64,844 Works

Youth daily exposure to tobacco outlets and cigarette smoking behaviors: does exposure within activity space matter?

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Aims: To examine whether daily exposure to tobacco outlets within activity spaces is associated with cigarette smoking and with the number of cigarettes smoked by youth that day. Design: The study used geographic ecological momentary assessment (GEMA) data that combined daily surveys with ecological momentary assessment of global positioning systems (GPS) using geographic information systems (GIS) to allow for real-time data collection of participants' environments and behaviors. Setting: Eight mid-sized California (USA) city areas. Participants:...

An eye tracking study of anti-smoking messages on toxic chemicals in cigarettes

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The US Food and Drug Administration is tasked with communicating information to the public about the harmful chemicals in cigarette smoke. Our study used eye tracking method to test the effectiveness of messages about the harmful chemicals in cigarettes smoke among adult smokers. A sample size of 211 current cigarette smokers viewed four communication messages that included: Health effects of a chemical in cigarette smoke and an image depicting the health effect. The messages focused...

Vaping industry-funded academic scholarships

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While the benefits versus the risks of increased e-cigarette use among adults remains unsettled, the fact that 21% of high school students in 2018 have used e-cigarettes in the last month is concerning to almost all policymakers and clinicians. A recent e-cigarette marketing technique involves the promotion of scholarships for students. Given the novelty of these promotions, we undertook an analysis to understand how widespread this practice is in the USA, along with characteristics of...

Risk factors for multiple tobacco product use among high school youth

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Purpose: To examine how youth multiple tobacco product (MTP) users differ relative to non-users and to single-product users on risk factors at multiple levels of influence. Methods: We analyzed data on high school students from the North Carolina Youth Tobacco Survey, 2015 (n = 2922). Single- and MTP use were defined as use of one, or two or more tobacco products in the past month, respectively. Multinomial regressions estimated the association between risk factors and...

Information to improve public perceptions of the food and drug administration (FDA’s) tobacco regulatory role

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While the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has had regulatory authority over tobacco products since 2009, public awareness of this authority remains limited. This research examines several broad types of information about FDA tobacco regulatory mission that may improve the perceptions of FDA as a tobacco regulator. Using Amazon Mechanical Turk, 1766 adults, smokers and non-smokers, were randomly assigned to view a statement about FDA regulatory authority that varied three information types in a 2...

Attitudes towards potential new tobacco control regulations among U.S. adults

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Favorable attitudes towards tobacco control policies can facilitate their implementation and success. We examined attitudes toward four potential U.S. Federal tobacco regulations (banning menthol from cigarettes, reducing nicotine levels in cigarettes, banning candy and fruit flavored electronic cigarettes, and banning candy and fruit flavored little cigars and cigarillos) and associations with individual and state variables. A nationally representative phone survey of 4337 adults assessed attitudes toward potential policies. Weighted logistic regression was used to assess...

E-Cigarette use among adolescents not susceptible to using cigarettes

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Introduction Research suggests that adolescents who use electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), including adolescents not susceptible to smoking cigarettes (ie, those who have never smoked cigarettes and are not attitudinally susceptible to using cigarettes), are more likely to initiate using cigarettes or other combustible tobacco products than adolescents who do not use e-cigarettes. In this study, we examined correlates of e-cigarette use and susceptibility among adolescents not susceptible to future cigarette smoking. Methods We used data on...

Regional Ventilation Is the Main Determinant of Alveolar Deposition of Coarse Particles in the Supine Healthy Human Lung during Tidal Breathing

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Background: To quantify the relationship between regional lung ventilation and coarse aerosol deposition in the supine healthy human lung, we used oxygen-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and planar gamma scintigraphy in seven subjects. Methods: Regional ventilation was measured in the supine posture in a 15 mm sagittal slice of the right lung. Deposition was measured by using planar gamma scintigraphy (coronal scans, 40 cm FOV) immediately postdeposition, 1 hour 30 minutes and 22 hours after deposition...

