1,333 Works

Health Impact Assessment of Solar Disinfection (SODIS) of Drinking Water in Three African Countries

The European Union (EU) under the Specific Programme, Integrating and Strengthening the European Research Area, Call Title: Specific Targeted Projects for African, Caribbean, Pacific Partner Countries, Call Identifier: FP6-2004-INCO-DEV-3, funded the project titled: Solar Disinfection of Drinking Water in Developing Countries or in Emergency Situation (SODISWATER), grant agreement number 013650. The project started in October 2006 and ended in March 2010. The aim of SODISWATER was to demonstrate that Solar Disinfection (SODIS) of drinking water...

Analysis of osteogenesis on a novel collagen glycosaminoglycan scaffold- in vitro application for bone tissue engineering

Michael Keogh
Currently, there exists a need to develop new bone graft substitutes as an alternative to conventional autografting and allografting treatments due to disadvantages such as cost, scarcity of tissue, multiple surgical procedures and the risk of infection. Tissue engineering provides an alternative solution and relies extensively on the use of porous scaffolds to provide the appropriate environment for the regeneration of tissues and organs. These scaffolds are typically seeded with cells and occasionally growth factors...

Molecular epidemiology of carriage and disease associated strains of serogroup C Neisseria meningitidis, in the Irish Republic following the introduction of the meningococcal conjugate vaccine.

Robert Martin Mulhall
In the Irish Republic during the 1990s incidence meningococcal disease caused by serogroup C increased dramatically. During the 1999-2000 epidemiological year Ireland had the highest reported incidence of meningococcal disease in Europe (www.hpsc.ie). The national menC vaccination programme was introduced into the infant schedule in October 2000 and also offered to all persons under 23 years. At the same time, as part of a period of enhanced surveillance following the vaccine introduction, the National Meningococcal...

Use of Aliphatic and Aromatic Styryl Isoxazoles as Versatile Intermediates for the Synthesis of Peptidomimetics, Drug Molecules and Optically Active Building Blocks for Organic Synthesis

Robert Wells
The aim of the project is the development of novel MRI imaging agents for the early diagnosis of platelet-rich thrombi. These novel agents were designed to allow use of multiple reporting techniques such as MRI, UV-fluorescence, near IR fluorescence and to target the platelet specific integrin GPIIbIIIIa. Progress in the understanding of the central importance of platelets in cardiovascular disease, combined with the development of new classes of antiplatelet agents, has dramatically altered the landscape...

The molecular mechanisms of streptococcus gordonii-platelet interactions involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular infection

Ciara Keane
Numerous studies have implicated bacteria in cardiovascular disease; however the mechanisms involved have yet to be elucidated. Infective Endocarditis (IE) is characterised by the formation of platelet-bacteria thrombi on a heart valve which, if untreated, can lead to valve failure or the formation of infected emboli. The oral bacterium, Streptococcus gordonii, is amongst the most common pathogens isolated from IE patients. S. gordonii is a member of the group of oral bacteria that occur primarily...

The use of collagen-based bone graft substitutes for orthopaedic regenerative medicine.

Frank G. Lyons
Tissue engineering (TE) applies scientific and clinical techniques to restore and regenerate tissues using scaffolds, stem cells, growth factors and gene therapy, and, for orthopaedic surgery, has evolved to meet a clinical need to develop suitable alternatives to current bone grafting techniques. Collagen-based scaffolds are successfully used as skin graft substitutes but have limited mechanical properties for bone. Using established animal models, the primary objective of this thesis was to evaluate the potential of a...

Progresses on the development of stereoselective [2+2], [2+3] and [4+3] cycloadditions.

Paolo Disetti
The present work dealt with the preparation of some key intermediates and their use for the generation of chemical diversity. In Chapter 2 we described a Catalytic Asymmetric Conjugate Addition of isocyanoacetates to 4-nitro-5-styrylisoxmles. In Chapter 3 we described a new strategy for the preparation of medium sized oxepanes oxocanes and oxonanes. In Chapter 4 we described a novel route to alkene-hctionalised monobactams and their potential in diversity oriented synthesis is still in progress.

Estrogen receptor-coactivator interactions in resistance to aromatase inhibitor treatment for breast cancer.

Jane O'Hara
Aromatase inhibitors (Al) are the newest form of endocrine therapy for estrogen receptor (ER)-positive postmenopausal breast cancer and have demonstrated excellent efficacy in clinical trials; however, a proportion of patients treated with Als will relapse with resistant disease. Resistance to endocrine therapy is characterised by cross-talk between ERa and membrane growth factor receptors, such as the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family, resulting in increased signalling. In Al-resistant molecular models this results in proliferation in...

