22,557 Works

Coming Into Their Own: Adolescent Latinas in the United States

First and second generation Latina adolescents represent a growing proportion of youth in the United States. Latina adolescents bring a culture with a unique set of norms that govern their sexual behavior. This coupled with the stressors felt in most Latino families markedly influences the sexual behavior of Latina teens. This research will explore the role of family experiences in the United States and cultural norms on Latina sexual and reproductive behavior in the context...

Epidemiological Analysis of Sociosexual HIV Networks in Central North Carolina

Disparities in HIV incidence are seen by race and sexual orientation, although race and sexual orientation do not sufficiently explain differential risk within sexual networks. Race and sexual orientation, however, influence partner selection, risk behavior, and access to care. Partner selection and risk behavior underlay differences in HIV acquisition and can be studied within the context of a sociosexual network. Marginalized or stigmatized persons are more likely to be diagnosed with HIV later in the...

An NMR Study of Supercooled Water under Nanoconfinement by Hydrophobic Surfaces

The main focus of this dissertation is studying the properties of bulk water, confined water, and interfacial water. The thermodynamics, dynamics and state of water are investigated by DSC and 1H NMR methods. Hydrophobic slit-shaped pores with tunable pore size from 0.5 nm to 1.6 nm are applied as confinement media in our experiments. By confining water in nanopores, we are able to cool the water lower than its homogeneous nucleation temperature 235 K at...

Can the Internet Help Preserve Journalism? Sense of Community Differences among Print and Online Local News Consumers

This dissertation, a survey of a random sample of 1,171 adults living in Maricopa County, Ariz., seeks insight into the changing relationship between news and geographically defined communities by focusing on two local news products, The Arizona Republic and azcentral.com. It is rooted in the widely held belief that there is a virtuous cycle linking print newspaper readership to sense of community in a manner that enhances social capital and attempts to determine the nature...

THE ADOLESCENT HEALTH BELIEF MODEL: CONCEPTALIZING COGNITIVE FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE MEDICATION NON-ADHERENCE AMONG ADOLESCENTS

The medication non-adherence literature rarely employs theoretical models, and no models to date have been modified or created to understand adolescent medication non-adherence. The first aim of this study was to evaluate whether the six factors in the child health belief model (CHBM; susceptibility, severity, family support, benefits, barriers, self-efficacy) could be employed to understand adolescent medication non-adherence. The second aim was to propose a developmentally appropriate extension of the CHBM and provide an initial...

A Prospective Analysis Of Perioperative Pain Following VPT on Permanent Teeth With Mature Apices

Vital pulp therapy (VPT) remains a treatment option for cariously exposed teeth that reach the dental pulp. To our knowledge no study has examined whether perioperative pain predicts the outcome of VPT. The aim of this study is to examine the between perioperative pain and the progression of pulpal disease into a more inflamed or necrotic state. Direct pulp caps or partial pulpotomies using MTA were performed on permanent teeth with carious pulpal exposures. Patients...

The Role of Fog in the Hydrological Functioning of Tropical Island Ecosystems

Fog is a critical water source in many tropical ecosystems, especially those that are semi-arid, or seasonally dry. Patterns of fog water input to these ecosystems are poorly understood, and currently limited by a lack of in-situ data spanning both space and time. Large gaps exist in our understanding of the spatiotemporal variability and mechanisms driving fog water deposition, and how fog travels through tropical systems. Given the significance of fog to semi-arid ecosystems across...

On transparency: a response to Nishi Shah’s “How truth governs belief\"

In his 2003 paper “How Truth Governs Belief” Nishi Shah claims that within first personal doxastic deliberation, one cannot separate the questions whether to believe some proposition p and whether p is true; the questions must be viewed as answered by and answerable to the same set of considerations. He calls this phenomenon transparency, and argues that the only way to explain it is by understanding the concept of belief as being normatively tied to...

Transnational Smyth: Suffrage, Cosmopolitanism, Networks

This thesis examines the transnational entanglements of Dame Ethel Smyth (1858–1944), which are exemplified through her travel and movement, her transnational networks, and her music’s global circulation. Smyth studied music in Leipzig, Germany, as a young woman; composed an opera (The Boatswain’s Mate) while living in Egypt; and even worked as a radiologist in France during the First World War. In order to achieve performances of her work, she drew upon a carefully-cultivated transnational network...