Ultrafine particle deposition and clearance in the healthy and obstructed lung

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Numerous epidemiologic studies have shown associations between exposure to particulate air pollution and acute increases in morbidity and mortality, particularly in persons with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The dosimetry of ultrafine particles in the human lung is poorly characterized. We studied the deposition and clearance of an ultrafine technetium-99m-labeled aerosol in 10 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and in 9 healthy subjects. Particle retention was followed for 2 hours after inhalation and again at...

Obesity-induced changes in T-cell metabolism are associated with impaired memory T-cell response to influenza and are not reversed with weight loss

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Background: Obesity is an independent risk factor for increased influenza mortality and is associated with impaired memory T-cell response, resulting in increased risk of infection. In this study, we investigated if weight loss would restore memory T-cell response to influenza. Methods: Male C57BL/6J mice were fed either low-fat or high-fat diet to induce obesity. Once obesity was established, all mice received primary infection with influenza X-31. Following a recovery period, we switched half of the...

Mechanisms bywhich dietary fatty acids regulate mitochondrial structure-function in health and disease

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Mitochondria are the energy-producing organelles within a cell. Furthermore, mitochondria have a role in maintaining cellular homeostasis and proper calcium concentrations, building critical components of hormones and other signaling molecules, and controlling apoptosis. Structurally, mitochondria are unique because they have 2 membranes that allow for compartmentalization. The composition and molecular organization of thesemembranes are crucial to the maintenance and function of mitochondria. In this review, we first present a general overview of mitochondrial membrane biochemistry...

Numerical evaluation of spray position for improved nasal drug delivery

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Topical intra-nasal sprays are amongst the most commonly prescribed therapeutic options for sinonasal diseases in humans. However, inconsistency and ambiguity in instructions show a lack of definitive knowledge on best spray use techniques. In this study, we have identified a new usage strategy for nasal sprays available over-the-counter, that registers an average 8-fold improvement in topical delivery of drugs at diseased sites, when compared to prevalent spray techniques. The protocol involves re-orienting the spray axis...

Homogeneity of Aerosol Deposition and Mucociliary Clearance are Improved Following Ivacaftor Treatment in Cystic Fibrosis

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Background: Using planar gamma scintigraphy of inhaled radioaerosols, we have developed new analytical methods for assessing homogeneity of aerosol deposition and time-dependent particle clearance on a pixel-by-pixel basis, and applied them to a therapeutic cystic fibrosis (CF) study. Methods: At baseline and 1 month after beginning treatment with ivacaftor, a cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator modulator for CF patients with at least one copy of the G551D mutation (n = 13), initial deposition and subsequent mucociliary...

Content Liberation Update, August 2020

In 2018, the Open Access Implementation Team (the Team) conducted three Content Liberation pilot projects to ingest UNC-authored content into the Carolina Digital Repository (CDR). A summary of each project is available in Content Liberation Overview. This report summarizes our current progress on these projects and suggests recommendations for progress in the next academic year. A follow-up report will be available in August 2021.

Health Center–Based Community-Supported Agriculture: An RCT

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Introduction: Socioeconomically vulnerable individuals often face poor access to nutritious food and bear a disproportionate burden of diet-related chronic illness. This study tested whether a subsidized community-supported agriculture intervention could improve diet quality. Study design: An RCT was conducted from May 2017 to December 2018 (data analyzed in 2019). Setting/Participants: Adults with a BMI >25 kg/m2 seen at a community health center in central Massachusetts, or who lived in the surrounding county, were eligible. Intervention:...

Addressing Health-Related Social Needs: Value-Based Care or Values-Based Care?

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Health-related social needs, such as food insecurity, housing instability, and lack of transportation, are associated with worse health outcomes, and are increasingly the focus of health-related social needs interventions within healthcare. Adoption of health-related social needs interventions is often justified by the potential to reduce healthcare costs. However, this can present a conundrum to clinicians. Physicians are often more accustomed to justifying clinical innovation based on improvements in health, in accord with the fundamental values...

