56,999 Works

Determining Body Mass Index Cutoffs to Identify Increased Risk of Hypertension for Asian Ethnicities

An optimal BMI cutoff is needed in public health and clinical settings as the guidance an optimal body weight. Although body mass index (BMI) cutoffs of 25 and 30 kg/m2 for overweight and obesity, respectively, have been widely used among Westerners and recommended by the World Health Organization as an international criterion for body fatness at the population level, there are still controversial opinions about the optimal BMI cutoffs for Asians. We conducted the study...

R4 and R12 subfamily RGS proteins: structures, functions, and emerging chemical biology

It is essential that cells respond to their extracellular environment with appropriate intracellular changes. Many environmental cues are received at the cell membrane, by a family of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) and their heterotrimeric G-proteins, composed of Gα, Gβ and Gγ subunits. Upon binding of a hormone, neurotransmitter, tastant, or small molecule agonist at the membrane-bound GPCR, the receptor catalyzes the exchange of GDP for GTP on the heterotrimeric Gα subunit. This change results in...

The relationship between physical activity levels and selected physiological and psychological parameters in women with breast cancer post treatment

Cancer treatments cause numerous side effects that can last years post-treatment. Fatigue is the most common side-effect and can lead to a reduction in patients’ functionality and overall quality of life. The purpose of this study was to evaluate physical activity levels (IPAQ), selected physiological and psychological parameters on breast cancer survivors prior to staring an exercise/recreation therapy program. A secondary purpose explored relationships between the IPAQ and all psychological and physiological parameters evaluated. Sixteen...

Pattern and process in rare plant conservation: an assessment of the Southeastern U.S.

The development of conservation policy for rare plant species is informed by largescale patterns of distribution and abundance as well as the processes that generate them. I collected data on 224 rare vascular plants in the Southeastern U.S. to characterize patterns of rarity at ecoregional scales, among broad habitat types, and with respect to taxonomic group size. Rare species diversity is highest in Appalachian/Blue Ridge Forests and Southeastern Conifer Forests ecoregions. Most rare plants are...

Improving Local Public Health Capacity Through a Health Information Exchange in South Texas: Policy Implications for Health Leaders

Three out of four deaths in the state of Texas are caused by chronic diseases with hospital discharges in 2008 alone costing more than $10 billion. Chronic disease surveillance systems are needed for the identification and tracking of diseases in order to target prevention and treatment activities. However, the IOM has reported inconsistencies in surveillance of chronic illnesses caused by a lack of standardized methods for measuring complex attributes and determinants of health along with...

Spain's demographic crisis and its implications for the Spanish welfare state

Spain is currently undergoing a demographic crisis with less than replacement fertility rates and an aging population. This crisis can be traced back to the organization and formation of the welfare state and will hold serious challenges for the future of the Spanish welfare state. The low fertility rate has many roots within the welfare state, especially the preference for familial care within the home, the precariousness of the job market for part time workers,...

Digital Discourse, Online Repression, and Cyberterrorism: Information Communication Technologies in Russia’s North Caucasus Republics

Is the cyber-utopian versus cyber-repression argument the most effective way to frame the political uses of new technologies? Contemporary discourse on social media fails to highlight political dynamics in authoritarian regimes with weak state control, where independent groups can capitalize on the use of coercive force. In this thesis I will explore the various methods through which information communication technologies are utilized by civil groups, uncivil groups, and the state using Russia's North Caucasus republics...

Critical Urban Ecology: Links to Social Vulnerability and Environmental Justice in the Aftermath of Hurricanes

Parallel to the world's rising urbanization trend, shifting patterns of large wet weather disturbances - more specifically, hurricanes - are raising concerns in coastal areas where many cities are located. A shift in studying these occurrences is paramount. This thesis addresses the following question: in what ways can the inclusion of social vulnerability studies and environmental justice, often developed outside of the field of urban ecology, contribute to a critical understanding of urban socioecological uncertainties...

