67,918 Works

Constructing Weights to Use in Analyzing Pairs of Individuals from Add Health Data

Kim Chantala

Attention-Following and Initiating Joint Attention Protocol

Linda Watson

Access to Operative Intervention Reduces Mortality in Adult Burn Patients in a Resource-Limited Setting in Sub-Saharan Africa

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Introduction: Early excision and grafting remains the standard of care after burn injury. However, in a resource-limited setting, operative capacity often limits patient access to surgical intervention. This study sought to describe access to excision and grafting for adult burn patients in a sub-Saharan African burn unit and its relationship with burn-associated mortality. Methods: We analyzed patients recorded in the Kamuzu Central Hospital Burn Registry in Lilongwe, Malawi from 2011–2019. We examined patient characteristics, interventions,...

Prevalence, Etiology, and Outcome of Sepsis among Critically Ill Patients in Malawi

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There are scarce data describing the etiology and clinical sequelae of sepsis in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). This study describes the prevalence and etiology of sepsis among critically ill patients at a referral hospital in Malawi. We conducted an observational prospective cohort study of adults admitted to the intensive care unit or high-dependency unit (HDU) from January 29, 2018 to March 15, 2018. We stratified the cohort based on the prevalence of sepsis as...

An invited commentary on “Impact of the Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic on surgical practice-part 1”. Impact of the Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic on surgical practice: Time to embrace telehealth in surgery

The COVID‐19 pandemic caused by the novel coronavirus, SARS‐CoV‐2, is disrupting global health and the economy to a degree unparalleled in modern history. In addition to the reduction in visits for routine and preventative health care and decline in emergency room visits, hospital systems are suffering from the collateral damage of near‐universal cancellation of elective surgeries. The mobilization of surgical resources for emergencies, use of operating rooms as intensive care units and anesthesia machines as...

Intraoperative Mortality in Malawi

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BACKGROUND: Surgical care is essential to improving population health, but metrics to monitor and evaluate the continuum of surgical care delivery have rarely been applied in low-resource settings, and improved efforts at benchmarking progress are needed. The objective of this study was to measure the intraoperative mortality at a Central Referral Hospital in Malawi, evaluate whether there have been changes in intraoperative mortality between 2 time periods, and assess factors associated with intraoperative mortality. METHODS:...

Incidence of self-inflicted burn injury in patients with Major Psychiatric Illness

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Introduction: Psychiatric disorders are mental illnesses that impair judgment, thought process and mood that can result in physical and emotional disability. According to DSM-IV, mental disorders increases risk of traumatic injury, particularly burn [1] (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). However, there are few studies that look at patients with pre-existing major psychiatric disorders and burn outcomes. We aim to assess the incidence and intentionality of burn injury in patients with pre-existing psychiatric disorders. Methods: This is...

Predictors of withdrawal of life support after burn injury

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Introduction: Discussions regarding withdrawal of life support after burn injury are challenging and complex. Often, providers may facilitate this discussion when the extent of injury makes survival highly unlikely or when the patient's condition deteriorates during resuscitation. Few papers have evaluated withdrawal of life support in burn patients. We therefore sought to determine the predictor of withdrawal of life support (WLS) in a regional burn center. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of all burn...

Burn injury mortality in patients with preexisting and new onset renal disease

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Introduction: We sought to examine the impact of preexisting and new onset renal disease on burn injury mortality. Methods: Retrospective analysis of patients admitted to a regional burn center from 2002-2012 was performed. Variables analyzed included demographics, burn mechanism, inhalation injury status, and % TBSA. Poisson regression was performed to estimate risk of in-hospital burn mortality. Results: There were a total of 7640 patients over the study period. The adjusted 60-day risk of in-hospital mortality...

Trajectories of Maltreatment Re-Reports From Ages 4 to 12:: Evidence for Persistent Risk After Early Exposure

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This study identified trajectories of maltreatment re-reports between ages 4 and 12 for children first referred to Child Protective Services (CPS) prior to age 4 and either removed from the home or assessed by a CPS intake worker as moderately or highly likely to be abused/neglected in the future, absent intervention. Participants (n = 501) were children from the Southwest and Northwest sites of the Consortium for Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN)....

Linking Mother and Youth Parenting Attitudes: Indirect Effects via Maltreatment, Parent Involvement, and Youth Functioning

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Evidence suggests that parenting attitudes are transmitted within families. However, limited research has examined this prospectively. The current prospective study examined direct effects of early maternal attitudes toward parenting (as measured at child age 4 by the Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory [AAPI]) on later youth parenting attitudes (as measured by the AAPI at youth age 18). Indirect effects via child maltreatment (physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, and emotional maltreatment), parent involvement, and youth functioning (internalizing and...

Economic Status, Community Danger and Psychological Problems Among South African Children

An extensive literature links community violence and poverty in the US to psychological difficulties in children. To test the cross-national generalizability of these relationships, 625 young, South African mothers residing in black townships with different levels of community danger and material hardship rated their 6-year-olds on emotional functioning and behavioral problems. Most mothers were African, employed and of low educational attainment. Community danger was confirmed as a risk factor for anxiety, depression, aggression, opposition and...

