239 Works

Platelet-bacterial interactions in the pathogenesis of infective endocarditis. Part II: The Staphylococcus

Steven W. Kerrigan
Infective Endocarditis is a microbial infection characterised by the presence of septic vegetations on the surface of the endocardium (Moreillon and Que, 2004). Infection most commonly occurs on the heart valves that has been damaged by congenital defects such as previous disease or trauma (Durack, 1995). As a result these sites have the ability to generate turbulent blood flow which in turn can cause damage to inner most lining of the blood vessels, the endothelium,...

New Research on the Importance of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Function for Optimal Neutrophil Activity

Michelle M. White, Fatma Gargoum, Niall Browne, Killian Hurley, Noel G. McElvaney & Emer P. Reeves
Despite tremendous recent advances in our understanding of the molecular and cellular basis of cystic fibrosis (CF), there remains a paradox of why recruited neutrophils fail to eradicate bacterial infections in the airways of individuals with CF. The focus of this chapter is on new research authenticating the CF neutrophil as a key player in disease pathogenesis. Studies specifying intrinsic abnormalities due to a lack of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) function, along with...

Mineralocorticoid Receptor and Leptin: A Dangerous Liaison in the Obese Heart

Gema Marin-Royo, María Luaces, Victoria Cachofeiro & Ernesto Martínez-Martínez
Multiple factors have been proposed as being responsible for cardiac damage in the context of obesity, including aldosterone/mineralocorticoid receptor and leptin. Aldosterone exerts proinflammatory, prooxidant and profibrotic actions, which can play a key role in the development of cardiac damage associated with different pathologies, through binding of mineralocorticoid receptor (MR). Moreover, its pharmacological blockade has demonstrated to improve these situations. Different studies have demonstrated that aldosterone is inappropriately elevated in obesity and MR antagonism improves...

Potential Benefit of Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists in Kidney Diseases

Since the last two decades, a major paradigm shift occurred in our understanding of the physiological and pathophysiological roles of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR). Expression of the MR in cells/tissues not involved in sodium/potassium balance and extracellular volume homeostasis, i.e., the primary role of the aldosterone/MR complex, paved the way to the discovery of unsuspected implications of MR in a variety of cellular processes and pathological consequences. It also opens the possibility for quick translation...

MicroRNAs in Aldosterone Production and Action

Scott M. MacKenzie, Josie Van Kralingen & Hannah Martin
The secretion of aldosterone by the adrenal cortex is a tightly regulated process. Loss of this control can result in severe hypertension and end-organ damage, so detailed understanding of the various mechanisms by which the body regulates aldosterone biosynthesis is key. The emergence of microRNAs (miRNAs) as negative regulators of numerous physiological processes has naturally led to their study in the context of aldosterone production. We summarise several studies that have demonstrated a significant role...

Post-Translational Modification of MR Activity

Diego Alvarez De La Rosa & Natalia Serrano-Morillas
The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that transduces the effects of aldosterone and glucocorticoids in a tissue- and cell type-specific ways. Differential regulation of MR by post-translational modifications (PTMs) has been proposed to play a key role in modulating its function. In addition, modifications of other proteins that physically or functionally interact with MR add an additional layer of regulation to aldosterone or glucocorticoid signaling. In this chapter, we will summarize the...

Female Genital Mutilation. Information for Health-Care Professionals Working in Ireland.

, Sudha Patel, Andrea Scharfe Nugent, Kate Aboud, , Jane Cuthill, Frances Finn, Fiona Fox, , Ghada Karakoshi, Chandra Mishra, , Michelle O'Connor, Carol O'Rourke, Anita Pappas, & Nisa Zaib
AkiDwA, the African and Migrant Women’s Network in Ireland, developed this resource as part of a project funded by the Office of the Minister for Integration, examining the health-care needs of women who have undergone female genital mutilation (FGM) in their countries of origin and who now reside in Ireland. As the project developed in 2008, it became apparent that there were few resources for health-care professionals working in Ireland encountering these women, who may...