Acoustic Measurement of Emotion Expression of Women with Chronic Knee Pain

The purpose of this study was to determine if change in acoustic parameters of sustained vowel vocalization occurred in women with and without chronic knee pain when asked to rise from sitting to standing and if changes could be associated with occurrence of an emotion. Scherer's component process model of emotion and sequential check theory of emotion differentiation provided the framework for the study. Acoustic parameters evaluated were mean fundamental frequency, highest fundamental frequency, lowest...

Arturo Ambrogi, Sergio Ramírez y Ana Guadalupe Martínez: tres negociaciones conflictivas de la identidad nacional

This study is an approach to some narrative texts from Central American in the 20th Century. It centers around the evaluation of the impact that the discourse of certain authors has made in the socio-political context of their nations, in a crucial moment of their recent history. Authors such as Arturo Ambrogi (El Salvador, 1875-1936), Sergio Ramírez (Nicaragua, 1942- ) and Ana Guadalupe Martínez (El Salvador, 1952 - ) employ strategies to control the literary...

Martha Nussbaum and the rise of raunch culture: implications of the capabilities approach in the United States

This paper explores the effects of and also the limits to Martha C. Nussbaum's capabilities approach within the United States. Quite often in Nussbaum's work, her universal theory of justice is analyzed only within the context of developing nations, leaving readers to assume that persons living in the Third World are far more oppressed than those living in the West. By examining the capabilities approach, specifically the bodily integrity capability, within a Western context I...

Modeling conformational dynamics of cisplatin and oxaliplatin adducts with DNA

Cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (cisplatin, CP) is a widely used anti-cancer agent. Its platinum analog (trans-R,R)1,2-diaminocyclohexaneoxalatoplatinum(II) (oxaliplatin, OX) is often effective in cisplatin resistant tumors and generally causes less mutation than CP. Although their carrier ligands are structurally distinct, CP and OX form the same types of adducts at the same sites on the DNA. Certain DNA regulatory proteins could distinguish CP-DNA adducts from OX-DNA adducts but the underlying mechanism is not clear currently. In this thesis, we...

Palatal tactile sensitivity in adults with repaired cleft lip and palate

Individuals with repaired cleft lip and palate (CLP) may be at risk for decreased tactile sensitivity in the oral cavity due to surgical intervention and scarring. Three research questions were proposed: 1) Do adults with repaired CLP demonstrate reduced palatal sensitivity compared to a control group? 2) Do adults with repaired CLP exhibit longer speech segment durations of alveolar-palatal targets? 3) Is there a relationship between palatal sensitivity and duration of speech segment durations? Tongue...

Asymptotic Multivariate Kriging Using Estimated Parameters with Bayesian Prediction Methods for Non-linear Predictands

The motivation for this dissertation is the need that often arises in spatial settings to perform a data transformation to achieve a stationary process and/or variance stabilization. The transformation may be a non-linear transformation, and the desired predictand may be multivariate in that it is necessary to interpolate predictions at multiple sites. We assume the underlying spatial model is a Gaussian random field with a parametrically specified covariance structure, but that the predictions of interest...

In vitro coculture models to study heterotypic interactions in breast cancer microenvironments

Epithelial-stromal interactions are fundamental to tissue homeostasis and may alter breast cancer (BC) initiation and progression. Co-evolution of the neoplastic epithelium and the stroma implies that these compartments maintain an active dialogue with functional consequences for both parts. To study epithelial-stromal interactions and elucidate the role of stromal variation in tumor phenotypes, in vitro cocultures can be used. Gene expression data and cell-based assays from cocultures can identify cellular phenotypes and biomarkers with possible relevance...

Strategy for determining vaccination user fees and locations: a case study in rural China

Despite the enormous success of vaccinations in decreasing disease burden, there are still millions of deaths from vaccine-preventable diseases worldwide, especially in the developing world. The literature reports that people living in rural areas in China often fail to be immunized not only because of inability to pay user fee but also due to poor geographical accessibility to vaccination sites. However, the level of user fees and the locations of vaccination sites have not been...

