24 Works

Case-based Reporting and Analysis to Enhance the Value and Use of Routine Health Facility Data for Health Policy, Programming and Research: Case Study of a New Malaria Surveillance System in The Gambia

Samuel Emetu Anya
A sustained decline in the burden of malaria from 2003 to 2007 in The Gambiahighlighted the need for real-time data to monitor the changing epidemiology ofmalaria. The aim of the studies described in this thesis was to determine thevalue and use of routine case-based health facility data for malaria policy,programming and research.To achieve this aim, individual, rather than aggregate, malaria case records atthe six sentinel sites were analysed by age, sex, month, season and location.The...

A study of the androgen mediated transcriptome and AR interactome in AI resistant breast cancer

Rachel Bleach
Aromatase inhibitors (AI) are the vanguard treatment for hormone receptor positive, postmenopausal breast cancer, however, acquired resistance occurs in up to 40% of patients. AI therapies, by their mechanism of action, create a predominantly androgenic steroid environment. In this study, a multi-omic approach was undertaken to elucidate the role of the androgen receptor (AR) in AI resistant breast cancer. Evidence from this study suggests that cancer cells adapt to utilise the adrenal prohormone, androstenedione and/or...

Development of a Novel Pro-angiogenic SDF-1α Gene-Activated Collagen Scaffold for Diabetic Wound Healing

Diabetes is a disease that arises due to the loss or impairment of the body’s ability to control the blood glucose level. Hyperglycemia leads to alterations in the structural functions of both macro and microvascular systems, causing vascular complications in diabetic patients such as the diabetic foot ulcer. In diabetic wounds, inadequate angiogenesis is one of the significant pathological factors hindering the progression to regular healing events. During wound healing, various cells orchestrate to promote...

The development of novel inhibitors for the treatment of sepsis

Sepsis is a potentially dangerous disease that is caused by the response of the body toan infection. Its major cause is the invasion of microorganisms in the sterile regions of thebody. In septic patients, platelets are activated by the bacteria leading to haemostaticcomplications including thrombocytopenia and associated bleeding complications. Withthe widespread development of antibiotic resistance, we have explored the developmentof inhibitors that prevent host colonization as well as inhibitors of platelet activation thatprevent the bacterial...

Development of a Novel Pro-angiogenic SDF-1α Gene-Activated Collagen Scaffold for Diabetic Wound Healing

Diabetes is a disease that arises due to the loss or impairment of the body’s ability to control the blood glucose level. Hyperglycemia leads to alterations in the structural functions of both macro and microvascular systems, causing vascular complications in diabetic patients such as the diabetic foot ulcer. In diabetic wounds, inadequate angiogenesis is one of the significant pathological factors hindering the progression to regular healing events. During wound healing, various cells orchestrate to promote...

Case-based Reporting and Analysis to Enhance the Value and Use of Routine Health Facility Data for Health Policy, Programming and Research: Case Study of a New Malaria Surveillance System in The Gambia

Samuel Emetu Anya
A sustained decline in the burden of malaria from 2003 to 2007 in The Gambiahighlighted the need for real-time data to monitor the changing epidemiology ofmalaria. The aim of the studies described in this thesis was to determine thevalue and use of routine case-based health facility data for malaria policy,programming and research.To achieve this aim, individual, rather than aggregate, malaria case records atthe six sentinel sites were analysed by age, sex, month, season and location.The...

A study of the androgen mediated transcriptome and AR interactome in AI resistant breast cancer

Rachel Bleach
Aromatase inhibitors (AI) are the vanguard treatment for hormone receptor positive, postmenopausal breast cancer, however, acquired resistance occurs in up to 40% of patients. AI therapies, by their mechanism of action, create a predominantly androgenic steroid environment. In this study, a multi-omic approach was undertaken to elucidate the role of the androgen receptor (AR) in AI resistant breast cancer. Evidence from this study suggests that cancer cells adapt to utilise the adrenal prohormone, androstenedione and/or...

Guidelines for the development of multiple choice items & assessments.

Jane Holland & Niall Stevens
All assessment methods have varying strengths and weaknesses, and it is appropriate that multiple formats, such as MCQs, OSCEs and portfolios, are used within a robust programme of assessment for undergraduate and postgraduate medical programmes. This booklet is designed to provide guidance to RCSI staff on the development of multiple choice items and assessments specifically. As such, it is an introduction to multiple facets of this process, such as item writing, assessment blueprinting, standard setting...