Mechanisms Associated with Clinical Improvement in Interventions That Address Health-Related Social Needs: A Mixed-Methods Analysis

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Linking individuals to community resources in order to help meet health-related social needs, such as food, medications, or transportation, may improve clinical outcomes. However, little is known about the mechanisms whereby such linkage interventions might improve health. The authors conducted a mixed-methods analysis consisting of outcomes from a prospective cohort study of a linkage intervention and a qualitative analysis of case records from participants. The cohort study included intervention participants who first enrolled between December...

Association between Receipt of a Medically Tailored Meal Program and Health Care Use

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Importance: Recent US health care reforms incentivize improved population health outcomes and primary care functions. It remains unclear how much improving primary care physician supply can improve population health, independent of other health care and socioeconomic factors. Objectives: To identify primary care physician supply changes across US counties from 2005-2015 and associations between such changes and population mortality. Design, Setting, and Participants: This epidemiological study evaluated US population data and individual-level claims data linked to...

Generalizing Intensive Blood Pressure Treatment to Adults With Diabetes Mellitus

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Background: Controversy over blood pressure (BP) treatment targets for individuals with diabetes is in part due to conflicting perspectives about generalizability of available trial data. Objective: The authors sought to estimate how results from the largest clinical trial of intensive BP treatment among adults with diabetes would generalize to the U.S. population. Methods: The authors used transportability methods to reweight individual patient data from the ACCORD (Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes) BP trial...

Trends in food insecurity for adults with cardiometabolic disease in the United States: 2005-2012

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Background: Food insecurity, the uncertain ability to access adequate food, can limit adherence to dietary measures needed to prevent and manage cardiometabolic conditions. However, little is known about temporal trends in food insecurity among those with diet-sensitive cardiometabolic conditions. Methods: We used data from the Continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2012, analyzed in 2015-2016, to calculate trends in age-standardized rates of food insecurity for those with and without the following diet-sensitive cardiometabolic...

Vicarious experience affects patients' treatment preferences for depression

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Purpose: Depression is common in primary care but often under-treated. Personal experiences with depression can affect adherence to therapy, but the effect of vicarious experience is unstudied. We sought to evaluate the association between a patient's vicarious experiences with depression (those of friends or family) and treatment preferences for depressive symptoms. Methods: We sampled 1054 English and/or Spanish speaking adult subjects from July through December 2008, randomly selected from the 2008 California Behavioral Risk Factor...

Access Services: Not Waving, but Drowning

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Examining the chasm between access services staff and “the rest of the library” is illustrative of the divisions of labor that exist throughout the library. The chapter is an exploration of the effects of siloing and hierarchies in library staffing. The effort to elevate the work of the library within the academy has resulted in a troubling stratification of labor and devaluing of certain kinds of work within libraries.

Ras-mediated modulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase activity regulates mitochondrial reserve capacity and contributes to glioblastoma tumorigenesis

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Even though altered metabolism representing a hallmark of cancer was proposed nearly a century ago, recent technological advances have allowed investigators to continue uncovering a previously unrecognized complexity of metabolic programs that drive tumorigenesis beyond that of aerobic glycolysis.

Functional selectivity of dopamine D1 receptor agonists in regulating the fate of internalized receptors

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Recently, we demonstrated that D1 agonists can cause functionally selective effects when the endpoints of receptor internalization and adenylate cyclase activation are compared. The present study was designed to probe the phenomenon of functional selectivity at the D1 receptor further by testing the hypothesis that structurally dissimilar agonists with efficacies at these endpoints that equal or exceed those of dopamine would differ in ability to influence receptor fate after internalization, a functional endpoint largely unexplored...

Anxiolytic-like effects of 8-acetylene imidazobenzodiazepines in a rhesus monkey conflict procedure

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Conflict procedures can be used to study the receptor mechanisms underlying the anxiolytic effects of benzodiazepines and other GABAA receptor modulators. In the present study, we first determined the efficacy and binding affinity of the benzodiazepine diazepam and recently synthesized GABAA receptor modulators JY-XHe-053, XHe-II-053, HZ-166, SH-053-2'F-S-CH3 and SH-053-2'F-R-CH3 at GABAA receptors containing α1, α2, α3 and α5 subunits. Results from these studies suggest that each compound displayed lower efficacy at GABAA receptors containing α1...

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