63,911 Works

De novo design of potent and resilient hACE2 decoys to neutralize SARS-CoV-2

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We developed a de novo protein design strategy to swiftly engineer decoys for neutralizing pathogens that exploit extracellular host proteins to infect the cell. Our pipeline allowed the design, validation, and optimization of de novo hACE2 decoys to neutralize SARS-CoV-2. The best decoy, CTC-445.2, binds with low nanomolar affinity and high specificity to the RBD of the spike protein. Cryo-EM shows that the design is accurate and can simultaneously bind to all three RBDs of...

Identifying mechanisms that predict weight trajectory after bariatric surgery: rationale and design of the biobehavioral trial

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Bariatric surgery is currently the most efficacious and durable intervention for severe obesity. The most commonly performed procedures in the United States are the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and the sleeve gastrectomy, which involve significant anatomic and physiologic alterations that lead to changes in behavior and biology. Unfortunately, many patients experience suboptimal weight loss and/or substantial weight regain. Eating and physical activity/sedentary behaviors, mood, cognition, and the gut microbiome all change postoperatively and have an association...

Early impact of COVID-19 on individuals with self-reported eating disorders: A survey of ~1,000 individuals in the United States and the Netherlands

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Objective: We evaluated the early impact of COVID-19 on people with self-reported eating disorders. Method: Participants in the United States (US, N = 511) and the Netherlands (NL, N = 510), recruited through ongoing studies and social media, completed an online survey that included both quantitative measures and free-text responses assessing the impact of COVID-19 on situational circumstances, eating disorder symptoms, eating disorder treatment, and general well-being. Results: Results revealed strong and wide-ranging effects on...

Sweet taste preference in binge-eating disorder: A preliminary investigation

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Research suggests that individuals with high liking for sweets are at increased risk for binge eating, which has been minimally investigated in individuals with binge-eating disorder (BED). Forty-one adults (85% female, 83% white) with binge eating concerns completed a sweet taste test and measures of eating disorder behaviors and food cravings. A subset of participants with BED completed an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT; N = 21) and a 24-hour dietary recall (N = 26)....

Preliminary Evidence for an Association Between the Composition of the Gut Microbiome and Cognitive Function in Neurologically Healthy Older Adults

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Objectives: Dysbiosis of the gut microbiome is implicated in numerous human health conditions. Animal studies have linked microbiome disruption to changes in cognitive functioning, although no study has examined this possibility in neurologically healthy older adults. Methods: Participants were 43 community-dwelling older adults (50-85 years) that completed a brief cognitive test battery and provided stool samples for gut microbiome sequencing. Participants performing ≥ 1 SD below normative performance on two or more tests were compared...

Comparative Effectiveness of Treatments for Binge-Eating Disorder: Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis

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Psychological and pharmacological interventions for binge-eating disorder have previously demonstrated efficacy (compared with placebo or waitlist control); thus, we aimed to expand that literature with a review of comparative effectiveness. We searched MEDLINE,® EMBASE,® Cochrane Library, Academic OneFile, CINAHL® for binge-eating disorder treatment articles and selected studies using predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data were sufficient for network meta-analysis comparing two pharmacological interventions; psychological interventions were analysed qualitatively. In all, 28 treatment comparisons were included...

Soft drink intake is associated with weight gain, regardless of physical activity levels: The health workers cohort study

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Background: While soft drink intake is positively associated with weight gain, no previous study has investigated whether leisure-time physical activity modifies this association. We estimated the association between soft drink intake and body weight, and explored if this association differed by levels of leisure-time physical activity. Methods: We used data from the health workers cohort study, a prospective study of Mexican adults (20 to 85y old), including 1268 health workers and their families, who were...

Recent Trends in Junk Food Intake in U.S. Children and Adolescents, 2003–2016

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Introduction: In the U.S., there is no consensus of how to define junk food. Strict regulations on what constitutes junk food denoted by front-of-package labels can serve as the basis for statutory actions. Chile was the first country to adopt this approach, and several countries have followed suit. This study examined the proportion of calories and nutrients of concern consumed by U.S. children and adolescents defined as junk food using the Chilean label criteria and...

The association of overall diet quality with BMI and waist circumference by education level in Mexican men and women

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Objective:The present study evaluated the association of two measures of diet quality with BMI and waist circumference (WC), overall and by education level, among Mexican men and women.Design:We constructed two a priori indices of diet quality, the Mexican Diet Quality Index (MxDQI) and the Mexican Alternate Healthy Eating Index (MxAHEI), which we examined relative to BMI and WC. We computed sex-specific multivariable linear regression models for the total sample and by education level.Setting:Mexico.Participants:Mexican men (n...

Equity impacts of price policies to promote healthy behaviours

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Governments can use fiscal policies to regulate the prices and consumption of potentially unhealthy products. However, policies aimed at reducing consumption by increasing prices, for example by taxation, might impose an unfair financial burden on low-income households. We used data from household expenditure surveys to estimate patterns of expenditure on potentially unhealthy products by socioeconomic status, with a primary focus on low-income and middle-income countries. Price policies affect the consumption and expenditure of a larger...

Understanding bias in relationships between the food environment and diet quality: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study

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Background The relationship between food environment exposures and diet behaviours is unclear, possibly because the majority of studies ignore potential residual confounding. Methods We used 20 years (1985-1986, 1992-1993 2005-2006) of data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study across four US cities (Birmingham, Alabama; Chicago, Illinois; Minneapolis, Minnesota; Oakland, California) and instrumental variables (IV) regression to obtain causal estimates of longitudinal associations between the percentage of neighbourhood food outlets (per...

Mexican cohort study predates but predicts the type of body composition changes expected from the mexican sugar-sweetened beverage tax

Important lessons can be learned from studies of the Mexican sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) tax and related studies on the health effects of the tax. The Mexican government instituted a nationwide one peso per liter excise tax on SSBs that was effective on January 1, 2014. The tax applies to all nonalcoholic beverages with added sugar and represents an approximate 10% increase in prices. The Mexican SSB tax rate is less than the 20% rate in...

The public health and economic benefits of taxing sugar-sweetened beverages

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Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages has increased in recent decades; evidence suggests that consumption of these beverages contributes to obesity and adverse health outcomes. The authors discuss the potential public health and economic benefits of taxing sugar-sweetened beverages.

Part G. Advances in methodological issues in the use of international food datasets. Understanding the nutrition transition: Measuring rapid dietary changes in transitional countries

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Objective: To understand methodological concerns related to dietary intake collection in transitional societies. Design: Three days of household weighing and measurement of all food used and repeated 24-hour recalls. Setting: Eight Chinese provinces. Subjects: Five thousand nine hundred and fifty-two and 5152 adults aged 20-45 years in 1989 and 1997, respectively. Results: Great variance exists in the types and quantity of animal products used in common recipes. For example, the proportion of pork from lean...

Poverty and the economic transition in the Russian Federation

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Introduction In what some describe as one of the great natural experiments of our time, the Russian Federation has introduced a series of sweeping economic reforms over a very short period of time, beginning in January 1992. These include the elimination of most food subsidies; the reduction of other food subsidies and subsidies for fuel and most other basic commodities; the use of freely fluctuating market prices; the privatization of selected state enterprises; the creation...

Impact of E-Cigarette Liquid Flavoring Agents on Activity of Microsomal Recombinant CYP2A6, the Primary Nicotine-Metabolizing Enzyme

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Nicotine is the primary psychoactive chemical in both traditional and electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). Nicotine levels in both traditional cigarettes and e-cigarettes are an important concern for public health. Nicotine exposure due to e-cigarette use is of importance primarily due to the addictive potential of nicotine, but there is also concern for nicotine poisoning in e-cigarette users. Nicotine concentrations in e-liquids vary widely. Additionally, there is significant genetic variability in the rate of metabolism of nicotine...

Gene Expression Profiling in Human Lung Cells Exposed to Isoprene-Derived Secondary Organic Aerosol

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Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) derived from the photochemical oxidation of isoprene contributes a substantial mass fraction to atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM2.5). The formation of isoprene SOA is influenced largely by anthropogenic emissions through multiphase chemistry of its multigenerational oxidation products. Considering the abundance of isoprene SOA in the troposphere, understanding mechanisms of adverse health effects through inhalation exposure is critical to mitigating its potential impact on public health. In this study, we assessed the...

Types and Amounts of Nonnutritive Sweeteners Purchased by US Households: A Comparison of 2002 and 2018 Nielsen Homescan Purchases

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Background: Purchases of foods containing nonnutritive sweetener (NNS) alone or in combination with caloric sweeteners (CS) has increased in recent years in the United States. At the same time clinical evidence is emerging of different cardiometabolic effects of each NNS type. Objective: To examine the prevalence and volume purchased of commonly consumed types of NNS in packaged food and beverage products comparing 2002 and 2018 using data from nationally representative samples of US households. Participants/setting:...

Contribution of major food companies and their products to household dietary sodium purchases in Australia

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Background: The Australian federal government will soon release voluntary sodium reduction targets for 30 packaged food categories through the Healthy Food Partnership. Previous assessments of voluntary targets show variable industry engagement, and little is known about the extent that major food companies and their products contribute to dietary sodium purchases among Australian households. Methods: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to identify the relative contribution that food companies and their products made to Australian...

Cross-sectional association between diet quality and cardiometabolic risk by education level in Mexican adults

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Objective: Understanding the association between diet quality and cardiometabolic risk by education level is important for preventing increased cardiometabolic risk in the Mexican population, especially considering pre-existing disparities in diet quality. The present study examined the cross-sectional association of overall diet quality with cardiometabolic risk, overall and by education level, among Mexican men and women.Design: Cardiometabolic risk was defined by using biomarkers and diet quality by the Mexican Diet Quality Index. We computed sex-specific multivariable...

Dietary intake by food source and eating location in low- and middle-income chilean preschool children and adolescents from southeast Santiago

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Background: Food source and eating location are important factors associated with the quality of dietary intake. In Chile the main food sources and eating locations of preschool children and adolescents and how these relate to dietary quality are unknown. Methods: We analyzed 24 h dietary recalls collected in 2016 from low- and middle-income Chilean preschool children (3–6 years, n = 839) and adolescents (12–14 years, n = 643) from southeastern Santiago. Surveys collected the food...

Diet quality and its association with type 2 diabetes and major cardiometabolic risk factors among adults in China

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Aim: We examined the association between diet quality and diabetes and major cardiometabolic risks among adults in China. Methods and Results: We developed the China Dietary Guideline Index (CDGI) based on the 2007 Chinese dietary guidelines and tailored the Alternate Healthy Eating Index 2010 (which we call the tAHEI) to assess diet quality. Our analysis linked the dietary intake and covariates measured in 2006 with CM risk factors measured in 2009. We used diet data...

Pitfalls of the self-regulation of advertisements directed at children on Mexican television

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Background: There are no academic studies that characterize advertisements directed at children from the companies that signed the self-regulation. Objective: The aim of this paper was to assess the extent and nature of food advertisements and the persuasive techniques used to market unhealthy food and beverages (UFB) to children, by signatory companies of self-regulation. Methods: From December 2012 to April 2013, 600 h of programming were recorded on the four broadcast public television channels in...

Sodium reduction in US households' packaged food and beverage purchases, 2000 to 2014

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IMPORTANCE Initiatives to reduce sodium in packaged foods have been launched in the United States, yet corresponding changes in the amount of sodium that US households obtain from packaged foods have not been evaluated, to our knowledge. OBJECTIVE To assess 15-year changes in the amount of sodium that US households acquire from packaged food purchases, the sodium content of purchases, and the proportion of households that have purchases with optimal sodium density. DESIGN, SETTING, AND...

Do high vs. low purchasers respond differently to a nonessential energy-dense food tax? Two-year evaluation of Mexico's 8% nonessential food tax

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It is unclear whether response to a nonessential food tax varies across time or for high vs. low-consuming households. The objective is to examine whether the effect of Mexico's 2014 8% nonessential energy-dense foods tax increased in the second year post-implementation and whether it differentially affected households by pre-tax purchasing pattern. We used longitudinal data on Mexican household food purchases (n = 6089 households) from 2012 to 2015. Households were classified based on median pre-tax...

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