32,520 Works

Validation of a Brief Questionnaire Against Direct Observation to Assess Adolescents' School Lunchtime Beverage Consumption

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Beverage consumption is an important determinant of youth health outcomes. Beverage interventions often occur in schools, yet no brief validated questionnaires exist to assess whether these efforts improve in-school beverage consumption. This study validated a brief questionnaire to assess beverage consumption during school lunch.Researchers observed middle school students' (n = 25) beverage consumption during school lunchtime using a standardized tool. After lunch, students completed questionnaires regarding their lunchtime beverage consumption. Kappa statistics compared self-reported with...

Do Genetic Markers of Inflammation Modify the Relationship between Periodontitis and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease? Findings from the SHIP Study

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An association between periodontitis and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been reported by experimental animal and epidemiologic studies. This study investigated whether circulating levels of serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and a weighted genetic CRP score representing markers of inflammatory burden modify the association between periodontitis and NAFLD. Data came from 2,481 participants of the Study of Health in Pomerania who attended baseline examination that occurred between 1997 and 2001. Periodontitis was defined as the...

Improving Estimation of Fiber Orientations in Diffusion MRI Using Inter-Subject Information Sharing

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Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging is widely used to investigate diffusion patterns of water molecules in the human brain. It provides information that is useful for tracing axonal bundles and inferring brain connectivity. Diffusion axonal tracing, namely tractography, relies on local directional information provided by the orientation distribution functions (ODFs) estimated at each voxel. To accurately estimate ODFs, data of good signal-to-noise ratio and sufficient angular samples are desired. This is however not always available in...

Community pharmacists as vaccine providers

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Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to describe the history of pharmacist involvement as vaccine providers in the USA and discuss examples of growing interests in other parts of the world. Design/methodology/approach - Literature searches were performed in PubMed as well as pharmacy-related journals. Findings - Pharmacists have been involved with the storage and management of vaccines for more than a century. Based on the unmet needs in meeting national goals for vaccination...

Testbot: A Chatbot-Based Interactive Interview Preparation Application

Chatbots are programs that mimic human conversation using Artificial Intelligence. It has become particularly popular to serve as an ultimate virtual assistant, helping one to complete tasks with answering questions and solving problems. In this paper, I designed an efficient and accurate chatbot, Testbot, which is integrated with a web application to help students prepare interviews for data science. To meet this usability requirement, I deployed and customized an open-source chatbot framework Rasa and set...

Differential response and withdrawal profile of glucocorticoid-treated human trabecular meshwork cells

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The goal of the study was to examine secreted protein response and withdrawal profiles from cultured human trabecular meshwork (HTM) cells following short- and long-term glucocorticoid treatment. Primary cultures of five human HTM cell strains isolated from 5 different individual donor eyes were tested. Confluent HTM cells were differentiated in culture media containing 1% FBS for at least one week, and then treated with Dexamethasone (Dex, 100 nM) 3 times/week for 1 or 4 weeks....

Task-switching ability protects against the adverse effects of pain on health: A longitudinal study of older adults

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Aging is often accompanied by increases in pain, which may threaten physical health. Successfully managing increased pain requires the ability to switch attention away from the pain and toward adaptive health cognitions and behaviors. However, no study to date has tested how pain interacts with task-switching ability to predict future health in older adults. Additionally, no study has tested whether objective (i.e., task-switching performance) or subjective measures of cognitive ability have a stronger impact on...

Gabapentin potentiates sensitivity to the interoceptive effects of alcohol and increases alcohol self-administration in rats

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Gabapentin, a drug used in the treatment of epileptic seizures and neuropathic pain, has shown efficacy in the treatment of alcohol dependence. Moreover, given that gabapentin is used in the general population (e.g., non-dependent individuals, social drinkers), we sought to utilize preclinical assessments to examine the effects of gabapentin on sensitivity to moderate alcohol doses and alcohol self-administration in rats with a history of moderate drinking. To this end, we assessed whether gabapentin (0, 10,...