Managing Water Conflict and Cooperation in Central Asia

The collapse of the Soviet Union left countries of Central Asia to experience political confrontations over territory and water rights. Additionally, independence of Central Asian countries resulted in the change of control systems, including transboundary rivers of the region. Resource capture, and isolation of Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan in early years of independence, from water cooperation, as well as engagements, brought to the competition over water resources. Moreover, upstream-downstream controversy and water politics in Central Asia...

Strategies for the Synthesis and Use of β-Stereogenic α-Keto Esters

I. Extant Methods for the Preparation of α-Keto Esters An overview of the synthetic methods to prepare α-keto esters is presented, with a particular focus on strategies to incorporate a stereocenter at the β-position. II.Catalytic Nucleophilic Glyoxylation of Aldehydes The synthesis of β-silyloxy α-keto esters via a cyanide catalyzed benzoin-type reaction with silyl glyoxylates and aldehydes is described. Critical to the success of the reaction was identifying Yb(OiPr)?3? and acetone cyanohydrin as a mild source...

Convergence of Aberrant Electrophysiological Correlates of Salience, Affective Processing and Stress Reactivity in Patients with Schizophrenia

Patients with schizophrenia exhibit debilitating deficits in attention and affective processing, which are often resistant to treatment and associated with poor functional outcomes. Attentional and affective processing relies on a distributed neural network of fronto-limbic circuits, which enable cognitive control and affective processing, and assist in their interaction to regulate emotional responses. Despite evidence of intact affective valence processing, schizophrenia patients are often unable to employ cognitive change strategies to reduce attentional capture by emotionally...

Development of New Materials for Applications in Liquid Crystal Technologies and Biofuel Production

This work encompasses three distinct materials chemistries: solid support catalysts for biodiesel production, synthesis of molecular based liquid crystals for improved applications in liquid crystal display technologies, and mesoscopic behavior of high aspect ratio nanoscale metal-organic framework particles. The production of biodiesel from waste biomass by the traditional two-step acid/base sequence is a costly and inefficient process. Solid supported acid catalysts were fabricated to reduce the free fatty acid content in waste greases in a...

Challenges to the Treatment of Malaria

Malaria remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Successful treatment of malaria is threatened by widespread drug resistance and co-infections with HIV. This dissertation explored two challenges to malaria treatment. The first aim addressed outcome misclassification in antimalarial treatment trials. Without accurate classification of patients' outcomes, estimates of drug efficacy are flawed. We identified factors related to outcome misclassification: transmission intensity, the distribution of genetic variants in parasite populations, multiplicity of infection, and PCR-insensitivity...

Conflicted Conceptions: An Ethnography of Assisted Reproduction Practices in Argentina

In this ethnography, I focus on the community of reproductive medicine professionals in Argentina to examine how assisted reproductive technologies (ART) are transformed according to local conditions of practice, as well as how they are transformative of the societies they newly inhabit. Based on three continuous years of ethnographic, interview and archival research conducted primarily in Buenos Aires, my findings reveal that the production of ART in a given place is not a culturally-neutral process,...

Socio-cultural group influences parent report on the child behavior checklist and clinical diagnostic impressions

This study examines the relationship of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and clinician intake diagnoses across diverse socio-cultural groups drawn from an urban Midwest community mental health clinic. Four socio-cultural groups were defined for the purposes of this study: 1) Black; 2) White; 3) Hispanic with English CBCL administration; and 4) Hispanic with Spanish CBCL administration. Socio-cultural differences in diagnostic rates of anxiety disorder, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and conduct disorder were found in this sample....

MAKING SPACE IN THE \"TERRITORIAL CRACKS.\" AFRO-CAMPESINO POLITICS OF LAND AND TERRITORY IN THE COLOMBIAN CARIBBEAN

In the Caribbean mountains of Montes de María, Colombia’s ‘post-conflict’ is a particularly contested political conjuncture. Dominant narratives construct the present as a moment of dramatic transition from a past of violence, statelessness, and victim’s invisibility, to a future of peace, development, or rural justice. Conjunctural agrarian politics, in turn, are frequently framed as peasant ‘resistance’ that reflects the ‘re-emergence’ of peasant struggle after decades of violent silencing. This dissertation provides an alternative account of...