Effects of Parents' Employment Status on Changes in Body Mass Index and Percent Body Fat in Adolescent Girls

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Parents' employment status is frequently cited as a possible predictor of child weight status. Despite the importance of the topic, only a few studies have been conducted. No longitudinal studies have been conducted in the United States.

The Impact of a 3-Year After-School Obesity Prevention Program in Elementary School Children

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Children tend to be sedentary during the after-school hours, and this has deleterious effects on their health. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of a 3-year after-school physical activity (PA) program, without restriction of dietary energy intake, on percent body fat (%BF), cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and cardiometabolic markers in children.

Adolescent Report of Lifestyle Counseling

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Background: Physician counseling on lifestyle factors has been recommended as one way to help combat the obesity epidemic in the United States. The aim of this study was to examine the frequency of lifestyle counseling among healthy weight, overweight, and obese adolescents and determine the contributions of adolescent weight and physical activity.

States Lack Physical Activity Policies in Child Care That Are Consistent with National Recommendations

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Background: Child care facilities' policies can importantly impact health behaviors of toddlers and preschoolers. Our aim was to assess state regulations promoting physical activity (PA) in child care and compare regulations to national recommendations.

A Community-Based Intervention Increases Physical Activity and Reduces Obesity in School-Age Children in North Carolina

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Background: Community-based interventions are promising approaches to obesity prevention, but few studies have prospectively evaluated them. The aim of this study was to evaluate a natural experiment—a community intervention designed to promote active living and decrease obesity within a small southern town.

The impact of low- and moderate-wealth homeownership on parental attitudes and behavior: Evidence from the community advantage panel

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Considerable research has suggested that homeownership imparts a variety of positive individual, family, neighborhood, and community effects. Yet, much of the research to date has failed to examine such effects by level of income [Dietz, R.D., & Haurin, D.R. (2003). The social and private micro-level consequences of homeownership. Journal of Urban Economics, 54(3), 401–450.]. This study adds to the limited research on the impact of assets on parental attitude and behavior among low- and moderate-income...

Family profiles and educational attainment

The educational attainment of participants in the Chicago Longitudinal Study (93% Black and 7% Hispanic) was examined. Cluster analysis on measures of human capital resources, family dynamics and demographics was used to identify four distinct profiles of families. In general, children who had family profiles characterized by higher levels of human capital resources and more favorable scores on indictors of family functioning were more likely than other children to have higher educational attainment. Moreover, children...

Influence of caregiver network support and caregiver psychopathology on child mental health need and service use in the LONGSCAN study

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Using structural equation modeling, this study examined the relationship of caregiver network support on caregiver and child mental health need, as well as child mental health service use among 1075 8-year-old children participating in the LONGSCAN study. The final model showed acceptable fit (χ2 = 301.476, df = 136, p<0.001; RMSEA = 0.052; CFI = 0.95). Caregiver and child mental health needs were positively related. As predicted, caregiver network support exerted a protective effect, with...

Implementing a case management initiative in high-need schools

States continue to experiment with ways of improving health and human service use by people with complex needs. Such efforts have often sought to increase individual and family control over services as well as to enhance coordination among providers. Paths to achieving these goals are not well understood. This study draws on two previously distinct conceptual frameworks to examine how 71 public schools implemented a team approach to increasing family and agency engagement for children...

Typologies of substance use and illegal behaviors: A comparison of emerging adults with histories of foster care and the general population

This study used latent class analysis (LCA) to explore whether patterns of substance use and illegal behaviors among emerging adults, 18 to 28 years old, differ depending on whether they have a prior history in foster care. The study sample, consisting of 316 respondents who had previously been in foster care and 14,301 respondents without a foster care history, was drawn from the third wave of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. A multiple-group...

Bioinformatics analysis of metastasis-related proteins in hepatocellular carcinoma

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AIM: To analyze the metastasis-related proteins in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and discover the biomarker candidates for diagnosis and therapeutic intervention of HCC metastasis with bioinformatics tools.

Active transport of maltose in membrane vesicles obtained from Escherichia coli cells producing tethered maltose-binding protein.

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Attempts to reconstitute periplasmic binding protein-dependent transport activity in membrane vesicles have often resulted in systems with poor and rather inconsistent activity, possibly because of the need to add a large excess of purified binding protein to the vesicles. We circumvented this difficulty by using a mutant which produces a precursor maltose-binding protein that is translocated across the cytoplasmic membrane but is not cleaved by the signal peptidase (J. D. Fikes and P. J. Bassford,...

Complementation of an Escherichia coli proC mutation by a gene cloned from Treponema pallidum.

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Little is known concerning the biosynthetic and metabolic capabilities of the syphilis agent, Treponema pallidum, because of the inability to cultivate continuously the organism in vitro. To circumvent the problem of cultivation, researchers have used recombinant DNA technology to express treponemal protein antigens in Escherichia coli. However, with a few notable exceptions, the specific cellular roles of these cloned treponemal proteins have not been determined. In this study, a cosmid library of T. pallidum genomic...

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