Obstetrical, pregnancy and socio-economic predictors for new-onset severe postpartum psychiatric disorders in primiparous women

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Background Childbirth is a potent trigger for the onset of psychiatric illness in women including postpartum depression (PPD) and postpartum psychosis (PP). Medical complications occurring during pregnancy and/or childbirth have been linked to postpartum psychiatric illness and sociodemographic factors. We evaluated if pregnancy and obstetrical predictors have similar effects on different types of postpartum psychiatric disorders. Method A population-based cohort study using Danish registers was conducted in 392 458 primiparous women with a singleton delivery...

Muscle fatigue increases beta-band coherence between the firing times of simultaneously active motor units in the first dorsal interosseous muscle

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Synchronization between the firing times of simultaneously active motor units (MUs) is generally assumed to increase during fatiguing contractions. To date, however, estimates of MU synchronization have relied on indirect measures, derived from surface electromyographic (EMG) interference signals. This study used intramuscular coherence to investigate the correlation between MU discharges in the first dorsal interosseous muscle during and immediately following a submaximal fatiguing contraction, and after rest. Coherence between composite MU spike trains, derived from...

Subspace Regularized Sparse Multitask Learning for Multiclass Neurodegenerative Disease Identification

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The high feature-dimension and low sample-size problem is one of the major challenges in the study of computer-aided Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) diagnosis. To circumvent this problem, feature selection and subspace learning have been playing core roles in literature. Generally, feature selection methods are preferable in clinical applications due to their ease for interpretation, but subspace learning methods can usually achieve more promising results. In this paper, we combine two different methodological approaches to discriminative feature...

Unexpected sequences and structures of mtDNA required for efficient transcription from the first heavy-strand promoter

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Human mtDNA contains three promoters, suggesting a need for differential expression of the mitochondrial genome. Studies of mitochondrial transcription have used a reductionist approach, perhaps masking differential regulation. Here we evaluate transcription from light-strand (LSP) and heavy-strand (HSP1) promoters using templates that mimic their natural context. These studies reveal sequences upstream, hypervariable in the human population (HVR3), and downstream of the HSP1 transcription start site required for maximal yield. The carboxyterminal tail of TFAM is...

Genetically predicted longer telomere length is associated with increased risk of B-cell lymphoma subtypes

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Evidence from a small number of studies suggests that longer telomere length measured in peripheral leukocytes is associated with an increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). However, these studies may be biased by reverse causation, confounded by unmeasured environmental exposures and might miss time points for which prospective telomere measurement would best reveal a relationship between telomere length and NHL risk. We performed an analysis of genetically inferred telomere length and NHL risk in a...

Structural connectomics of anxious arousal in early adolescence: Translating clinical and ethological findings

Etiological explanations of clinical anxiety can be advanced through understanding the neural mechanisms associated with anxiety in youth prior to the emergence of psychopathology. In this vein, the present study sought to investigate how trait anxiety is related to features of the structural connectome in early adolescence. 40 adolescents (21 female, mean age = 13.49 years) underwent a diffusion-weighted imaging scan. We hypothesized that the strength of several a priori defined structural connections would vary...

Local delivery of checkpoints antibodies

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Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) based cancer immunotherapy has recently attracted considerable interest in the field of cancer therapy. The relevant immunotherapeutic agents do not directly attack the tumor, but boost the body's immune system to recognize and kill cancer cells. In this commentary, recent efforts utilizing immunoengineering for local delivery of these immune checkpoint antibodies are introduced. Future opportunities and challenges in this research theme are also commented.

Structural insights into the extracellular recognition of the human serotonin 2B receptor by an antibody

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Highly selective monoclonal antibodies recognizing the extracellular 3D epitope of G protein-coupled receptors represent valuable tools for elucidating receptor function and localization in the cell and show promise for a range of therapeutic applications. Here we present the structure of a complex between the human serotonin 2B receptor, captured in an active-like state, and an antibody Fab fragment, bound to the extracellular side of the receptor. The structure uncovers the mechanisms of receptor activation and...

