9,800 Works

Applying a molecular pharmaceutics framework to the study of ultrasound contrast agents

Several decades ago, stabilized microbubbles (MBs) were developed as vascular contrast agents for ultrasound imaging, and since then, the physics of MB oscillation and the unique acoustic signatures that MBs create have been relatively well characterized. Less well understood are considerations regarding how MBs interact with biological systems and how they can be exploited for therapeutic purposes. As the diagnostic and therapeutic applications of contrast agents continue to become more sophisticated, these considerations are ever...

Animal models for COVID-19

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Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the aetiological agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), an emerging respiratory infection caused by the introduction of a novel coronavirus into humans late in 2019 (first detected in Hubei province, China). As of 18 September 2020, SARS-CoV-2 has spread to 215 countries, has infected more than 30 million people and has caused more than 950,000 deaths. As humans do not have pre-existing immunity to SARS-CoV-2, there is an urgent need to develop...

A segmentation editing framework based on shape change statistics

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Segmentation is a key task in medical image analysis because its accuracy significantly affects successive steps. Automatic segmentation methods often produce inadequate segmentations, which require the user to manually edit the produced segmentation slice by slice. Because editing is time-consuming, an editing tool that enables the user to produce accurate segmentations by only drawing a sparse set of contours would be needed. This paper describes such a framework as applied to a single object. Constrained...

FADTTSter: Accelerating hypothesis testing with functional analysis of diffusion tensor tract statistics

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Functional Analysis of Diffusion Tensor Tract Statistics (FADTTS) is a toolbox for analysis of white matter (WM) fiber tracts. It allows associating diffusion properties along major WM bundles with a set of covariates of interest, such as age, diagnostic status and gender, and the structure of the variability of these WM tract properties. However, to use this toolbox, a user must have an intermediate knowledge in scripting languages (MATLAB). FADTTSter was created to overcome this...

Incorporating 3-dimensional models in online articles

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Introduction The aims of this article are to introduce the capability to view and interact with 3-dimensional (3D) surface models in online publications, and to describe how to prepare surface models for such online 3D visualizations. Methods Three-dimensional image analysis methods include image acquisition, construction of surface models, registration in a common coordinate system, visualization of overlays, and quantification of changes. Cone-beam computed tomography scans were acquired as volumetric images that can be visualized as...

Fitting Skeletal Object Models Using Spherical Harmonics Based Template Warping

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We present a scheme that propagates a reference skeletal model (s-rep) into a particular case of an object, thereby propagating the initial shape-related layout of the skeleton-to-boundary vectors, called spokes. The scheme represents the surfaces of the template as well as the target objects by spherical harmonics and computes a warp between these via a thin plate spline. To form the propagated s-rep, it applies the warp to the spokes of the template s-rep and...

Hippocampal shape and volume changes with antipsychotics in early stage psychotic illness

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Progression of hippocampal shape and volume abnormalities has been described in psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia. However it is unclear how specific antipsychotic medications influence the development of hippocampal structure.We conducted a longitudinal, randomized, controlled, multisite, double-blind study involving 14 academic medical centers (United States 11, Canada 1, Netherlands 1, and England 1). One hundred thirty-four first-episode psychosis patients (receiving either haloperidol [HAL] or olanzapine [OLZ]) and 51 healthy controls were followed for up to...

Automated voxel-wise brain DTI analysis of fitness and aging

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Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) has become a widely used MR modality to investigate white matter integrity in the brain. This paper presents the application of an automated method for voxel-wise group comparisons of DTI images in a study of fitness and aging. The automated processing method consists of 3 steps: 1) preprocessing including image format converting, image quality control, eddy-current and motion artifact correction, skull stripping and tensor image estimation, 2) study-specific unbiased DTI atlas...

Amplification of SOX4 promotes PI3K/Akt signaling in human breast cancer

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Purpose: The PI3K/Akt signaling axis contributes to the dysregulation of many dominant features in breast cancer including cell proliferation, survival, metabolism, motility, and genomic instability. While multiple studies have demonstrated that basal-like or triple-negative breast tumors have uniformly high PI3K/Akt activity, genomic alterations that mediate dysregulation of this pathway in this subset of highly aggressive breast tumors remain to be determined. Methods: In this study, we present an integrated genomic analysis based on the use...

