55,113 Works

HOW DO CHANGES TO MEDICARE AND MEDICAID AFFECT HEALTHCARE COMPANY VALUATIONS?

Medicare and Medicaid are two of the primary levers the United States government uses to implement change in the healthcare industry. In an environment of escalating and unsustainable costs, most industry professionals agree CMS policies will continue to change. This thesis asks the question: how do changes (or prospective changes) to Medicare and Medicare affect company valuations? I use event study analysis to assess the market impact of four different events involving Medicaid and Medicare....

Methods for high-throughput analysis of RNA structure and dynamics

RNA sequences fold back on themselves to form secondary and tertiary structures that are difficult to predict. Knowledge of these structures and the time-resolved mechanism by which RNA molecules fold into these structures are necessary for a full understanding of structure-function relationships in RNA biology. A newly developed technology, called SHAPE, provides accurate and quantitative RNA structure information. SHAPE chemistry was developed using N-methylisatoic anhydride (NMIA), which is only moderately electrophilic and requires tens of...

Testing a Spanish-language colorectal cancer screening decision aid in Latinos with limited English proficiency: Results from a pre-post trial and four month follow-up survey

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Abstract Background Compared with non-Latinos, Latinos in the US have low rates of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening and low rates of knowledge regarding CRC screening tests and guidelines. Spanish speaking Latinos have particularly low CRC screening rates and screening knowledge. Our purpose was twofold: (1) to evaluate the effect of a computer-based, Spanish-language CRC screening decision aid on screening knowledge, intent to obtain screening, and screening self-efficacy in a community sample of Latinos with limited...

Eye-voice span during rapid automatized naming: evidence of reduced automaticity in individuals with autism spectrum disorder and their siblings

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Abstract Background Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and their parents demonstrate impaired performance in rapid automatized naming (RAN), a task that recruits a variety of linguistic and executive processes. Though the basic processes that contribute to RAN differences remain unclear, eye-voice relationships, as measured through eye tracking, can provide insight into cognitive and perceptual processes contributing to RAN performance. For example, in RAN, eye-voice span (EVS), the distance ahead the eyes are when articulation...

Cytochrome P450 Derived Eicosanoids, Endothelial Function and Cardiovascular Disease

Endothelial dysfunction plays an integral role in the pathogenesis and progression of cardiovascular disease in humans. The development of endothelial dysfunction has been primarily ascribed to functional impairments in nitric oxide biosynthesis. However, arachidonic acid metabolism by the cyclooxygenase and cytochrome P450 epoxygenase pathways also appears to regulate endothelial function. Consequently, genetic variation in these pathways may be important modifiers of cardiovascular disease risk in humans. The collective objective of the studies outlined in this...

Characterizing and Utilizing a Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (CIMS) as a Method to Estimate Secondary Organic Aerosol Yields from Isoprene-Derived Epoxides

Isoprene is the most abundant non-methane hydrocarbon emitted into Earth's atmosphere and although recognized as the single largest source of global secondary organic aerosol (SOA), the exact manner in which isoprene-derived SOA is formed remains unclear. Recently, epoxides produced from isoprene oxidation have been shown to be critical in SOA formation. In this work an acetate chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS) was characterized and utilized to measure SOA yields from two proposed isoprene-derived epoxides, isoprene...

Fixed or Flexibly scheduled school library programs: teacher perceptions

This study investigated elementary teacher perceptions of school library programs in two different scheduling models: fixed and flexible access. Focus groups and interviews were conducted. The participants were divided in their view of the ideal role of the library program in the school: eight favored a flexible access program while seven preferred the fixed schedule. Findings indicated that preference was not based on the current scheduling in which the teachers are working. All five participants...

Front Cover and Introductory Content

Introductory content for this journal issue including: Front Cover, Table of Contents, Editor's Note

Book Review: Redesigning Cities: Principles, Practice, Implementation

Redesigning Cities: Principles, Practice, Implementation, by Jonathan Barnett, FAICP, is intended as a cure-all to what ails today's built environment. Barnett explains that the problem with today's built environment is not due to substandard conditions such as inadequate plumbing or poor insulating materials. Instead, "the problem is in the public environment, in the way our homes and lives fit together" (27). The book provides solutions and historical context to a gamut of today's planning issues,...

A Quantitative Analysis of Dublin Core Metadata Element Set (DCMES) Usage in Data Providers Registered with the Open Archives Initiative (OAI)

This research describes an empirical study of how the Dublin Core Metadata Element Set (DCMES) is used by 100 Data Providers (DPs) registered with the Open Archives Initiative (OAI). The research was conducted to determine whether or not the DCMES is used to its full capabilities. Eighty-two of 100 DPs have metadata records available for analysis. DCMES usage varies by type of DP. The average number of Dublin Core elements per record is eight, with...

Herd of Left Turns

Considering an Epidemiological Approach For Achieving an Optimal Success Rate With Tennessee’s Tobacco Cessation Program

In October 2007 the state of Tennessee began enforcement of a workplace smoking ban now known as the “Non-Smoker Protection Act”. In an effort to help local health departments be well positioned to assist individuals with smoking cessation the Department of Health rolled out a patient assessment and treatment program. For best results, this program can take an epidemiological approach. Epidemiology is defined as the study of the distribution of determinants and antecedents of health...

Differential response and withdrawal profile of glucocorticoid-treated human trabecular meshwork cells

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The goal of the study was to examine secreted protein response and withdrawal profiles from cultured human trabecular meshwork (HTM) cells following short- and long-term glucocorticoid treatment. Primary cultures of five human HTM cell strains isolated from 5 different individual donor eyes were tested. Confluent HTM cells were differentiated in culture media containing 1% FBS for at least one week, and then treated with Dexamethasone (Dex, 100 nM) 3 times/week for 1 or 4 weeks....