Nonnative SOD1 trimer is toxic to motor neurons in a model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

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Protein aggregation is a hallmark of neurodegenerative disease and is hypothesized to cause neuron death. Despite extensive study of disease-associated aggregating proteins, mechanisms of neuron death remain a mystery, and no cures or effective treatments yet exist. Here, we demonstrate the toxicity of a small aggregate of the Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) protein, associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We present an experimentally verified structural model of this toxic species and show that SOD1 mutants...

The Speech-Language Pathologist’s Role in Concussion Management: A Systematic Review

Traumatic brain injury (or TBI) is a an injury gaining widespread notoriety due to its deadly reputation among professional athletes and military personnel. But according to the CDC, “most TBIs that occur each year are mild, commonly called concussions.” In the past decade, the rate of medical treatment required from sport and recreation-related injuries has doubled in those under age 18. Symptoms of a concussion included headaches, dizziness, amnesia, ringing in the ears, nausea, vomiting,...

Wilhelm Waiblinger in Italy

This study traces the importance of Italy as a source of literary inspiration in the work of the Swabian poet Wilhelm Waiblinger (1804-1830), who spent the last four years of his life, the most prolific of his career, living and traveling in Italy. Drawing on Waiblinger's poems, travel accounts, letters and diaries, Thompson compiles and analyzes Waiblinger's thoughts on and engagement with Italian art, literature, music, people and landscapes as well as the themes of...

From Patients to Policy: Population Intervention Effects in Epidemiology

Interest in implementation science and recent calls for consequentialist epidemiology urge epidemiologists to produce work more immediately applicable to public health practice. A clear vocabulary for such approaches is lacking. Here, we present a potential taxonomy of causal effects, distinguishing between “exposure effects” more relevant to patients and individuals; and “population intervention effects” more relevant to public health policy. We discuss this range of effects using figures and a simple numerical example.

Roadmap for investigating epigenome deregulation and environmental origins of cancer: Epigenetics and cancer

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The interaction between the (epi)genetic makeup of an individual and his/her environmental exposure record (exposome) is accepted as a determinant factor for a significant proportion of human malignancies. Recent evidence has highlighted the key role of epigenetic mechanisms in mediating gene–environment interactions and translating exposures into tumorigenesis. There is also growing evidence that epigenetic changes may be risk factor‐specific (“fingerprints”) that should prove instrumental in the discovery of new biomarkers in cancer. Here, we review...

A risk score to identify HIV-infected women most likely to become lost to follow-up in the postpartum period

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Access to lifelong combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is expanding among HIV-infected pregnant and breastfeeding women throughout sub-Saharan Africa. For this strategy to meaningfully improve maternal HIV outcomes, retention in HIV care is essential. We developed a risk score to identify women with high likelihood of loss to follow-up (LTFU) at 6 months postpartum from HIV care, using data from public health facilities in Lusaka, Zambia. LTFU was defined as not presenting for HIV care within...

Hostility and quality of life among Hispanics/Latinos in the HCHS/SOL Sociocultural Ancillary Study

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The purpose of this study was to determine if hostility is associated with physical and mental health-related quality of life (QoL) in U.S. Hispanics/Latinos after accounting for depression and anxiety.

Are Some of the Cigar Warnings Mandated in the U.S. More Believable Than Others?

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Background: Text warnings are mandated on cigars sold in the United States (U.S.), however little published research has examined effectiveness of cigar warnings. This is the first study examining the believability of cigar warnings among adults in the U.S. Methods: Adults in the U.S. (n = 5014) were randomized in a phone survey to receive one of three cigar-specific mandated warning messages (“Cigar smoking can cause cancers of the mouth and throat, even if you...

Mechanical and Vascular Cues Synergistically Enhance Osteogenesis in Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

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Development and maintenance of a vascular network are critical for bone growth and homeostasis; strategies that promote vascular function are critical for clinical success of tissue-engineered bone constructs. Co-culture of endothelial cells (ECs) with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and exposure to 10% cyclic tensile strain have both been shown to regulate osteogenesis in isolation, but potential synergistic effects have yet to be explored. The objective of this study was to expose an MSC-EC co-culture to...

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  • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill