22,557 Works

Comprehensive Literacy Instruction in Self-Contained Special Education Classrooms: Epistemology and Practice

Special education has evolved separately from general education, resulting in a separate system with different purposes, instructional practices, content, expectations, and outcomes for students. The separate system is based on a set of beliefs about teaching and learning (epistemology) that leads to a denial of meaningful learning opportunities and increases the impact of disability on students' lives. The special education system predominantly relies on a behavioral approach to literacy instruction, but this approach is ineffective...

Discerning the Role of Prostaglandins in Ductus Arteriosus Remodeling

The ductus arteriosus (DA) is a fetal pulmonary bypass shunt that constricts and permanently remodels during the transition from fetal to adult circulation. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is potent mediator of numerous physiological responses both in homeostasis and disease state. PGE2 play a vital role in DA maturation and closure, although the exact molecular role is unclear. We attempt to discern the nature of PGE2 involvement in DA maturation and closure. Here we generate a conditional...

The effect of gender inequality on HIV risks among couples in North India

Background: India ranks third in the world in the number of HIV/AIDS cases. Gender-based power factors are believed to contribute significantly to disease spread in the country, where few studies have examined this. Purpose: This dissertation's overarching aim was to examine the impact of unequal gender relations on proximal, distant, and programmatic HIV risks among couples in North India. Methods: Population-based data from 2003 were collected among 3,385 married couples living in Uttar Pradesh and...

Interracial marriage formation: entry into first union and transition from cohabitation to marriage

Few prior studies on union formation and transition have emphasized a very distinct group - racially and ethnically mixed couples, whose patterns of entry into first union and transition from cohabitation to marriage are very different from couples in general. Using the female data from 2002 National Survey of Family Growth (cycle VI), I employed survival analysis to specifically examine interracial marriage formation process. The results reveal that non-white females with higher education are more...

Characterization of Adolescent and Adult Ethanol Sensitization

Alcoholism is a serious health problem that affects the lives of millions of people worldwide. People that first experiment with alcohol as adolescents are at a greater risk to become alcoholics. The adolescent brain may be particularly vulnerable to drug-induced neuroadaptations. Behavioral sensitization is a method that uses repeated drug exposure to induce neurobiological changes that are thought to model the changes taking place during addiction. Sensitization to ethanol has not been studied in adolescents...

From The Man With the Hoe to Tobacco Road: Class, Poverty and Religion and the Southern Tenant Farmers' Union

This thesis explores the intersections of poverty, class and religion as they were debated and depicted within the Southern Tenant Farmers' Union (STFU). The STFU was a Christian and socialist inflected union of agricultural laborers that formed in response to the Agricultural Adjustment Act in 1934. I contextualize these depictions within the larger context of debates about poverty and religion in Depression Era literature and academic scholarship, particularly as they relate to the figure of...

Child Abuse and Neglect in Military and Non-Military Families: An Analysis of the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System, 2000-2003

Context: The impact and stress of war extend beyond the military soldier to include emotional upheaval for his or her family, yet little is known about how war affects the occurrence of child maltreatment in families. This study is the first to use data from a national surveillance system to compare child maltreatment in military and non-military families. Further, it is the only known study to characterize military perpetrators of child maltreatment and to examine...

Specious poisons?: reputation, gender, and democratic politics

Suggesting that reputation and gossip have been largely ignored by contemporary political theorists, I argue that both reputation and the gossip that helps to constitute it are important aspects of our communal and political lives. I begin with the work of Jean-Jacques Rousseau as representative of a larger early modern discourse that identified the desire for reputation as one that is central to human beings. Arguing that this desire for reputation simultaneously poses great dangers...

Signs of Critical Endurance on the Marcellus Shale Landscape

Bradford and Susquehanna Counties are rural communities in northeastern Pennsylvania long dependent on agricultural production, timber extraction and manufacturing. These counties also sit above the Marcellus Shale, a rock formation roughly a mile below the earth's surface containing vast deposits of natural gas. Drawing on ethnographic work conducted in the summer and fall of 2011, I illustrate herein how residents of Bradford and Susquehanna Counties critically endure the social, economic and environmental changes attributable to...

Promoting the human development model: transforming research into a promotional tool

Diffusion scholars have established that supranational organizations play a key role in disseminating international development norms, yet leave unexamined how they promote such norms. In a case study of the United Nation Development Programme, I coded 40 organizational documents to analyze the UNDP's discourse and practices around the promotion of the human development (HD) model. I found that the UNDP's primary promotional strategy is to support HD research worldwide, resulting in hundreds of reports; the...

Molecular mechanisms of allosteric modulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) are part of the Cys-loop family of ligand-gated ion channels, and are implicated in a wide variety of neurological disorders such as nicotine addiction, schizophrenia, and cognitive dysfunction. Therefore, they represent a critical molecular target for drug development and targeted therapeutic intervention. Positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of ligandgated ion channels have a unique therapeutic potential because they enhance synaptic transmission without disrupting the endogenous timing mechanisms. This research focused on the...

Optimization of pediatric antiretroviral therapy in sub-Saharan Africa : timing of initiation in HIV/TB co-infected children and using gains in weight, height, or CD4 count to monitor the response

Backgroung: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has revolutionized the treatment of HIV, but substantial drug interactions between anti-TB and ART and the lack of health care infrastructures complicate the management of HIV/TB co-infected children in resource poor countries. More than 50% of TB infected children in some high burden countries in sub-Saharan Africa are also infected with HIV, but the optimal timing of ART in those children is unknown. In addition, though the drug-interactions and the high...

Pregnancy prevalence, outcomes, and knowledge of rights for NCAA Division I female student athletes

No study has ever examined pregnancy in a student-athlete population. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of pregnancy and the relationship of pregnancy outcomes to knowledge of rights in collegiate female athletes enrolled at NCAA DI-A institutions. Paper and pencil surveys were administered at four major DI-A (BCS) institutions. Of the total 897 female student-athletes enrolled at the four institutions, 517 chose to participate in this study. Four percent of the...

Black to Blue and White to Fright: Examining the Importance of Minority Representation for Racial Profiling in Policing

What role does racial diversity in police agencies have on racially discriminatory practices? This paper will focus on the link between police agency demographics and racially discriminatory policing. I will argue that a more diverse police force can in fact make racial discrimination worse. Minority officers undergo organizational socialization, a process by which new members of an organization are taught the organization’s values in place of their own. This process affects the link between demographic...

Composing for the Red Screen: Sergei Prokofiev’s Film Scores

Sergei Prokofiev's film scores are unique for having attained a steadfast place in the canon of classical music, a feat the composer accomplished in the complicated and oppressive artistic milieu of Stalin's Russia. The eight films for which he wrote music encompass a range of musical and cinematic genres, from the well-known Aleksandr Nevskii and Lieutenant Kizhe to more obscure propaganda films such as The Partisans in the Ukrainian Steppe and Tonia. Discussion of the...

Incentives in a New light: Enhancing the Effectiveness of State Economic Development through Policy Embeddedness

This dissertation is driven by the policy problem of how to improve the effectiveness of state economic development programs. Recent research has shown that the institutional environment in which these programs are embedded deeply shapes their ability to produce successful outcomes. But less is understood about how this environment influences the effectiveness of one particular economic development strategy—the use of cash or tax incentives given to businesses by state governments to induce private investment and...

Evaluation of a low-cost compartment bag test to quantify hydrogen sulfideproducing bacteria in drinking water

Tests for detecting hydrogen sulfide (H2S)-producing bacteria as fecal indicators have been proposed to assess drinking water safety in low-resource settings. This study compared a semi-quantitative compartment bag test (CBT) to the EPA- and FDA-approved multiple test tube (MTT) method to quantify H2S-producing bacteria in drinking water sources. Both methods used PathoScreen™ medium to detect target bacteria in 60 surface water samples collected from North Carolina drinking water reservoirs. Samples were subjected to paired levels...

