63,987 Works

Transient increase in alcohol self-administration following a period of chronic exposure to corticosterone

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Stressful life events and chronic stressors have been associated with escalations in alcohol drinking. Stress exposure leads to the secretion of glucocorticoids (cortisol in the human; corticosterone (CORT) in the rodent). To model a period of heightened elevations in CORT, the present work assessed the effects of chronic exposure to the stress hormone CORT on alcohol self-administration. Male Long Evans rats were trained to self-administer a sweetened alcohol solution (2% sucrose/15% alcohol) resulting in moderate...

SKF-83959 is not a highly-biased functionally selective D1 dopamine receptor ligand with activity at phospholipase C

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SKF-83959 [6-chloro-7,8-dihydroxy-3-methyl-1-(3-methylphenyl)-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-3-benzazepine] is reported to be a functionally selective dopamine D1 receptor ligand with high bias for D1-mediated phospholipase C (PLC) versus D1-coupled adenylate cyclase signaling. This signaling bias is proposed to explain behavioral activity in both rat and primate Parkinson’s disease models, and a D1-D2 heterodimer has been proposed as the underlying mechanism. We have conducted an in-depth pharmacological characterization of this compound in dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in both rat brain and...

When a good taste turns bad: Neural mechanisms underlying the emergence of negative affect and associated natural reward devaluation by cocaine

An important feature of cocaine addiction in humans is the emergence of negative affect (e.g., dysphoria, irritability, anhedonia), postulated to play a key role in craving and relapse. Indeed, the DSM-IV recognizes that social, occupational and/or recreational activities become reduced as a consequence of repeated drug use where previously rewarding experiences (e.g., food, job, family) become devalued as the addict continues to seek and use drug despite serious negative consequences. Here, research in the Carelli...

Analysis of individual items on the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptom rating scale in children and adults: the effects of age and sex in pivotal trials of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate

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Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptom presentation across age and sex has not been fully elucidated. The present post hoc analyses qualitatively explored the baseline levels of ADHD symptomatology across subgroups in two clinical trials of children and adults with ADHD to elucidate differences in participant presentation. The response to treatment was examined to determine patterns of response among items of the ADHD Rating Scale IV.

Prior Multiple Ethanol Withdrawals Enhance Stress-Induced Anxiety-Like Behavior: Inhibition by CRF1- and Benzodiazepine-Receptor Antagonists and a 5-HT1a-Receptor Agonist

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Repeated withdrawals from chronic ethanol induce a persistent adaptive change. Further, stress substitutes for the initial two withdrawals of a multiple-withdrawal protocol to sensitize rats to withdrawal-induced anxiety-like behavior (‘anxiety’). Therefore, it was tested whether the persistent adaptation induced by multiple-withdrawal exposures allows stress to elicit anxiety after a period of abstinence. Social interaction was used to assess the degree of anxiety induced by 45 min of restraint stress 3, 7, or 14 days after...

Abstinence following Alcohol Drinking Produces Depression-Like Behavior and Reduced Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Mice

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Alcoholism and depression show high degrees of comorbidity. Clinical evidence also indicates that depression that emerges during abstinence from chronic alcohol use has a greater negative impact on relapse than pre-existing depression. Although no single neurobiological mechanism can account for the behavioral pathologies associated with these devastating disorders, converging evidence suggests that aspects of both alcoholism and depression are linked to reductions in hippocampal neurogenesis. Here, we report results from a novel preclinical behavioral model...

CRF-1 Antagonist and CRF-2 Agonist Decrease Binge-Like Ethanol Drinking in C57BL/6J Mice Independent of the HPA Axis

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Recent evidence suggests that corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor (CRFR) signaling is involved in modulating binge-like ethanol consumption in C57BL/6J mice. In this report, a series of experiments were performed to further characterize the role of CRFR signaling in binge-like ethanol consumption. The role of central CRFR signaling was assessed with intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusion of the nonselective CRFR antagonist, α-helical CRF9–41 (0, 1, 5, 10 μg/1 μl). The contribution of central CRF type 2 receptor (CRF2R)...

Effects of Davunetide on N-acetylaspartate and Choline in Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex in Patients with Schizophrenia

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Schizophrenia is associated with extensive neurocognitive and behavioral impairments. Studies indicate that N-acetylaspartate (NAA), a marker of neuronal integrity, and choline, a marker of cell membrane turnover and white matter integrity, may be altered in schizophrenia. Davunetide is a neurotrophic peptide that can enhance cognitive function in animal models of neurodegeneration. Davunetide has recently demonstrated modest functional improvement in a study of people with schizophrenia. In a subset of these subjects, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy...

Noradrenergic Synaptic Function in the Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis Varies in Animal Models of Anxiety and Addiction

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Lewis rats show increased anxiety-like behaviors and drug consumption compared with Sprague-Dawley rats. Prior work suggests norepinephrine (NE) signaling in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) could have a role in mediating these phenotypes. Here, we investigated NE content and dynamics in the ventral BNST (vBNST) using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry in these two rat strains. We found that NE release evoked by electrical stimulus and its subsequent uptake was dysregulated in the more...

Rate of Chiari I Malformation in Children of Mothers with Depression with and without Prenatal SSRI Exposure

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Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are frequently prescribed to pregnant women. Therefore, research on in utero exposure to SSRIs can be helpful in informing patients and clinicians. The aim of this retrospective two-cohort study was to determine whether there is a statistically significant increase in Chiari I malformations (CIM) in children exposed to SSRIs during pregnancy. A total of 33 children whose mothers received a diagnosis of depression and took SSRIs during pregnancy (SSRI-exposed cohort)...

Receptor Reserve Moderates Mesolimbic Responses to Opioids in a Humanized Mouse Model of the OPRM1 A118G Polymorphism

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The OPRM1 A118G polymorphism is the most widely studied μ-opioid receptor (MOR) variant. Although its involvement in acute alcohol effects is well characterized, less is known about the extent to which it alters responses to opioids. Prior work has shown that both electrophysiological and analgesic responses to morphine but not to fentanyl are moderated by OPRM1 A118G variation, but the mechanism behind this dissociation is not known. Here we found that humanized mice carrying the...

Stress and Drug Dependence Differentially Modulate Norepinephrine Signaling in Animals with Varied HPA Axis Function

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Previous work has demonstrated the importance of genetic factors and stress-sensitive circuits in the development of affective disorders. Anxiety and numerous psychological disorders are comorbid with substance abuse, and noradrenergic signaling in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is thought to be a source of this convergence. Here, we examined the effects of different stressors on behavior and norepinephrine dynamics in the BNST of rat strains known to differ in their HPA-axis function....

Comprehensive rehabilitative care across the spectrum of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

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Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS or Lou Gehrig’s disease) is a neurodegenerative disease that results in progressive muscle weakness and wasting. There is no known cure and the disease is uniformly fatal.

Functional magnetic resonance imaging measure of automatic and controlled auditory processing

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Activity within fronto-striato-temporal regions during processing of unattended auditory deviant tones and an auditory target detection task was investigated using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging. Activation within the middle frontal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, anterior cingulate gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, thalamus, and basal ganglia were analyzed for differences in activity patterns between the two stimulus conditions. Unattended deviant tones elicited robust activation in the superior temporal gyrus; by contrast, attended tones evoked stronger superior temporal...

Reduction of pyramidal and immature hippocampal neurons in pediatric simian immunodeficiency virus infection

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Pediatric HIV infection remains a global health crisis with a worldwide infection rate of 2.5 million (WHO, Geneva Switzerland, 2009). Children are much more susceptible to HIV-1 neurological impairments than adults, which is exacerbated by co-infections. A major obstacle in pediatric HIV research is sample access. The proposed studies take advantage of ongoing pediatric SIV pathogenesis and vaccine studies to test the hypothesis that pediatric SIV infection diminishes neuronal populations and neurogenesis in the hippocampus....

Cue-evoked dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens shell tracks reinforcer magnitude during intracranial self-stimulation

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The mesolimbic dopamine system is critically involved in modulating reward-seeking behavior and is transiently activated upon presentation of reward-predictive cues. It has previously been shown, using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry in behaving rats, that cues predicting a variety of reinforcers including food/water, cocaine or intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) elicit time-locked transient fluctuations in dopamine concentration in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell. These dopamine transients have been found to correlate with reward-related learning and are believed to promote...