Minding the Gap: The Role of Young Adult Librarians in Engaging Teenage Boys in Reading

This study describes an online questionnaire survey of young adult librarians at school and public libraries regarding their literacy engagement with adolescent male users. The purpose of this study was to address the question of what librarians know about best practices in boy-focused literacy strategies and to what extent they are employing them in their libraries. The majority of young adult librarians are aware of reading problems associated with adolescent males but are not always...

The development and integration of a project management business process into a Web/Database system

This study is a content analysis of children's picture books. Thirty books were evaluated to determine if the portrayal of African Americans in picture books was realistic and positive. The books reviewed were selected from the reference source A to Zoo. Many librarians use this title to recommend materials to children and parents. The books were published during the 1980s and 1990s. Results showed that overall the portrayal of African Americans is positive, realistic and...

Trends in Libraries' Retention and Weeding of Government Documents

North Carolina's 33 Federal Depositories have been weeding printed government documents at an increasing rate. This paper details an online survey of librarians in charge of federal documents in North Carolina libraries, designed to investigate some of the factors affecting weeding in government document collections. The respondents reported in-creases in weeding over the past two years, with additional increases expected over the next five years. Reasons for weeding include decreasing available space, decreasing budgets for...

Task-switching ability protects against the adverse effects of pain on health: A longitudinal study of older adults

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Aging is often accompanied by increases in pain, which may threaten physical health. Successfully managing increased pain requires the ability to switch attention away from the pain and toward adaptive health cognitions and behaviors. However, no study to date has tested how pain interacts with task-switching ability to predict future health in older adults. Additionally, no study has tested whether objective (i.e., task-switching performance) or subjective measures of cognitive ability have a stronger impact on...

Gabapentin potentiates sensitivity to the interoceptive effects of alcohol and increases alcohol self-administration in rats

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Gabapentin, a drug used in the treatment of epileptic seizures and neuropathic pain, has shown efficacy in the treatment of alcohol dependence. Moreover, given that gabapentin is used in the general population (e.g., non-dependent individuals, social drinkers), we sought to utilize preclinical assessments to examine the effects of gabapentin on sensitivity to moderate alcohol doses and alcohol self-administration in rats with a history of moderate drinking. To this end, we assessed whether gabapentin (0, 10,...

Design Rules for Discovering 2D Materials from 3D Crystals

Two-dimensional (2D) materials are championed as potential components for novel technologies due to the extreme change in properties that often accompanies a transition from the bulk to a quantum-confined state. While the incredible properties of existing 2D materials have been investigated for numerous applications, the current library of stable 2D materials is limited to a relatively small number of material systems, and attempts to identify novel 2D materials have found only a small subset of...

Obstetrical, pregnancy and socio-economic predictors for new-onset severe postpartum psychiatric disorders in primiparous women

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Background Childbirth is a potent trigger for the onset of psychiatric illness in women including postpartum depression (PPD) and postpartum psychosis (PP). Medical complications occurring during pregnancy and/or childbirth have been linked to postpartum psychiatric illness and sociodemographic factors. We evaluated if pregnancy and obstetrical predictors have similar effects on different types of postpartum psychiatric disorders. Method A population-based cohort study using Danish registers was conducted in 392 458 primiparous women with a singleton delivery...

Muscle fatigue increases beta-band coherence between the firing times of simultaneously active motor units in the first dorsal interosseous muscle

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Synchronization between the firing times of simultaneously active motor units (MUs) is generally assumed to increase during fatiguing contractions. To date, however, estimates of MU synchronization have relied on indirect measures, derived from surface electromyographic (EMG) interference signals. This study used intramuscular coherence to investigate the correlation between MU discharges in the first dorsal interosseous muscle during and immediately following a submaximal fatiguing contraction, and after rest. Coherence between composite MU spike trains, derived from...

Minority Representation and Redistricting

The redrawing of legislative district boundaries is one of most effective ways of elevating the level of minority representation in Congress, but it can similarly be the principal way in which representation and influence are diluted. In this paper, minority representation is evaluated through descriptive representation and substantive representation. Examining the ways in which different bodies redistrict and provide for representation, this study assesses a potential tradeoff that is produced through the creation of districts...

Subspace Regularized Sparse Multitask Learning for Multiclass Neurodegenerative Disease Identification

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The high feature-dimension and low sample-size problem is one of the major challenges in the study of computer-aided Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) diagnosis. To circumvent this problem, feature selection and subspace learning have been playing core roles in literature. Generally, feature selection methods are preferable in clinical applications due to their ease for interpretation, but subspace learning methods can usually achieve more promising results. In this paper, we combine two different methodological approaches to discriminative feature...

The Education Issues of the Children of Internal Migrant Workers in China

The education issues of migrant children in China have been a public focus since mid-1990s. Due to the restrictions of their Household Registration status, the migrant children have often been rejected by the public schools in the cities, arousing the public questioning about the equality of the public education in China for these children. Up until now, rural migrant students still face discrimination in the urban public school system, and the education problems of migrant...

Unexpected sequences and structures of mtDNA required for efficient transcription from the first heavy-strand promoter

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Human mtDNA contains three promoters, suggesting a need for differential expression of the mitochondrial genome. Studies of mitochondrial transcription have used a reductionist approach, perhaps masking differential regulation. Here we evaluate transcription from light-strand (LSP) and heavy-strand (HSP1) promoters using templates that mimic their natural context. These studies reveal sequences upstream, hypervariable in the human population (HVR3), and downstream of the HSP1 transcription start site required for maximal yield. The carboxyterminal tail of TFAM is...

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