Estrogen receptor-coactivator interactions in resistance to aromatase inhibitor treatment for breast cancer.

Jane O'Hara
Aromatase inhibitors (Al) are the newest form of endocrine therapy for estrogen receptor (ER)-positive postmenopausal breast cancer and have demonstrated excellent efficacy in clinical trials; however, a proportion of patients treated with Als will relapse with resistant disease. Resistance to endocrine therapy is characterised by cross-talk between ERa and membrane growth factor receptors, such as the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family, resulting in increased signalling. In Al-resistant molecular models this results in proliferation in...

Genome-wide mapping of MYCN transcription factor binding sites and identification of clinically relevant targets in neuroblastoma.

Derek Murphy
Neuroblastoma is a highly genetically heterogeneous form of paediatric cancer with clinical behaviour which can range fiom localised tumours with good prognosis, to widespread metastatic disease with rapid clinical progression and death. High level genornic amplification of the MYCN gene occurs in approximately 20 to 25% of cases and this aberration is the most important genetic indicator of poor clinical outcome. Despite the use of intensive multimodal therapy, patients with MYCN amplified neuroblastoma tumours have...

Research in pharmacy education - lessons from programme design and development at a new School of Pharmacy

Judith Strawbridge
Pharmacy education is an evolving field, influenced by a complex relationship between National, European and International policies, regulation and practice. The opening of a new School of Pharmacy, at a time of great change, provided the context for the research question: How is pharmacy education, delivered by a new School of Pharmacy, with new undergraduate and postgraduate curricula, novel teaching and assessment strategies, reflected in student perception, performance and preparedness for professional practice, and what...

Characterisation of calpain activation in response to excitotoxic events in primary neurons

Beatrice D'Orsi
Excitotoxicity resulting from excessive Ca²+ influx through glutamate receptors contributes to neuronal injury after stroke, trauma, and seizures. Increased cytosolic Ca²+ levels activate a family of calcium-dependent proteases with papain-like activity, the calpains. Here we investigated the role of calpain activation during NMDA-induced excitotoxic injury in embryonic (E16-E18) murine cortical neurons that underwent either: (i) excitotoxic necrosis, characterized by immediate deregulation of Ca²+ homeostasis, a persistent depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential (Ay/m), and insensitivity to...

Non-Cardiac Chest Pain: the Role of Physical, Psychosocial, and Service-Related Factors in the Persistence of Pain and Health Service Use

Aisling Sheehan
Chest pain is one of the most frequent complaints in medical settings, yet more than half of cases have no detectable cause. Once a cardiac cause has been excluded, patients are typically discharged with a label of non-cardiac chest pain (NCCP). Patients with NCCP have been shown to have poor outcomes in terms of continued symptoms, distress, and continuing concern about heart disease. In addition, NCCP represents a significant burden to health services. The aetiology...

Non-Cardiac Chest Pain: the Role of Physical, Psychosocial, and Service-Related Factors in the Persistence of Pain and Health Service Use

Aisling Sheehan
Chest pain is one of the most frequent complaints in medical settings, yet more than half of cases have no detectable cause. Once a cardiac cause has been excluded, patients are typically discharged with a label of non-cardiac chest pain (NCCP). Patients with NCCP have been shown to have poor outcomes in terms of continued symptoms, distress, and continuing concern about heart disease. In addition, NCCP represents a significant burden to health services. The aetiology...

The role of tyrosine phosphorylation in the regulation of Ro52

Kevin B. Stacey
Patients suffering from Systemic Lupus Erythematous (SLE) have elevated type I interferon (IFN) levels which correlate with disease activity and severity. Ro52, an autoantigen associated with SLE, has been identified as an ubiquitin E3 ligase that turns off and limits type I IFN production following detection of viral and bacterial infection by Toll Like Receptors (TLRs). To date, the mechanism regulating Ro52 activity has not been determined. In this study we have demonstrated that Ro52...

Staphylococcus induced bone loss and destruction in osteomyelitis

Amro Widaa
Osteomyelitis and Septic arthritis are infections of the bone or joint / subchondral bone respectively, which results in significant patient morbidity and mortality. The incidence of osteomyelitis is as high as 1 in every 5,000, with the most causative microorganisms to induce these infections being Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, respectively. S. aureus and S. epidermidis are two gram positive bacteria that are found to colonise humans in high frequency as part of the normal...

Reality or rhetoric? Community involvement in primary care in north inner city Dublin.

Fiona O'Reilly
Irish Primary Care policy sees community involvement as a principle to guide the development of services. This study explores how the policy arena was reflected in the lived reality of community and Primary Care in north inner city Dublin. Meaning of community involvement in health is explored through an analysis of the evolution of the construct. The policy arena is described particularly in relation to the Irish context. Against this backdrop spatial practice and power...