An Oral Selective Alpha-1A Adrenergic Receptor Agonist Prevents Doxorubicin Cardiotoxicity

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Alpha-1 adrenergic receptors (α1-ARs) play adaptive and protective roles in the heart. Dabuzalgron is an oral selective α1A-AR agonist that was well tolerated in multiple clinical trials of treatment for urinary incontinence, but has never been used to treat heart disease in humans or animal models. In this study, the authors administered dabuzalgron to mice treated with doxorubicin (DOX), a widely used chemotherapeutic agent with dose-limiting cardiotoxicity that can lead to heart failure (HF). Dabuzalgron...

Comprehensive molecular characterization of urachal adenocarcinoma reveals commonalities with colorectal cancer, including a hypermutable phenotype

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Purpose Urachal adenocarcinoma is a rare type of primary bladder adenocarcinoma that comprises less than 1% of all bladder cancers. The low incidence of urachal adenocarcinomas does not allow for an evidence-based approach to therapy. Transcriptome profiling of urachal adenocarcinomas has not been previously reported.Wehypothesized that an in-depth molecular understanding of urachal adenocarcinoma would uncover rational therapeutic strategies. Patients and Methods We performed targeted exon sequencing and global transcriptome profiling of 12 urachal tumors to...

A Discursive Examination of Gendered Whiteness: White womanhood, white supremacy and the colonial site of the university

This thesis examines the role of ruling class white womanhood at historically white universities in the South. I analyze how this identity is instrumental in maintaining political, economic, and social structures of patriarchal white supremacy at the institution. To interrogate this subject, I ask: how does owning class white womanhood serve patriarchal white supremacist state institutional power at historically white universities in the South? I ground this question’s importance in historical geographies of white women...

Tet1 contributes to differentiation in the intestinal epithelium

The small intestine is composed of crypts that house intestinal stem cells (ISCs), which self-renew and differentiate to maintain the intestinal epithelium. Alternatively, intestinal villi contain absorptive enterocytes and secretory cells- goblet, enteroendocrine (EECs), tuft, and Paneth cells- that are derived from ISCs and maintain the gut's digestive and barrier functions. Chromatin is considered a major epigenetic component of cell identity and fate decision in embryonic and hematopoietic stem cell systems (Lara-Astiaso et al. 2014;...

Rockism in a Poptimist World: Gilmore Girls and “Rock’n’Roll”

This thesis examines the mobilization of popular music in the soundtrack and characters’ fan and music-making practices in the TV series Gilmore Girls (2000–2007). I focus on the series’ portrayal of a rock band, Hep Alien, and its drummer, Lane Kim, who is the series’ only developed, non-static character of color. I analyze Lane’s activities in the band and performative musical consumption to contend with the character’s ambivalence toward the gender and racial politics of...

Association Between Childhood to Adolescent Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptom Trajectories and Late Adolescent Disordered Eating

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Purpose Disordered eating is more prevalent among adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Both inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms show strong associations with disordered eating, but few investigations of these associations have been longitudinal. Thus, we examined the effect of childhood to adolescent inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptom trajectories on late adolescent disordered eating. Methods We used growth mixture modeling to identify distinct inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptom trajectories (called “classes”) across three time points (ages 8–9, 13–14, and...

Development of fotonovelas to raise awareness of eating disorders in Latinos in the United States

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The aim of this study was to develop fotonovelas, a popular type of graphic novel in the Latino population, to raise awareness and educate about eating disorders (EDs). Four illustrated cartoons and scripts tailored for adults and adolescents of both sexes were presented in focus groups and an in-depth interview. Seventeen Latino adults (14 females; 3 males) and 10 adolescents (9 females; 1 male) participated in the study. Participants found the fotonovelas interesting, and eye-catching...

