32,755 Works

Epidemiology, Clinical Characteristics, and Associations for Rome IV Functional Nausea and Vomiting Disorders in Adults

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Background & Aims: Functional nausea and vomiting disorders (FNVDs) are classified as chronic nausea and vomiting syndrome (CNVS) or cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS)—CVS includes cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome. We investigated the population prevalence of FNVDs, their characteristics, and associated factors. Methods: In the year 2015, an Internet cross-sectional health survey was completed by 5931 adults in the general populations of 3 English-speaking countries; 2100 participants were in the United States, Canada, or the United Kingdom. Quota-based...

Reply

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Reply. We thank Drs Siah and Gwee for their interest in our study, in which we reported an exploratory factor analysis of Rome IV symptoms (Clevers et al), which we refer to as the Rome IV exploratory model (R4EM) similar to Siah and Gwee.

Factor Analysis Defines Distinct Upper and Lower Gastrointestinal Symptom Groups Compatible With Rome IV Criteria in a Population-based Study

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Background & Aims: The Rome IV criteria define functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorders by specific combinations of symptoms. It is possible to empirically evaluate these symptom combinations by factor analysis (a statistical procedure that groups variables that correlate). However, this analysis has not been performed for the Rome IV criteria, and factor analyses based on the previous versions of the Rome criteria did not use population-based data. We therefore investigated symptom grouping by the Rome IV...

Prevalence of Pediatric Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders Utilizing the Rome IV Criteria

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Objective: To assess the prevalence of functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorders in children 0-18 years old according to the newly established Rome IV diagnostic criteria as reported by parents in a representative community sample. Study design: A cross-sectional study in which mothers (n = 1255) of children aged 0-18 years old in the US were recruited to complete an online survey about their child's GI symptoms, quality of life (QoL), and other health conditions. Results: Based...

Irritable bowel syndrome: what do the new Rome IV diagnostic guidelines mean for patient management?

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The Rome criteria are universally used as inclusion criteria in pharmaceutical clinical trials and have therefore contributed to testing of several irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-specific drugs. However, clinicians do not routinely use them because they are complex and consequently difficult to remember. Revised Rome diagnostic criteria for IBS and other functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) were published in May 2016.

Upward Spirals of Mindfulness and Reappraisal: Testing the Mindfulness-to-Meaning Theory with Autoregressive Latent Trajectory Modeling

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Psychol Inquiry 26(4):377–387, 2015b) proposes that mindfulness generates eudaimonic well-being by promoting positive reappraisal, the positive psychological process through which stressful events are re-construed as benign, meaningful, or growth-promoting. To test this hypothesis, we examined prospective relations between state mindfulness and positive reappraisal in a community sample participating in a mindfulness-based intervention (MBI). At seven weekly time points throughout the MBI, participants (N = 234) engaged in a 10-min mindfulness meditation exercise at home and...

Hypnosis and upper digestive function and disease

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Hypnosis is a therapeutic technique that primarily involves attentive receptive concentration. Even though a small number of health professionals are trained in hypnosis and lingering myths and misconceptions associated with this method have hampered its widespread use to treat medical conditions, hypnotherapy has gained relevance as an effective treatment for irritable bowel syndrome not responsive to standard care. More recently, a few studies have addressed the potential influence of hypnosis on upper digestive function and...

Role of the Linker Domain and the 203–214 N-Terminal Residues in the Human Topoisomerase I DNA Complex Dynamics

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The influence of the N-terminal residues 203–214 and the linker domain on motions in the human topoisomerase I-DNA complex has been investigated by comparing the molecular dynamics simulations of the system with (topo70) or without (topo58/6.3) these regions. Topo58/6.3 is found to fluctuate more than topo70, indicating that the presence of the N-terminal residues and the linker domain dampen the core and C-terminal fluctuations. The simulations also show that residues 203–207 and the linker domain...

