70 Works

Russia in Africa: is great power competition returning to the continent?

Agnieszka Paczyńska
Since 2014, Russian involvement in Africa has grown significantly. African leaders have been receptive to these overtures as a result of increasing concerns about growing Chinese dominance, retrenchment of the United States (US) and their interest in diversifying trading and security partners. Russia cultivates these relationships by relying on the legacy of the Soviet Union’s support for anti-colonial and liberation movements, and focuses on strengthening diplomatic, military and economic collaborations. This analysis shows that:
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Triangular cooperation: broader, more dynamic and flexible

Geovana Zoccal
Triangular cooperation (TriCo) has existed as a cooperation mechanism for about 40 years. The first implicit reference was made to it in 1978 in the United Nations Plan of Action for Promoting and Implementing Technical Cooperation among Developing Countries, the Buenos Aires Plan of Action (BAPA). Reacting to the increased complexity of international development cooperation, and going beyond the North–South divide, TriCo aims to (i) foster relations between DAC donors and emerging economies, (ii) strengthen...

Dreieckskooperationen: Umfassender, dynamischer und flexibler

Geovana Zoccal
Dreieckskooperation (DEK) gibt es als Kooperationsmechanismus seit etwa 40 Jahren. Die erste implizite Erwähnung fand sie 1978 im Aktionsplan der Vereinten Nationen zur Förderung und Umsetzung der technischen Zusammenarbeit zwischen Entwicklungsländern, dem Aktionsplan von Buenos Aires (BAPA). In Reaktion auf die zunehmende Komplexität der internationalen Entwicklungszusammenarbeit und zur Überwindung des Nord-Süd-Gefälles zielt DEK darauf ab, (i) die Beziehungen zwischen DAC-Gebern und Schwellenländern zu fördern, (ii) die Kapazitäten der Geberländer des Südens in der internationalen Entwicklungszusammenarbeit...

Revenue collection and social policies: their underestimated contribution to social cohesion

Francesco Burchi, Christoph Strupat & Armin Von Schiller
Social cohesion is an important precondition for peaceful and economically successful societies. The question of how societies hold together and which policies enhance social cohesion has become a relevant topic on both national and international agendas. This Briefing Paper stresses the contribution of revenue collection and social policies, and in particular the interlinkages between the two.
It is evident that revenue mobilisation and social policies are intrinsically intertwined. It is impossible to think carefully...

African jobs in the digital era: export options with a focus on online labour

Elvis Melia
This study asks what impact the Fourth Industrial Revolution will have on job creation and catchup development in Sub-Saharan Africa over the coming decade. Can light manufacturing export sectors still serve African development the way they served East Asian development in the past? If factory floor automation reduces the need for low-cost labour in global value chains, can IT-enabled services exports become an alternative driver of African catch-up development? I present case study evidence from...

Exporting out of China or out of Africa? Automation versus relocation in the global clothing industry

Tilmann Altenburg, Xiao Chen, Wilfried Lütkenhorst, Cornelia Staritz & Lindsay Whitfield
The Discussion Paper examines the opportunities that the rising industrial wages in China will bring for Africa. China has been the industrial workbench of the global economy for decades. However, its competitive advantages are waning, particularly for labour-intensive assembly activities in the clothing, shows, electronics and toy industries. The Chinese government estimates that up to 81 million low-cost industrial jobs are at risk of relocation to other countries - unless China can keep the companies...

China’s growing engagement with the UNDS as an emerging nation: changing rationales, funding preferences and future trends

Mao Ruipeng
As China deepens its engagement in global governance and development, its strategic motivation and rising influence within the UN and on international rules and norms are attracting the world’s attention. This paper focuses on China’s engagement with the UNDS, specifically Chinese funding and allocation decisions. China’s UNDS funding has risen rapidly since 2008 and even accelerated in 2013. Between 2013 and 2017, Chinese funding (excluding local resources) grew at an annual average rate of 33.8...