Dynamic changes in cerebello-thalamo-cortical motor circuitry during progression of Parkinson's disease

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Both the basal ganglia and cerebellum are known to influence cortical motor and motor-associated areas via the thalamus. Whereas striato-thalamo-cortical (STC) motor circuit dysfunction has been implicated clearly in Parkinson’s disease (PD), the role of the cerebello-thalamo-cortical (CTC) motor circuit has not been well defined. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a convenient tool for studying the role of the CTC in vivo in PD patients, but large inter-individual differences in fMRI activation patterns require...

The basolateral amygdala differentially regulates conditioned neural responses within the nucleus accumbens core and shell

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The ability to process information regarding reward-predictive cues involves a diverse network of neural substrates. Given the importance of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and the basolateral amygdala (BLA) in associative reward processes, recent research has examined the functional importance of BLA-NAc interactions. Here, multi-neuron extracellular recordings of NAc neurons coupled to microinfusion of GABAA and GABAB agonists into the BLA were employed to determine the functional contribution of the BLA to phasic neural activity across...

Early-life exposure to the SSRI paroxetine exacerbates depression-like behavior in anxiety/depression-prone rats

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Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants are the mainstay treatment for the 10–20% of pregnant and postpartum women who suffer major depression, but the effects of SSRIs on their children’s developing brain and later emotional health are poorly understood. SSRI use during pregnancy can elicit antidepressant withdrawal in newborns and increase toddlers’ anxiety and social avoidance. In rodents, perinatal SSRI exposure increases adult depression- and anxiety-like behavior, although certain individuals are more vulnerable to these...

Neurosteroid modulation of GABAergic neurotransmission in the central amygdala: A role for NMDA receptors

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The neurosteroid 3α-hydroxy-5α-pregnan-20-one (allopregnanolone or ALLO) positively modulates GABAA receptors, an action that may contribute to the anxiolytic effects of ALLO. Recent evidence suggests that ALLO’s anxiolytic effects appear to be mediated by the amygdala, a key neural structure for emotional and cognitive behaviors. However, little is known regarding ALLO effects on amygdala physiology. We therefore explored ALLO effects on GABA neurotransmission in the central nucleus (Ce) of the amygdala, a major output nucleus involved...

Pre‐existing Minority Drug‐Resistant HIV‐1 Variants, Adherence, and Risk of Antiretroviral Treatment Failure

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The clinical relevance of detecting minority drug-resistant HIV-1 variants is uncertain.

Fear induced neuronal alterations in a genetic model of depression: An fMRI study on awake animals

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Previous human imaging studies used facial stimuli to explore the potential association between depression and fear. This study aimed at investigating brain alterations in a rodent model of depression when innate fear was induced in the form of the predator odor trimethylthiazoline (TMT). Flinders sensitive line rats (FSL), a genetic animal model of depression, and their control counterpart Flinders resistant line (FRL), were used in this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) assessment. Compared to FRL,...

Thalamic cholinergic innervation is spared in Alzheimer disease compared to parkinsonian disorders

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There are two major sources of cholinergic projections in the brain. The nucleus basalis of Meynert provides the principal cholinergic input of the cortical mantle and the pedunculopontine nucleus-laterodorsal tegmental complex (PPN-LDTC; hereafter referred to as PPN) provides the major cholinergic input to the thalamus. Cortical cholinergic denervation has previously been shown to be part of Alzheimer and parkinsonian dementia but there is less information about subcortical thalamic cholinergic denervation. We investigated thalamic cholinergic afferent...

Pharmacogenetic Modulation of Orexin Neurons Alters Sleep/Wakefulness States in Mice

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Hypothalamic neurons expressing neuropeptide orexins are critically involved in the control of sleep and wakefulness. Although the activity of orexin neurons is thought to be influenced by various neuronal input as well as humoral factors, the direct consequences of changes in the activity of these neurons in an intact animal are largely unknown. We therefore examined the effects of orexin neuron-specific pharmacogenetic modulation in vivo by a new method called the Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated...

Vitamin E and selenium: contrasting and interacting nutritional determinants of host resistance to parasitic and viral infections.

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Beneficial effects of trace amounts of dietary Se were first observed in vitamin E-deficient rats so that a strong metabolic interaction between these two micronutrients was apparent since the initial discovery of the nutritional value of Se (Schwarz & Foltz, 1957). Later work showed that Se and vitamin E tended to spare one another's requirement for the prevention of certain nutritional deficiency diseases (e.g. exudative diathesis in chicks, see Thompson & Scott, 1969). However, there...

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  • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
  • University of Minnesota