Junctional Adhesion Molecules (JAMs) - New Players in Breast Cancer?

, Kieran Brennan & Ann M. Hopkins
Worldwide, breast cancer remains a leading cause of death amongst women. Annually, it i sestimated that breast cancer is diagnosed in over a million women (Kasler et al., 2009) with over 450,000 deaths worldwide (Tirona et al., 2010). The incidence of the disease is highest in economically-developed countries, with lower rates in developing countries. Despite continual advances in breast cancer care which have led to reduced mortality, however, the incidence of the disease is still...

Tissue Engineered Solutions for Intracardiac Septal Defects: A Large Step Forward in an Unmet Clinical Need.

Aamir Hameed, Garry P. Duffy, Babar Hasan &
Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the occurrence of an anomaly in the heart structure during fetal development. The incidence of CHD is estimated to be 8 per 1000 live births in the United States, 6.9 per 1000 live births in Europe and 9.3 per 1000 live births in Asia.1 CHD varies in severity and timing of emergence of symptoms, hence they differ in ways of management.

Identification Of Environmental Variables For Use In Monitoring For The Evaluation Of The Rural Environment Protection Scheme – End of Project Report - 5190a

John Finn, Brendan P. Kavanagh & Maeve Flynn
The aim of this study was to identify and select quantitative environmental attributes for a monitoring programme that may be integrated into an environmental evaluation of Ireland’s agri-environmental scheme. This was achieved primarily by reviewing a range of agri-environmental indicators and suggesting indicators that would be appropriate for monitoring the REPS. The study conducted a desk review to collate information on current best practice in monitoring for environmental quality. A Project Group (comprising representatives from...

Does pain mediate or moderate the relationship between physical activity and depressive symptoms in older people?

Caroline Kelleher, Anne Hickey, Ronan Conroy & Frank Doyle
A recent study involving participants 50 years and older from Northern Ireland (NI) and the Republic of Ireland (RoI) (N=6159) found core depressive symptoms (i.e. depressed mood and anhedonia) in 7.2% of their nationally representative sample (Morgan, O’Farrell, Doyle and McGee, 2011). This study also showed that those who were engaged in moderate to high levels of physical activity (PA) had a 50-56% reduction in the odds of having elevated depressive symptoms compared to those...

Does pain mediate or moderate the relationship between physical activity and depressive symptoms in older people?

Caroline Kelleher, Anne Hickey, Ronán Conroy & Frank Doyle
A recent study involving participants 50 years and older from Northern Ireland (NI) and the Republic of Ireland (RoI) (N=6159) found core depressive symptoms (i.e. depressed mood and anhedonia) in 7.2% of their nationally representative sample (Morgan, O’Farrell, Doyle and McGee, 2011). This study also showed that those who were engaged in moderate to high levels of physical activity (PA) had a 50-56% reduction in the odds of having elevated depressive symptoms compared to those...

Brain Drain to Brain Gain: Ireland's Two-Way Flow of Doctors

Aisling Walsh & Ruairi Brugha
Medical workforce stressors continue to undermine Ireland’s ability to achieve medical workforce sustainability and compliance with the WHO Global Code on the International Recruitment of health personnel. These include: i) high rates of emigration among graduates of Irish medical schools, attracted by working conditions, training and career opportunities in other English speaking countries; ii) the need to be compliant with the European Working Time Directive, which restricts hospital doctors’ working week; and iii) increasing demand....

Implementation of the 4th Joint Societies’ Task Force Guidelines on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Clinical Practice. Evaluating implementation across 13 European countries. Main report

Hannah Mc Gee, Karen Morgan & Helen Burke
The Guidelines of the 4th Joint Societies Task Force on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Clinical Practice (4th JTF)* were issued in 2007, summarising and evaluating available evidence on reducing the incidence of atherosclerotic events arising from coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease and peripheral arterial disease. The purpose of the guidelines is to assist physicians in selecting the best strategies for managing cardiovascular disease. They are an important agreed protocol across countries and professionals that have...

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