Total Internal Reflection with Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy: Nonfluorescent Competitors

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Total internal reflection with fluorescence correlation spectroscopy is a method for measuring the surface association/dissociation rate constants and absolute densities of fluorescent molecules at the interface of a planar substrate and solution. This method can also report the apparent diffusion coefficient and absolute concentration of fluorescent molecules very close to the surface. Theoretical expressions for the fluorescence fluctuation autocorrelation function when both surface association/dissociation kinetics and diffusion through the evanescent wave, in solution, contribute to...

Analysis Method for Measuring Submicroscopic Distances with Blinking Quantum Dots

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A method is described that takes advantage of the intermittency (“blinking”) in the fluorescence of quantum dots (QDs) to measure absolute positions of closely spaced QDs. The concept is that even if two QDs are separated by only tens of nanometers, the position of each QD is resolvable if the point spread function of each can be imaged independently of the other. In the case of QDs, this is possible if each QD separately blinks...

Bistability, Stochasticity, and Oscillations in the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Cascade

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Signaling pathways respond to stimuli in a variety of ways, depending on the magnitude of the input and the physiological status of the cell. For instance, yeast can respond to pheromone stimulation in either a binary or graded fashion. Here we present single cell transcription data indicating that a transient binary response in which all cells eventually become activated is typical. Stochastic modeling of the biochemical steps that regulate activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase...

Neuronal SNAREs Do Not Trigger Fusion between Synthetic Membranes but Do Promote PEG-Mediated Membrane Fusion

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At low surface concentrations that permit formation of impermeable membranes, neuronal soluble N-ethyl maleimide sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins form a stable, parallel, trans complex when vesicles are brought into contact by a low concentration of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). Surprisingly, formation of a stable SNARE complex does not trigger fusion under these conditions. However, neuronal SNAREs do promote fusion at low protein/lipid ratios when triggered by higher concentrations of PEG. Promotion of PEG-triggered...

Seeing Is Believing: The Stalk Intermediate

Membrane biophysicists have sought the molecular nature of biomembrane fusion for more than 30 years. In this time, two conflicting hypotheses have evolved to explain very different observations. One, based on electrophysiological measurements on patch-clamped cells (1), is the proteinacious pore hypothesis. This model, popular among neurobiologists, contends that the initial fusion pore consists of a single proteinacious channel that later opens into a full fusion pore due to dissipation of the initial protein pore...

Analysis of Membrane Fusion as a Two-State Sequential Process: Evaluation of the Stalk Model

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We propose a model that accounts for the time courses of PEG-induced fusion of membrane vesicles of varying lipid compositions and sizes. The model assumes that fusion proceeds from an initial, aggregated vesicle state ((A) membrane contact) through two sequential intermediate states (I1 and I2) and then on to a fusion pore state (FP). Using this model, we interpreted data on the fusion of seven different vesicle systems. We found that the initial aggregated state...

Mechanical and Biochemical Modeling of Cortical Oscillations in Spreading Cells

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Actomyosin-based cortical contractility is a common feature of eukaryotic cells and is involved in cell motility, cell division, and apoptosis. In nonmuscle cells, oscillations in contractility are induced by microtubule depolymerization during cell spreading. We developed an ordinary differential equation model to describe this behavior. The computational model includes 36 parameters. The values for all but two of the model parameters were taken from experimental measurements found in the literature. Using these values, we demonstrate...

Versatile Horizontal Force Probe for Mechanical Tests on Pipette-Held Cells, Particles, and Membrane Capsules

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We present a multipurpose nanomechanical force probe that combines a sideways-mounted elastic cantilever and an optical-lever detection module with automated micropipette manipulation. It allows us to apply and measure compression, stretching, adhesion, and dissociation forces in the horizontal direction while providing a “side view” of ongoing experiments. The integrated micropipette setup facilitates the easy manipulation and mechanical interrogation of individual cells, functionalized particles, and synthetic membrane capsules. Pipette-held test objects are translated perpendicularly to and...

RhoA Regulates Calcium-Independent Periodic Contractions of the Cell Cortex

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When microtubules are depolymerized in spreading cells, they experience morphological oscillations characterized by a period of about a minute, indicating that normal interactions between the microfilament and microtubule systems have been significantly altered. This experimental system provides a test bed for the development of both fine- and coarse-grained models of complex motile processes, but such models need to be adequately informed by experiment. Using criteria based on Fourier transform analysis, we detect spontaneous oscillations in...