COMMUNICATION PARTNER ATTITUDES, SOCIAL AND COGNITIVE CHALLENGE, AND SPOKEN LANGUAGE IN APHASIA

The purpose of these studies was to investigate how partner attitudes, attention, and emotion affect communication in aphasia. The first study investigated the attitudes of potential communication partners regarding speech output, speaker attributes and their own feelings after hearing unaltered and digitally modified samples from PWA as well as samples from speakers with no aphasia. Listeners reported less favorable attitudes about PWA than speakers with no aphasia. In addition, samples that were modified to sound...

Computational Cortical Surface Analysis for Study of Early Brain Development

The study of morphological attributes of the cerebral cortex and their development is very important in understanding the dynamic and critical early brain development. Comparing with conventional studies in the image space, cortical surface-based analysis provides a better way to display, observe, and quantify the attributes of the cerebral cortex. The goal of this dissertation is to develop novel cortical surface-based methods for better studying the attributes of the cerebral cortex during early brain development....

Coming Into Their Own: Adolescent Latinas in the United States

First and second generation Latina adolescents represent a growing proportion of youth in the United States. Latina adolescents bring a culture with a unique set of norms that govern their sexual behavior. This coupled with the stressors felt in most Latino families markedly influences the sexual behavior of Latina teens. This research will explore the role of family experiences in the United States and cultural norms on Latina sexual and reproductive behavior in the context...

Epidemiological Analysis of Sociosexual HIV Networks in Central North Carolina

Disparities in HIV incidence are seen by race and sexual orientation, although race and sexual orientation do not sufficiently explain differential risk within sexual networks. Race and sexual orientation, however, influence partner selection, risk behavior, and access to care. Partner selection and risk behavior underlay differences in HIV acquisition and can be studied within the context of a sociosexual network. Marginalized or stigmatized persons are more likely to be diagnosed with HIV later in the...

An NMR Study of Supercooled Water under Nanoconfinement by Hydrophobic Surfaces

The main focus of this dissertation is studying the properties of bulk water, confined water, and interfacial water. The thermodynamics, dynamics and state of water are investigated by DSC and 1H NMR methods. Hydrophobic slit-shaped pores with tunable pore size from 0.5 nm to 1.6 nm are applied as confinement media in our experiments. By confining water in nanopores, we are able to cool the water lower than its homogeneous nucleation temperature 235 K at...

Can the Internet Help Preserve Journalism? Sense of Community Differences among Print and Online Local News Consumers

This dissertation, a survey of a random sample of 1,171 adults living in Maricopa County, Ariz., seeks insight into the changing relationship between news and geographically defined communities by focusing on two local news products, The Arizona Republic and azcentral.com. It is rooted in the widely held belief that there is a virtuous cycle linking print newspaper readership to sense of community in a manner that enhances social capital and attempts to determine the nature...

THE ADOLESCENT HEALTH BELIEF MODEL: CONCEPTALIZING COGNITIVE FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE MEDICATION NON-ADHERENCE AMONG ADOLESCENTS

The medication non-adherence literature rarely employs theoretical models, and no models to date have been modified or created to understand adolescent medication non-adherence. The first aim of this study was to evaluate whether the six factors in the child health belief model (CHBM; susceptibility, severity, family support, benefits, barriers, self-efficacy) could be employed to understand adolescent medication non-adherence. The second aim was to propose a developmentally appropriate extension of the CHBM and provide an initial...

A Prospective Analysis Of Perioperative Pain Following VPT on Permanent Teeth With Mature Apices

Vital pulp therapy (VPT) remains a treatment option for cariously exposed teeth that reach the dental pulp. To our knowledge no study has examined whether perioperative pain predicts the outcome of VPT. The aim of this study is to examine the between perioperative pain and the progression of pulpal disease into a more inflamed or necrotic state. Direct pulp caps or partial pulpotomies using MTA were performed on permanent teeth with carious pulpal exposures. Patients...

The Role of Fog in the Hydrological Functioning of Tropical Island Ecosystems

Fog is a critical water source in many tropical ecosystems, especially those that are semi-arid, or seasonally dry. Patterns of fog water input to these ecosystems are poorly understood, and currently limited by a lack of in-situ data spanning both space and time. Large gaps exist in our understanding of the spatiotemporal variability and mechanisms driving fog water deposition, and how fog travels through tropical systems. Given the significance of fog to semi-arid ecosystems across...

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