How the G7 reviews its work on development: a case study of internal accountability

Roger A. Fischer
The G7 practices forms of external accountability to answer for its behavior to the outside world and internal accountability to lead the implementation of what it has decided. To follow up on its development related commitments, it has set up a permanent framework to produce annual public reports on how G7 national administrations have worked together to implement them.
Reports under this framework draw from implementation experience but G7 Leaders never use them to...

Food security in times of crisis: poor developing countries are different

Michael Brüntrup
The corona crisis has taken the world captive. While there is broad discussion of the immediate risks of the pandemic, the same can rarely be said of the immense impact that the virus is expected to have on food security for those living in absolute poverty. This impact is resulting primarily from lockdown measures aimed at reducing infection rates and is already having a detrimental effect on all four pillars of food security through many...

Germany’s funding to the UNDS: towards a better mix for stronger multilateralism

Silke Weinlich & Max-Otto Baumann
Since 2016, Germany has been the second largest contributor to the United Nations development system (UNDS) for development-related and humanitarian activities, after the United States of America. The biggest increase in Germany’s funding has been in the form of earmarked contributions, that is, funding with specified geographic and thematic purposes. While humanitarian funding to agencies such as the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), the World Food Programme (WFP) and the United Nations Children’s...

Die Zukunft der europäischen Entwicklungsfinanzierung – institutionelle Reformen für nachhaltige Lösungen

Benedikt Erforth & Lennart Kaplan
Klimawandel, Migrationsströme, Sicherheit - Wachsende Herausforderungen wie diese fordern neue Antworten von der EU-Entwicklungspolitik. Allein um die Ziele für nachhaltige Entwicklung (SDGs) bis zum Jahre 2030 zu erreichen, bedarf es zusätzlicher finanzieller Ressourcen von jährlich bis zu USD 2,5 Billionen in Mittel- und Niedrigeinkommensländern. Die Europäische Union (EU) und ihre Mitgliedsstaaten sind zwar bereits heute die größten Geber weltweit, trotzdem reichen die verfügbaren öffentlichen Gelder nicht aus, um die Ziele der nachhaltigen Entwicklung zu erreichen....

Wege zur erfolgreichen Integration sozialverantwortlicher öffentlicher Beschaffung in Kommunen

Maximilian Müngersdorff & Tim Stoffel
Von den fast 500 Milliarden Euro, die in Deutschland jährlich für die öffentliche Beschaffung ausgegeben werden, entfallen mehr als 50 Prozent auf Kommunen. Neben dem Preis können bei der Auftragsvergabe auch soziale Kriterien zum Tragen kommen (Socially Responsible Public Procurement, SRPP). Somit birgt die öffentliche Beschaffung ein großes Potenzial, zu nachhaltigeren Konsum- und Produktionsmustern im Sinne von Ziel 12 der Agenda 2030 beizutragen. Bislang nutzen deutsche Kommunen diesen Hebel aber nur zurückhaltend. Was ist zu...

Digitalising the fiscal contract: an interdisciplinary framework for empirical inquiry

Christian Von Haldenwang
Tax systems worldwide face far-reaching transformations through the implementation of digital technologies. A growing body of academic literature addresses these transformations and explores how digitalisation is affecting the operations and efficiency of revenue agencies, and taxpayer compliance. However, the literature largely ignores the diversified body of research regarding the characteristics, dynamics and determinants of the “fiscal contract”. This term describes an implicit agreement between state and both citizen and business taxpayers that associates individual tax...

Deutschlands Finanzierung des UN-Entwicklungssystems: Eine bessere Mischung für einen stärkeren Multilateralismus

Silke Weinlich, Max-Otto Baumann & Erik Lundsgaarde
Seit 2016 ist Deutschland nach den Vereinigten Staaten der zweitgrößte Beitragszahler zum Entwicklungssystem der Vereinten Nationen (UNDS). Der größte Anstieg der deutschen Mittel entfällt auf zweckgebundene Beiträge, d.h. auf Mittel mit vorab festgelegten geographischen und thematischen Zielen. Die Finanzierung humanitärer Organisationen wie der Flüchtlingsorganisation (UNHCR), des Welternährungsprogramms (WFP) und des Kinderhilfswerks (UNICEF) der Vereinten Nationen macht den Großteil der deutschen Beiträge aus. Aber auch die entwicklungsbezogenen Mittel für das Entwicklungsprogramm (UNDP), den Bevölkerungsfonds (UNFPA) und...