Stiffening of Individual Fibrin Fibers Equitably Distributes Strain and Strengthens Networks

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As the structural backbone of blood clots, fibrin networks carry out the mechanical task of stemming blood flow at sites of vascular injury. These networks exhibit a rich set of remarkable mechanical properties, but a detailed picture relating the microscopic mechanics of the individual fibers to the overall network properties has not been fully developed. In particular, how the high strain and failure characteristics of single fibers affect the overall strength of the network is...

SNAP23 Is Selectively Expressed in Airway Secretory Cells and Mediates Baseline and Stimulated Mucin Secretion

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Airway mucin secretion is important pathophysiologically and as a model of polarized epithelial regulated exocytosis. We find the trafficking protein, SNAP23 (23-kDa paralogue of synaptosome-associated protein of 25 kDa), selectively expressed in secretory cells compared with ciliated and basal cells of airway epithelium by immunohistochemistry and FACS, suggesting that SNAP23 functions in regulated but not constitutive epithelial secretion. Heterozygous SNAP23 deletant mutant mice show spontaneous accumulation of intracellular mucin, indicating a defect in baseline secretion....

Fabrication of nitric oxide-releasing polyurethane glucose sensor membranes

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Despite clear evidence that polymeric nitric oxide (NO) release coatings reduce the foreign body response (FBR) and may thus improve the analytical performance of in vivo continuous glucose monitoring devices when used as sensor membranes, the compatibility of the NO release chemistry with that required for enzymatic glucose sensing remains unclear. Herein, we describe the fabrication and characterization of NO-releasing polyurethane sensor membranes using NO donor-modified silica vehicles embedded within the polymer. In addition to...

A general framework for studying genetic effects and gene-environment interactions with missing data

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Missing data arise in genetic association studies when genotypes are unknown or when haplotypes are of direct interest. We provide a general likelihood-based framework for making inference on genetic effects and gene–environment interactions with such missing data. We allow genetic and environmental variables to be correlated while leaving the distribution of environmental variables completely unspecified. We consider 3 major study designs—cross-sectional, case–control, and cohort designs—and construct appropriate likelihood functions for all common phenotypes (e.g. case–control...

Hormonal contraceptive use before and after conception in relation to preterm birth and small for gestational age: an observational cohort study

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To evaluate whether hormonal contraceptives, used before or in early pregnancy, confer increased risk of preterm birth or reduced fetal growth.

Safety and efficacy of factor IX gene transfer to skeletal muscle in murine and canine hemophilia B models by adeno-associated viral vector serotype 1

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Adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors (serotype 2) efficiently transduce skeletal muscle, and have been used as gene delivery vehicles for hemophilia B and for muscular dystrophies in experimental animals and humans. Recent reports suggest that AAV vectors based on serotypes 1, 5, and 7 transduce murine skeletal muscle much more efficiently than AAV-2, with reported increases in expression ranging from 2-fold to 1000-fold. We sought to determine whether this increased efficacy could be observed in species...

Re-establishment of VWF-dependent Weibel-Palade bodies in VWD endothelial cells

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Type 3 von Willebrand disease (VWD) is a severe hemorrhagic defect in humans. We now identify the homozygous mutation in the Chapel Hill strain of canine type 3 VWD that results in premature termination of von Willebrand factor (VWF) protein synthesis. We cultured endothelium from VWD and normal dogs to study intracellular VWF trafficking and Weibel-Palade body formation. Weibel-Palade bodies could not be identified in the canine VWD aortic endothelial cells (VWD-AECs) by P-selectin, VWFpp,...

An Analysis of 24-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring Data using Orthonormal Polynomials in the Linear Mixed Model

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The use of 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) in clinical practice and observational epidemiological studies has grown considerably in the past 25 years. ABPM is a very effective technique for assessing biological, environmental, and drug effects on blood pressure.

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