Knowledge, Behavior and Attitude of Nurses Regarding Prevention of Central Line Associated Blood Stream Infections

Iyad Salem Ahmad Al-Yateem
The level of knowledge of nursing staff handling patients with Central Venous Catheters has been reported internationally as one of the factors contributing to the increasing incidence of Central Line Associated Blood Stream Infections (Alkubati et al., 2015; Chen et al., 2015). This study aimed to identify the Level of knowledge, behavior, and attitude of nurses in Adult and Hemodialysis Units in a military hospital in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia regarding Central Line Associated...

Attitudes of Emergency Nurses to Evidence Based Practice in the Emergency Department of a Multi-Specialty Hospital

Ciara Rooney
Background: Despite the growing body of evidence produced by and for nurses, moving evidence from research into practice remains challenging. These challenges can be attributed in part, to attitudes of nurses towards evidence based practice. This study examined attitudes to evidence based practice among Emergency Department nurses and factors which influenced these attitudes such as: years of experience in nursing, country of education, practice outside country of education, perception of the culture of the organisation,...

Attitudes of Emergency Nurses to Evidence Based Practice in the Emergency Department of a Multi-Specialty Hospital

Ciara Rooney
Background: Despite the growing body of evidence produced by and for nurses, moving evidence from research into practice remains challenging. These challenges can be attributed in part, to attitudes of nurses towards evidence based practice. This study examined attitudes to evidence based practice among Emergency Department nurses and factors which influenced these attitudes such as: years of experience in nursing, country of education, practice outside country of education, perception of the culture of the organisation,...

The development of novel inhibitors for the treatment of sepsis

Sepsis is a potentially dangerous disease that is caused by the response of the body toan infection. Its major cause is the invasion of microorganisms in the sterile regions of thebody. In septic patients, platelets are activated by the bacteria leading to haemostaticcomplications including thrombocytopenia and associated bleeding complications. Withthe widespread development of antibiotic resistance, we have explored the developmentof inhibitors that prevent host colonization as well as inhibitors of platelet activation thatprevent the bacterial...

The Nature and Quality of the Delivery of Prosthodontic Care in the Kingdom of Bahrain

Talal Al-Alawi
The nature and quality of the delivery of prosthodontic care in the Kingdom ofBahrain project is a comprehensive assessment of the standards andpractice which are currently undertaken in the delivery of prosthodontic carein the Kingdom of Bahrain. The project consists of six investigations toevaluate different aspects of prosthodontic care in Bahrain. Theinvestigations were completed during the period 2010-2018, and aimed: (i) toassess the quality of prescription writing for different types of dentalprostheses, (ii) to investigate...

Targeting the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways to enhance chemoradiotherapy responsiveness in colorectal cancer

Aoife Carr
Purpose: Late stage colorectal cancer (CRC) is currently treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy (NACRT), however, responses are not uniform. The PI3K and MAPK pathways have been implicated in tumourigenesis, poor patient outcomes and resistance to chemoradiation therapy (CRT).Methods: Whole-exome sequencing and mutational analysis were carried out on pre-treatment tumour biopsies from locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) patients (n=26). LARC patients (n=66) were monitored for circulating tumour cells (CTCs) and mutational variations in blood and tissue...

Neonatal Noise Exposure and Noise Reduction During Transport

Nurul Aminudin
Inter-hospital transport of sick neonates for specialist care is often necessary, but older studies suggest it may expose them to high levels of noise that may cause distress, autonomic instability and even noise induced hearing loss (NIHL). There have been advances in transport equipment standards, but little effort to address this issue. There is paucity of data on the effects of noise levels experienced by neonates undergoing inter-hospital nor on the effects it may have...

Guidelines for the development of multiple choice items & assessments.

Jane Holland & Niall Stevens
All assessment methods have varying strengths and weaknesses, and it is appropriate that multiple formats, such as MCQs, OSCEs and portfolios, are used within a robust programme of assessment for undergraduate and postgraduate medical programmes. This booklet is designed to provide guidance to RCSI staff on the development of multiple choice items and assessments specifically. As such, it is an introduction to multiple facets of this process, such as item writing, assessment blueprinting, standard setting...

