an additional layer of regulation to aldosterone or glucocorticoid signaling. In this chapter, we will summarize the...

SiteBinder: an improved approach for comparing multiple protein structural motifs.

David Sehnal, Radka Svobodová Vařeková, Heinrich J. Huber, Stanislav Geidl, , Michaela Wimmerová & Jaroslav Koča
There is a paramount need to develop new techniques and tools that will extract as much information as possible from the ever growing repository of protein 3D structures. We report here on the development of a software tool for the multiple superimposition of large sets of protein structural motifs. Our superimposition methodology performs a systematic search for the atom pairing that provides the best fit. During this search, the RMSD values for all chemically relevant...

The Mental Health of Young People in Ireland: A report of the Psychiatric Epidemology Research across the Lifespan (PERL) Group

Mary Cannon, Helen Coughlan, Mary Clarke, Michelle Harley & Ian Kelleher
There is increasing concern about the mental health of young people in Ireland. Reports of psychological distress, substance abuse and suicide among Irish youths have become common. While we know that many young people in Ireland are experiencing mental distress, little research has been done to determine the actual number of young people who are experiencing a diagnosable mental disorder. This report goes some way towards addressing this issue by presenting findings from two research...

Pharmacy Education and Training in Ireland. The PHARMINE survey of European higher education institutions delivering pharmacy education & training - Ireland, 2010.

Judith Strawbridge, Lorraine Horgan, Christine Capdeville-Atkinson, Lea Noel & Jeffrey Atkinson
Pharmacy education is provided for in Ireland by three Higher Education Institutions; The Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (RCSI), University of Dublin, Trinity College (TCD), and University College Cork (UCC). TCD was the sole provider of the undergraduate programme from 1977 until 2002 when the School of Pharmacy RCSI opened. The Schools educate approximately 150 students per annum. Applications to study pharmacy are far in excess of the places available as demand is high,...

National Survey of Stroke Survivors: Documenting the Experiences and Levels of Self-Reported Long-Term Need in Stroke Survivors in the First 5 years.Systematic Review:Factors Associated with Community Re-integration in the First 12 months Post Stroke: A Qualitative Synthesis.

Mary Walsh, Rose Galvin, Chris Macey, & Frances Horgan
Introduction In Ireland it is estimated that there are 30,000 persons living with residual effects of stroke.1 The Irish National Audit of Stroke Care, carried out in 2007, identified substantial deficits in a number of areas including discharge planning, rehabilitation, on-going secondary prevention, and communication with patients and families.2 The present study builds on the findings of the audit. It explores in detail the current needs of people post stroke in Ireland who are...

National Survey of Stroke Survivors: Documenting the Experiences and Levels of Self-Reported Long-Term Need in Stroke Survivors in the First 5 years.Systematic Review:Factors Associated with Community Re-integration in the First 12 months Post Stroke: A Qualitative Synthesis.

Mary Walsh, Rose Galvin, Chris Macey, & Frances Horgan
Introduction In Ireland it is estimated that there are 30,000 persons living with residual effects of stroke.1 The Irish National Audit of Stroke Care, carried out in 2007, identified substantial deficits in a number of areas including discharge planning, rehabilitation, on-going secondary prevention, and communication with patients and families.2 The present study builds on the findings of the audit. It explores in detail the current needs of people post stroke in Ireland who are...

Recruitment to Exercise Programmes: Challenges in the Peripheral Arterial Disease Population

Marie Guidon, Melissa Chavira, Hannah McGee, Ricky Sheahan & Cathal Kelly
Current evidence suggests that 27 million people in Europe and North America have peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Although only 3% of patients with intermittent claudication (IC) require amputation, a significant number will require hospital admission and other surgical intervention for IC and associated cardiac and cerebrovascular complications. An important aim of exercise therapy in the peripheral arterial disease population is to decrease cardiovascular risk factors and consequent morbidity and mortality. Several studies have demonstrated that...

Quality of Life and Functional Capacity following Peripheral Arterial Disease Exercise Programme

Marie Guidon, Hannah McGee & Cathal Kelly
Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a manifestation of generalised atherosclerotic disease in which the arterial lumen becomes progressively narrowed by atherosclerotic plaques. This results in reduced blood flow to the tissues causing pain on exercise, relieved by rest (Intermittent Claudication [IC]). As PAD is a chronic, progressive disease with a significant cardiovascular and cerebrovascular risk burden it has a considerable impact on functional capacity and quality of life (QOL). Current evidence suggests that 27 million...

Design, implementation and validation of the e-portfolio: A comprehensive educational aid

Anne Collins
When constructing an educational portfolio, students build their learning from real medical cases, thus reducing the gap between theory and practice.[l] Such portfolios enable learners to act and learn autonomously and assess their own strengths and weaknesses. They also assist with the clarification of learning goals and the monitoring of how these goals are achieved. The provision of regular feedback indicates to students how well they are performing and how they could improve.[2] Portfolios therefore...

Design, implementation and validation of the e-portfolio: A comprehensive educational aid

Anne Collins
When constructing an educational portfolio, students build their learning from real medical cases, thus reducing the gap between theory and practice.[l] Such portfolios enable learners to act and learn autonomously and assess their own strengths and weaknesses. They also assist with the clarification of learning goals and the monitoring of how these goals are achieved. The provision of regular feedback indicates to students how well they are performing and how they could improve.[2] Portfolios therefore...

Role of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signalling pathway in cancers of the head and neck.

Garrett MP Brady
Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas, or oral cancer, is the sixth most common cancer globally and is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. The incidence of oral cancer is rising annually and though there have been advances inresearch and treatment, there has been no improvement of patient survival rates. Additionally, no specific marker is in routine use to predict the clinical behaviour of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). In recent years, aberrant expression...

Design of novel drill guide device for cement removal in revision hip arthroplasty.

Ian Robertson
Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is one of the most commonly performed surgical procedures. The requirement for revision hip arthroplasty (RHA) is increasing due to the increased use of THA in the elderly population and in younger patients with high physical demands. The revision rate for THA is approximately 10% at ten years. Removal of the distal cement plug in revision hip arthroplasty is a technically challenging procedure. Its location makes it difficult to visualise and...

Design of novel drill guide device for cement removal in revision hip arthroplasty.

Ian Robertson
Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is one of the most commonly performed surgical procedures. The requirement for revision hip arthroplasty (RHA) is increasing due to the increased use of THA in the elderly population and in younger patients with high physical demands. The revision rate for THA is approximately 10% at ten years. Removal of the distal cement plug in revision hip arthroplasty is a technically challenging procedure. Its location makes it difficult to visualise and...

In vivo and in vitro degradation of tissue engineered collagen and mineralised collagen scaffolds used in bone tissue engineering

Stephen M. Kieran
A clinical need exists to provide alternatives to autologous bone grafting for the reconstruction of head and neck bone defects. This thesis examines the utility and success of a tissue engineering approach to this problem using novel collagen based scaffolds combined with mesenchymal stem cells. The objective of this work was to determine how the addition of a calcium phosphate mineral phase to a collagen-based scaffold, designed for use in bone tissue engineering, affects the...

In vivo and in vitro degradation of tissue engineered collagen and mineralised collagen scaffolds used in bone tissue engineering

Stephen M. Kieran
A clinical need exists to provide alternatives to autologous bone grafting for the reconstruction of head and neck bone defects. This thesis examines the utility and success of a tissue engineering approach to this problem using novel collagen based scaffolds combined with mesenchymal stem cells. The objective of this work was to determine how the addition of a calcium phosphate mineral phase to a collagen-based scaffold, designed for use in bone tissue engineering, affects the...

Statistical shape analysis and principal component analysis of the clavicle

"The chief use of the clavicle is to hold the shoulder blade at the proper distance from the breastbone, since motion of the shoulder would be hindered if the two came close together, as seen in four-footed animals that can use their forefeet only for walking, and not in the way that men need their hands." - Therselben, 1790 Although anthropometric work on the clavicle by Broca dates as far back as 1869 according to...

Structured proficiency based progression phacoemulsification training curriculum using virtual reality simulator technology

The current method of surgical training is based on the Halstedian model where novice surgeons learn by observing and performing surgery under supervision. Cataract extraction by phacoemulsification is a type of minimally invasive surgery where direct observation is inadequate in revealing how things are done. Operating under the microscope takes away the direct hand-eye coordination. During the operation, a novice surgeon has to pay disproportionate amount of attention to psychomotor performance, depth and spatial judgment,...

Effects of resistance training and neuromuscular electrical stimulation in knee osteoarthritis : a randomised control trial.

Robert A. Bruce-Brand
This study compared the effects of 6-week home-based resistance training (RT) and neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) programs on self-reported disability, functional capacity, quadriceps strength and cross-sectional area (CSA), and expression of myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms and ubiquitin-protein ligases in older persons with moderate to severe knee osteoarthritis (OA). A total of 41 patients aged 55 to 75 years with arthroscopically or radiographically confirmed moderate to severe knee OA were randomised to a 6-week home...

Biomechanical and computational analysis of the use of void filling synthetic bone graft substitute in complex proximal humerus fractures

James F. Kennedy
This thesis represents the results of work carried out by myself, Jim Kennedy, with the co-operation and facilitation of others. Full ethics approval for all the work contained in this thesis was received form the research ethics committee of the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Initial work on developing mechanical tests was performed in the Bioengineering Laboratory in the School of Electrical and Mechanical Engineering in University College Dublin, under the supervision of Mr....

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