Resisting Anglicization: Irish and Puerto Rican intersections in New York in the twentieth century

When the United States entered into the conflicts in Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Philippine Islands in the late nineteenth century, it was aligning itself politically with England, against Spain. The resulting ideological shift transformed aspects of the social structure and culture as well. The accompanying homogenization of identity and the new imperialistic role was problematic for many non-Anglo communities; however, for the Irish (Catholic)-Americans the reconfiguration would be more serious. They understood the liberation...

On the combinatorics of minimal non-gatherable triples in classical affine root systems

Minimal non-gatherable triples are combinatorially interesting objects found in the inversion sets of words in some affinne and non-afiine Weyl groups. This dissertation continues the work of our two papers with professor Cherednik. The goal of this paper is the complete description of minimal non-gatherable triangle triples in the lambda-sequences for the ane classical root systems. After a brief introduction, we will accomplish this by describing all such objects in the twisted B-case and showing...

Structure-Activity Characterization of Nitric Oxide-Releasing Dendrimers as Dual-Action Antibacterial Agents

The increasing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria coupled with the inherent resistance of biofilm-based infections have necessitated the development of new antibacterial agents capable of eradicating biofilms without fostering resistance. Nitric oxide (NO), an endogenously produced free radical, holds great promise as an antibacterial agent due to its broad-spectrum antimicrobial action. Combining NO with contact-based biocides on a macromolecular scaffold should further enhance bactericidal action. Herein, the synthesis of NO-releasing antibacterial dendrimers and their anti-biofilm capabilities...

Corporate Debt and Distress Risk in Emerging Markets

This dissertation consists of two papers in the field of international finance, both under the general theme of corporate distress in emerging markets. In the first paper, I explore how the leverage and size of emerging market firms relates to their financial fragility. I also show that idiosyncratic shocks to large firms have macroeconomic effects. In the second paper, I estimate an emerging market-specific measure of distress risk and explore its asset pricing implications. I...

Creating a Tatar Capital: National, Cultural, and Linguistic Space in Kazan, 1920-1941

This dissertation examines the introduction and implementation of Soviet nationalities policies among Russians and Tatars in the city of Kazan, an important cultural, educational, and industrial capital in the heart of Soviet Russia. Following the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917 and the creation of the Tatar Republic in 1920, Kazan functioned as a laboratory in which Party-state authorities experimented with incorporating national minorities into the new socialist society under construction. Soviet nationalities policies allowed Tatars to...

Insight into the fidelity of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase: investigation of misincorporation during transcription elongation utilizing transient state kinetics

Concentration-dependent pre-steady state kinetics of correct nucleotide incorporation led to a proposed mechanism for transcription involving multiple conformational states of RNA polymerase (RNAP). Specifically, RNAP can exist in an unactivated state or an activated state. Transition between the two states is driven by conformational changes in RNAP following templated NTP binding to an allosteric site. Further investigation led to a structural model, where the movement of the allosteric site upon NTP binding facilitates translocation of...

Long Term Patient Centered Outcomes Following Oral Appliance Therapy for Obstructive Sleep Apnea

The long-term patient-centered outcomes of oral appliance therapy (OAT) for management of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are not well understood. This study aims to assess the general and condition specific quality of life and perceived occlusal and functional changes of individuals with OSA who had OAT delivery two years or longer ago. 3 validated (SAQLI, SF-36, PSPOF) and 1 custom (Oral Compliance) questionnaire were mailed to 139 identified patients from the UNC School of Dentistry...

Rodent models of human alcoholism: implications for a role of neuropeptide Y and corticotropin releasing factor

Rodent models of alcoholism have been integral in discovering candidate genes and neurochemicals involved in this disease. Two promising candidates include neuropeptide Y (NPY) and corticotropin releasing factor (CRF). It has been hypothesized that NPY and CRF exert a reciprocal regulation of ethanol self-administration through allosteric interactions within the extended amygdala. Therefore, the goal of the present report was to determine if NPY and CRF modulate ethanol relapse- and binge-like drinking behaviors through the use...

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