Exploring perioperative handoff communication amongst an expatriate healthcare team

Stephanie Mantley
Aim: To explore participant experiences and perceptions of perioperative handoff communication amongst an expatriate healthcare team in a tertiary hospital in the United Arab Emirates (UAE).Background: Expatriates comprise ninety percent of the UAE’s healthcare workforce. Subsequent workforce diversity results in varied languages, culture, education, and experience, posing implications for communication. The perioperative setting is a time challenged, efficiency driven environment where handoff communication is subject to various challenges, and poor communication is linked to adverse...

Knowledge, Behavior and Attitude of Nurses Regarding Prevention of Central Line Associated Blood Stream Infections

Iyad Salem Ahmad Al-Yateem
The level of knowledge of nursing staff handling patients with Central Venous Catheters has been reported internationally as one of the factors contributing to the increasing incidence of Central Line Associated Blood Stream Infections (Alkubati et al., 2015; Chen et al., 2015). This study aimed to identify the Level of knowledge, behavior, and attitude of nurses in Adult and Hemodialysis Units in a military hospital in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia regarding Central Line Associated...

Neonatal Noise Exposure and Noise Reduction During Transport

Nurul Aminudin
Inter-hospital transport of sick neonates for specialist care is often necessary, but older studies suggest it may expose them to high levels of noise that may cause distress, autonomic instability and even noise induced hearing loss (NIHL). There have been advances in transport equipment standards, but little effort to address this issue. There is paucity of data on the effects of noise levels experienced by neonates undergoing inter-hospital nor on the effects it may have...

Aspirin for Optimising Pregnancy Outcome in Pregestational Diabetes The IRELAnD Study (Investigating the Role of Early Low-dose Aspirin in pre-existing Diabetes)

Hala Abu Subeih
Background: The role of aspirin in reducing the risk of preeclampsia and improving perinatal outcome for pregnancies complicated by a diagnosis of pregestational diabetes mellitus has been investigated in few studies, which have revealed conflicting results. The arteriopathic characteristic of type I and type II diabetes, coupled with the pro-thrombotic nature of pregnancy, confer on aspirin a potential to ameliorate placental insufficiency-mediated morbidity frequently observed in these high risk pregnancies.Objectives: To investigate the proportion of...

Aspirin for Optimising Pregnancy Outcome in Pregestational Diabetes The IRELAnD Study (Investigating the Role of Early Low-dose Aspirin in pre-existing Diabetes)

Hala Abu Subeih
Background: The role of aspirin in reducing the risk of preeclampsia and improving perinatal outcome for pregnancies complicated by a diagnosis of pregestational diabetes mellitus has been investigated in few studies, which have revealed conflicting results. The arteriopathic characteristic of type I and type II diabetes, coupled with the pro-thrombotic nature of pregnancy, confer on aspirin a potential to ameliorate placental insufficiency-mediated morbidity frequently observed in these high risk pregnancies.Objectives: To investigate the proportion of...

Targeting the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways to enhance chemoradiotherapy responsiveness in colorectal cancer

Aoife Carr
Purpose: Late stage colorectal cancer (CRC) is currently treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy (NACRT), however, responses are not uniform. The PI3K and MAPK pathways have been implicated in tumourigenesis, poor patient outcomes and resistance to chemoradiation therapy (CRT).Methods: Whole-exome sequencing and mutational analysis were carried out on pre-treatment tumour biopsies from locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) patients (n=26). LARC patients (n=66) were monitored for circulating tumour cells (CTCs) and mutational variations in blood and tissue...

The Nature and Quality of the Delivery of Prosthodontic Care in the Kingdom of Bahrain

Talal Al-Alawi
The nature and quality of the delivery of prosthodontic care in the Kingdom ofBahrain project is a comprehensive assessment of the standards andpractice which are currently undertaken in the delivery of prosthodontic carein the Kingdom of Bahrain. The project consists of six investigations toevaluate different aspects of prosthodontic care in Bahrain. Theinvestigations were completed during the period 2010-2018, and aimed: (i) toassess the quality of prescription writing for different types of dentalprostheses, (ii) to investigate...

Exploring perioperative handoff communication amongst an expatriate healthcare team

Stephanie Mantley
Aim: To explore participant experiences and perceptions of perioperative handoff communication amongst an expatriate healthcare team in a tertiary hospital in the United Arab Emirates (UAE).Background: Expatriates comprise ninety percent of the UAE’s healthcare workforce. Subsequent workforce diversity results in varied languages, culture, education, and experience, posing implications for communication. The perioperative setting is a time challenged, efficiency driven environment where handoff communication is subject to various challenges, and poor communication is linked to adverse...

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