Regulations of IRF5 activity in the TLR7 and type I IFN pathways

Elisa Lazzari
IRF5 is a member of the Interferon Regulatory Factor (IRF) family of transcription factors activated downstream of the Toll-Like receptors (TLRs). Following activation, IRF5 translocates into the nucleus where it regulates transcription of proinflammatory cytokines and type I IFN. Polymorphisms in IRF5 have been shown to be associated with the autoimmune disease Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) and other autoimmune conditions, suggesting a central role for IRF5 in the regulation of the immune response. Four different...

Regulations of IRF5 activity in the TLR7 and type I IFN pathways

Elisa Lazzari
IRF5 is a member of the Interferon Regulatory Factor (IRF) family of transcription factors activated downstream of the Toll-Like receptors (TLRs). Following activation, IRF5 translocates into the nucleus where it regulates transcription of proinflammatory cytokines and type I IFN. Polymorphisms in IRF5 have been shown to be associated with the autoimmune disease Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) and other autoimmune conditions, suggesting a central role for IRF5 in the regulation of the immune response. Four different...

The development of novel collagen-glycosaminoglycan scaffold for in vitro mesenchymal stem cell chondrogenesis

Amos Matsiko
Articular cartilage is an incredibly tough tissue owing to its ability to withstand repetitive compressive stress throughout an individual’s lifetime. Conversely, its single greatest limitation is the inability to heal even the most minor injuries (Newman, 1998). Due to the absence of a blood supply, articular cartilage responds to damage poorly (Nelson et al., 2010; Bora et al., 1987). Consequently, this predisposes the joint to articular cartilage degeneration. The repair of damaged tissue using conventional...

The development of novel collagen-glycosaminoglycan scaffold for in vitro mesenchymal stem cell chondrogenesis

Amos Matsiko
Articular cartilage is an incredibly tough tissue owing to its ability to withstand repetitive compressive stress throughout an individual’s lifetime. Conversely, its single greatest limitation is the inability to heal even the most minor injuries (Newman, 1998). Due to the absence of a blood supply, articular cartilage responds to damage poorly (Nelson et al., 2010; Bora et al., 1987). Consequently, this predisposes the joint to articular cartilage degeneration. The repair of damaged tissue using conventional...

Symptoms, Symptom Clusters and Cytokine Activity in Women with Breast Cancer

Suzanne Denieffe
Women with breast cancer experience many symptoms resulting from the primary disease and/ or the treatment of the disease. Psychoneuroimmunology, the theory of sickness behaviour and the action of cytokines may explain why the symptoms of fatigue, pain, depression and sleep disturbances are present and cluster. This study investigated symptoms, symptom clusters and cytokine activity pre-surgery, post-surgery and post adjuvant treatment using a prospective longitudinal cohort panel design. The study also examined the symptoms for...

Studies on the generation of chemical diversity using hetero Diels Alder reactions and polyfunctional scaffolds

Simone Bruschi
In the first part of this work we developed four novel methodologies for the generation of nitroso dienophile from commercially available hydroxamic acid I which is trapped with appropriate diene through a hetero-Diels-Alder (HDA) reaction (Scheme 1). These procedures afforded cycloadduct in good yields, employing reagents in a 1:1 ratio and only 5 mol.% catalyst loading. Remarkably, the crude reaction mixture showed the HDA adduct as the only compound present: this renders the reactions described...

Elucidating the role of metastasis suppressor microRNA-335 in neuroblastoma disease pathogenesis.

Jennifer Lynch
Neuroblastoma is a highly metastatic paediatric cancer in which advanced stage disease is associated with a high incidence of mortality despite the intensive multimodal nature of its treatment regimens. Amplification of MYCN is the single most important genetic indicator of unfavourable, metastatic disease. As a transcription factor, MYCN can regulate a large network of protein-coding genes and non-coding RNA transcripts, such as miRNAs, to manipulate cellular functioning and promote malignant transformation. In this study, we...

Elucidating the role of metastasis suppressor microRNA-335 in neuroblastoma disease pathogenesis.

Jennifer Lynch
Neuroblastoma is a highly metastatic paediatric cancer in which advanced stage disease is associated with a high incidence of mortality despite the intensive multimodal nature of its treatment regimens. Amplification of MYCN is the single most important genetic indicator of unfavourable, metastatic disease. As a transcription factor, MYCN can regulate a large network of protein-coding genes and non-coding RNA transcripts, such as miRNAs, to manipulate cellular functioning and promote malignant transformation. In this study, we...

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