Capitalizing on the Teachable Moment: Improving Self-Help Smoking Cessation Interventions

The Teachable Moment (TM) model suggests that there are certain times when an individual is especially ready to change behavior and thus, especially open to receiving messages about behavior change. According to the TM model, experiences that jointly 1) increase risk perceptions, 2) prompt concordant emotional responses, and 3) impact self-concept may offer a powerful motivational context for promoting behavior change. Further, tailoring smoking cessation interventions on TM components may increase the salience of health...

Rapid dopamine signaling in the nucleus accumbens shell, but not core, encodes reward magnitude-based decision making

Effective decision making requires organisms to predict reward values and bias behavior toward the best available option. The mesolimbic dopamine system, including the nucleus accumbens (NAc) core and shell, is involved in this process. While studies support a differential role of the core and shell in subjective versus outcome based decision making, no studies have examined dopamine release to cues signaling the availability of different reward magnitudes. Here, electrochemical methods were used in rats to...

When you must take responsibility though you're not to blame

There are many situations where an agent's responsibility for morally problematic behavior, attitudes, or aspects of her character seems to entail that she is blameworthy. There are some cases, however, where intuitively claims about responsibility and blameworthiness can and should come apart. In this paper, I argue that there is a sense of responsibility that agents have in virtue of having an obligation to take responsibility for behavior and features of their psychology that are...

Parental death and HIV infection among adolescents and young adults in South Africa

This dissertation examined the association between parental death and HIV infection among 8,735 young people aged 15-24, utilizing a 2002 household survey from 33 communities. Analyses examined parental loss and HIV in the context of gender, age, and residence with either or both parents, a non-parental adult, or no adult. Survey data indicate that young people of both genders who have experienced parental loss have higher HIV prevalence than their peers, particularly below age 20....

System parameters and performance specifications for the application of Diffraction Enhanced Imaging and Multiple Image Radiography to breast imaging

The Diffraction Enhanced Imaging (DEI) method is a novel x-ray imaging technique that dramatically extends the capability of conventional x-ray imaging. X-ray imaging has traditionally been dependent on x-ray absorption to generate contrast, and is the physical mechanism of contrast in planar x-ray imaging and computed tomography. DEI utilizes the Bragg peak of perfect crystal diffraction to convert angular changes into intensity changes, providing a large change in intensity for a small change in angle....

Ras signaling through the RalGEF-Ral pathway in C. elegans

The classical Ras effector pathway involves activation of the Raf-MEK-ERK mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade. Recent studies show that a second Ras effector cascade, Ral guanine nucleotide exchange factor (RalGEF) activation of the Ras-like (Ral) small GTPases, also promotes tumorigenic, invasive and metastatic cancer cell growth. How RalGEF-Ral downstream effector signaling facilitates Ras activity in cancer cells remains poorly defined. Studies of the C. elegans Ras ortholog have provided critical clues for delineating Ras signaling in...

Climate Litigation and Atmospheric Ethics: A Case Study of Juliana v. United States

This thesis offers an account of climate change lawsuits as ethical experiments which endeavor to develop legal and ethical norms and principles suited to a world remolded by cumulative human actions. It offers a theorization of the ‘what’ and the ‘why’ of the growing, global wave of climate litigation by situating it within the dynamic landscape of contemporary climate politics. Through a case study of Juliana v. United States, a first-of-its-kind constitutional climate lawsuit against...

What's real and what's news: an exploratory analysis of media coverage and resident perceptions of environmental risk using objective risk data

This thesis draws on five disparate data sources to examine availability and efficacy of media covering environmental risk in North Carolina. Framed as a study of environmental in/justice, the analysis uses objective measures of risk to examine the state's health disparities in light of demographic data. The results indicate that counties with more poor and more minority residents are both less healthy overall and have fewer media outlets to learn about health and environmental risks....

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