Impact and mechanisms of cigarillo flavor descriptors on susceptibility to use among young adult nonusers of tobacco

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Evidence suggests that flavoring may impact reactions to tobacco products. In the present research, we tested the impact and mechanisms of cigarillo flavor descriptors on susceptibility to use in order to determine whether exposure to cigarillos with characterizing flavors increases susceptibility in young adult nonusers of tobacco and, if so, why susceptibility increases. Nonsmoking, 18–26 years old U.S. residents were recruited for an online randomized controlled trial with two conditions: cigarillos with characterizing flavors (experimental...

Building a viable weight management program in a patient-centered medical home

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5%) at 18 months. The program has become financially sustainable through billing for preventive counseling services and a $125 out-of-pocket enrollment fee. CONCLUSIONS: WMP provides one model for primary care practices to de-velop a financially sustainable and evidence-based behavioral therapy weight management program for their patients with obesity. Future work will include assessment of longer-term program benefits, quality metrics, and health care costs.

Receipt of direct tobacco mail/email coupons and coupon redemption: Demographic and socioeconomic disparities among adult smokers in the United States

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A key marketing strategy used by tobacco companies to lower tobacco product prices is the distribution of tobacco coupons via direct marketing channels such as mail or email. We analyzed data on adult smokers from Wave 1 of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study (n = 10,994) to examine the prevalence and correlates of coupon receipt via both channels, and associations with cigarette coupon redemption. Overall, 22% and 32% of smokers received...

Modulators of prostate cancer cell proliferation and viability identified by short-hairpin RNA library screening

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There is significant need to identify novel prostate cancer drug targets because current hormone therapies eventually fail, leading to a drug-resistant and fatal disease termed castration-resistant prostate cancer. To functionally identify genes that, when silenced, decrease prostate cancer cell proliferation or induce cell death in combination with antiandrogens, we employed an RNA interference-based short hairpin RNA barcode screen in LNCaP human prostate cancer cells. We identified and validated four candidate genes (AKT1, PSMC1, STRADA, and...

RNA polymerase is poised for activation across the genome

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Regulation of gene expression is integral to the development and survival of all organisms. Transcription begins with the assembly of a pre-initiation complex at the gene promoter, followed by initiation of RNA synthesis and the transition to productive elongation. In many cases, recruitment of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) to a promoter is necessary and sufficient for activation of genes. However, there are a few notable exceptions to this paradigm, including heat shock genes and...

Maternal polycystic ovary syndrome and risk of neuropsychiatric disorders in offspring: Prenatal androgen exposure or genetic confounding?

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Background: Maternal polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) has been proposed as a model for investigating the role of prenatal androgen exposure in the development of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, women with PCOS are at higher risk of developing psychiatric conditions and previous studies are likely confounded by genetic influences. Methods: A Swedish nationwide register-based cohort study was conducted to disentangle the influence of prenatal androgen exposure from familial confounding in the association between maternal PCOS and offspring...

Severe and enduring anorexia nervosa: Update and observations about the current clinical reality

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Several objectives underlie the current article. First, to review historical diagnostic issues and clinical strategies for treating SE-AN. Second, to provide an overview of recent evidence informed strategies and clinical innovations for the treatment of SE-AN. Third, based on the authors' collective clinical and research experience, we offer eight observations that we believe capture the current clinical experience of patients with SE-AN. Some of these observations represent empirically testable hypotheses, but all are designed to...

Binge eating and binge-eating disorder in Black women: A systematic review

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Objective: Although several effective behavioral treatments for binge-eating disorder (BED) exist, there are racial disparities in treatment access, with African–Americans and/or Black individuals having some of the lowest rates of access to care. Little is known about the experience and treatment of binge eating (BE) and BED among Black women. Method: This systematic review, conducted according to PRISMA guidelines, synthesizes information related to BE and BED in Black women. Results: A total of N =...

Eating behavior trajectories in the first 10 years of life and their relationship with BMI

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Background: Child eating behaviors are highly heterogeneous and their longitudinal impact on childhood weight is unclear. The objective of this study was to characterize eating behaviors during the first 10 years of life and evaluate associations with BMI at age 11 years. Method: Data were parental reports of eating behaviors from 15 months to age 10 years (n = 12,048) and standardized body mass index (zBMI) at age 11 years (n = 4884) from the...

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  • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
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