56,999 Works

Tasting profile affects adoption of caloric beverage reduction in a randomized weight loss intervention

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Objective: The aim of this study was to examine differences in rates of non-caloric beverage adoption by participants classified as sweet likers (SLs) or sweet dislikers (measured using a behavioural tasting task). Methods: Data are a sub-study from a 6-month, three-group, randomized weight loss trial (CHOICE) (body mass index 36.3 ± 5.8 kg m−2, 84% female, aged 42.2 ± 10.9 years, 53% African-American) comparing the replacement of caloric beverages with either non-caloric sweetened beverages (diet)...

Instrumental-Variables Simultaneous Equations Model of Physical Activity and Body Mass Index: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study

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We used full-system-estimation instrumental-variables simultaneous equations modeling (IV-SEM) to examine physical activity relative to body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)2) using 25 years of data (1985/1986 to 2010/2011) from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study (n = 5,115; ages 18-30 years at enrollment). Neighborhood environment and sociodemographic instruments were used to characterize physical activity, fast-food consumption, smoking, alcohol consumption, marriage, and childbearing (women) and to predict BMI using semiparametric full-information...

Part II. What is unique about the experience in lower- and middle-income less-industrialised countries compared with the very-high-income industrialised countries? The shift in stages of the nutrition transition in the developing world differs from past experiences!

Objective: This paper explores the unique nutrition transition shifts in diet and activity patterns from the period termed the receding famine pattern to the one dominated by nutrition-related non-communicable diseases (NR-NCDs). The paper examines the speed and timing of these changes; unique components, such as the issue of finding both under- and overnutrition in the same household; potential exacerbating biological relationships that contribute to differences in the rates of change; and political issues. Setting: The...

Structural change in the impact of income on food consumption in China, 1989-1993

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Change has not always been steady in China, and evidence of increased poverty among some subpopulation groups exists. For example, among the rural poor in some areas there has been an increase in chronic energy deficiency, while, particularly among higher-income groups, the incidences of high-fat diets and obesity have increased rapidly. There has been a marked shift not only in obesity but also in other diet-related chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and certain...

Increasing Economic Stability in Fayetteville, NC Through the Creation of an Accountable Care Community to Improve the Health of Cumberland County Residents

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This proposal describes an Accountable Care Community (ACC) that will increase economic stability in Fayetteville, North Carolina (NC) to improve the health of Cumberland County (CC) residents. Economic stability is an important social determinant of health. Fayetteville has a poverty prevalence of 19.2% compared to 17% and 13% in CC and NC, respectively. Poverty has a negative impact on citizens’ health contributing to CC ranking 73rd among NC counties in health outcomes. This proposal describes...

Transforming the Built Environment in Cumberland County, North Carolina: The Creation of an Accountable Care Community to Reduce Asthma-Related Emergency Department Use and Hospitalizations in Black Children Age Birth to Five Years

Social determinants of health are the conditions where people are born, live, work, worship, and play that affects our overall health and wellbeing. This Capstone project examined substandard housing and the impacts that it has on children with asthma. The approach to addressing this problem is starting an Accountable Care Community (ACC) which brings key stakeholders together to address this non-communicable disease in Black children from birth to five years of age.

Sample size estimation in educational intervention trials with subgroup heterogeneity in only one arm

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We present closed form sample size and power formulas motivated by the study of a psycho-social intervention in which the experimental group has the intervention delivered in teaching subgroups while the control group receives usual care. This situation is different from the usual clustered randomized trial since subgroup heterogeneity only exists in one arm. We take this modification into consideration and present formulas for the situation in which we compare a continuous outcome at both...

Regenerative Effects of Transplanted Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Fracture Healing

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Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have a therapeutic potential in patients with fractures to reduce the time of healing and treat non-unions. The use of MSC to treat fractures is attractive as it would be implementing a reparative process that should be in place but occurs to be defective or protracted and MSC effects would be needed only for the repairing time that is relatively brief. However, an integrated approach to define the multiple regenerative contributions...

Concise review: Clinical programs of stem cell therapies for liver and pancreas: Stem Cell Therapies for Liver and Pancreas

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Regenerative medicine is transitioning into clinical programs using stem/progenitor cell therapies for repair of damaged organs. We summarize those for liver and pancreas, organs that share endodermal stem cell populations, biliary tree stem cells (hBTSCs), located in peribiliary glands. They are precursors to hepatic stem/progenitors in canals of Hering and to committed progenitors in pancreatic duct glands. They give rise to maturational lineages along a radial axis within bile duct walls and a proximal-to-distal axis...

Mechanically Activated Fyn Utilizes mTORC2 to Regulate RhoA and Adipogenesis in Mesenchymal Stem Cells

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Mechanical strain provides an anti-adipogenic, pro-osteogenic stimulus to mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) through generating intracellular signals and via cytoskeletal restructuring. Recently, mTORC2 has been shown to be a novel mechanical target critical for the anti-adipogenic signal leading to preservation of β-catenin. As mechanical activation of mTORC2 requires focal adhesions (FAs), we asked whether proximal signaling involved Src and FAK, which are early responders to integrin-FA engagement. Application of mechanical strain to marrow-derived MSCs was unable...

Protein Kinase Inhibitor γ Reciprocally Regulates Osteoblast and Adipocyte Differentiation by Downregulating Leukemia Inhibitory Factor: PKIγ Regulates Osteogenesis/Adipogenesis Via LIFs

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The Protein Kinase Inhibitor (Pki) gene family inactivates nuclear PKA and terminates PKA-induced gene expression. We previously showed that Pkig is the primary family member expressed in osteoblasts and that Pkig knockdown increases the effects of parathyroid hormone and isoproterenol on PKA activation, gene expression, and inhibition of apoptosis. Here, we determined whether endogenous levels of Pkig regulate osteoblast differentiation. Pkig is the primary family member in MEFs, murine marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, and human...

Intranuclear Actin Regulates Osteogenesis: Intranuclear Actin Regulates Osteogenesis

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Depolymerization of the actin cytoskeleton induces nuclear trafficking of regulatory proteins and global effects on gene transcription. We here show that in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), cytochalasin D treatment causes rapid cofilin-/importin-9-dependent transfer of G-actin into the nucleus. The continued presence of intranuclear actin, which forms rod-like structures that stain with phalloidin, is associated with induction of robust expression of the osteogenic genes osterix and osteocalcin in a Runx2-dependent manner, and leads to acquisition of...

Tissue-Derived Stem and Progenitor Cells

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The characterization and isolation of various stem cell populations, from embryonic through tissue-derived stem cells, have led a rapid growth in the field of stem cell research. These research efforts have often been interrelated as to the markers that identify a select cell population are frequently analyzed to determine their expression in cells of distinct organs/tissues. In this review, we will expand the current state of research involving select tissue-derived stem cell populations including the...

Our Fat Future: Translating Adipose Stem Cell Therapy

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Human adipose stem cells (hASCs) have the potential to treat patients with a variety of clinical conditions. Recent advancements in translational research, regulatory policy, and industry have positioned hASCs on the threshold of clinical translation. We discuss the progress and challenges of bringing adipose stem cell therapy into mainstream clinical use.

Sleep Duration and Risk of Ischemic Stroke in Postmenopausal Women * Supplemental Appendix

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Many studies have shown a U-shape association between sleep duration and mortality, but epidemiological evidence linking cardiovascular diseases (CVD) with habitual sleep patterns is limited and mixed.

Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A2 and High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein Improve the Stratification of Ischemic Stroke Risk in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study

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Inflammation plays a critical role in the development of vascular disease, and increased levels of the inflammatory biomarkers, lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) have been shown to be associated with an increased risk for ischemic stroke.

Genome-Wide Association Studies of MRI-Defined Brain Infarcts: Meta-Analysis From the CHARGE Consortium * Supplemental Appendix

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Previous studies examining genetic associations with MRI-defined brain infarct have yielded inconsistent findings. We investigated genetic variation underlying covert MRI-infarct, in persons without histories of transient ischemic attack or stroke. We performed meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of white participants in 6 studies comprising the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) consortium.

Covert Neurological Symptoms Associated With Silent Infarcts From Midlife to Older Age: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study

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Unrecognized or unreported stroke-like symptoms, called covert symptoms, occur in persons free of clinical stroke. Whether covert symptoms are associated with subclinical brain infarcts (SBI) is unknown. This study examined the association between covert stroke-like symptoms and SBI/stroke in persons with no history of stroke or TIA.

Atrial Fibrillation and Cognitive Decline–The Role of Subclinical Cerebral Infarcts: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study

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The mechanism underlying the association of atrial fibrillation (AF) with cognitive decline in stroke-free individuals is unclear. We examined the association of incident AF with cognitive decline in stroke-free individuals, stratified by subclinical cerebral infarcts (SCIs) on brain MRI scans.

Predicting Stroke Through Genetic Risk Functions: The CHARGE Risk Score Project

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Beyond the Framingham Stroke Risk Score (FSRS), prediction of future stroke may improve with a genetic risk score (GRS) based on Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with stroke and its risk factors.

Sickle Cell Trait and Incident Ischemic Stroke in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study

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Numerous case reports describe stroke in individuals with sickle cell trait (SCT) in the absence of traditional risk factors for cerebrovascular disease. To date, no prospective epidemiological studies have investigated this association.

Stem Cells as an Emerging Paradigm in Stroke 3: Enhancing the Development of Clinical Trials

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Cell-based therapy continues to grow as a new field to explore investigational treatments for stroke. Leaders from academia and industry convened an inaugural meeting in 2007 with members of the National Institutes of Health and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to generate consensus-based guidelines on the development of cell therapies for stroke, entitled “Stem Cells as an Emerging Paradigm in Stroke” (STEPS).1 These guidelines focused on preclinical studies that are considered important as part of...

Strategic Planning to Reduce the Burden of Stroke Among Veterans: Using Simulation Modeling to Inform Decision Making

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Reducing the burden of stroke is a priority for the Veterans Affairs (VA) Health System, reflected by the creation of the VA Stroke Quality Enhancement Research Initiative (QUERI). To inform the initiative's strategic planning, we estimated the relative population-level impact and efficiency of distinct approaches to improving stroke care in the United States Veteran population to inform policy and practice.

William M. Feinberg Award for Excellence in Clinical Stroke: Hemodynamics and Stroke Risk in Carotid Artery Occlusion

Association of Dietary Protein Consumption With Incident Silent Cerebral Infarcts and Stroke: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study

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The effect of dietary protein on the risk of stroke has shown inconsistent results. We aimed to evaluate the relationship of dietary protein sources with the risk of stroke and silent cerebral infarcts in a large community based cohort.

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