Cling together, swing together: the contagious effects of COVID-19 on developing countries through global value chains

Stefan Pahl, Clara Brandi, Jakob Schwab & Frederik Stender
Discussion Paper

Information and communication technology in the lives of forcibly displaced persons in Kenya

Eppler Mirko, Stella Gaetani, Francy Köllner, Jana Kuhnt, Charles Martin-Shields, Nyat Mebrahtu, Antonia Peters & Preiß Carlotta
This report examines how forcibly displaced persons use information and communication technologies (ICTs) in Kenya. Focusing on the role and potential of ICT with regard to mobility and inclusion, this paper studies the needs of forcibly displaced persons and seeks to understand how technology could help to meet these needs. The study identifies success factors concerning the deployment of ICT services, which potentially support the lives of forcibly displaced persons. Based on this analysis, we...

Corporate tax revenue and foreign direct investment: potential trade-offs and how to address them

Sabine Laudage
Corporate tax revenue and Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) are two key development finance sources according to the Addis Ababa Action Agenda for Financing for Development. These sources are important for developing countries to finance public goods and mobilize private investment for sustainable development. However, certain tax policies can have ambiguous effects on corporate tax revenue and FDI and challenge the joint mobilization of the two sources.
Against this background, the paper discusses potential trade-offs...

Cómo mejorar la coordinación en la gobernanza del agua en el sur de España: cooperación, incentivos y persuasión

Nora Schütze, Andreas Thiel, Pilar Paneque, Jesús Vargas & Rodrigo Vidaurre
En este documento se presenta uno de los seis análisis realizados sobre los retos que plantea la coordinación intersectorial. Los análisis forman parte del proyecto de investigación STEER y se han publicado en distintos informes.
La Directiva Marco del Agua (DMA) de la Unión Europea (UE) exige a los Estados miembros que garanticen el buen estado de todas las masas de aguas para el año 2027. Los países mediterráneos, como España, se enfrentan a...

Overcoming coordination gaps between water, energy and agriculture: future paths to water protection in Weser-Ems

Franziska Meergans, Christina Aue, Christian Knieper, Sascha Kochendörfer, Andrea Lenschow & Claudia Pahl-Wostl
This paper constitutes one of six analyses of cross-sectoral challenges in water governance. These have been conducted as part of the STEER research project and results are published in separate analyses and position papers.
While the agricultural sector and food industry of the region of Weser-Ems in Lower Saxony have brought about economic prosperity, they have also posed challenges to the environment, and water quality in particular. Intensive animal farming is considered the main...

Optionen für eine deutsch-französische Führungsrolle in der internationalen Geberkoordinierung

Kaplan Lennart
Wie die künftige Handelspolitik Europas aussehen oder in Sicherheits- und Klimafragen gehandelt werden sollte, ist aktuell zwischen Deutschland und Frankreich heftig umstritten. Diese Themen berühren im Rahmen der ganzheitlichen Agenda 2030 für nachhaltige Entwicklung auch die Entwicklungspolitik. Trotz ihrer Möglichkeiten als starke Geberstaaten gemeinsame Ansätze zu verfolgen, kooperieren Deutschland und Frankreich häufig eher ad hoc als strategiegeleitet (Krüger & Vaillé, 2019). Der am 22. Januar 2019 unterzeichnete Vertrag von Aachen erneuert die mit dem Élysée-Vertrag...

Monitoring in German bilateral development cooperation: a case study of agricultural, rural development and food security projects

Sarah Holzapfel & Cornelia Römling
Monitoring and evaluation have gained importance in recent decades in development cooperation to increase evidence, and thereby aid effectiveness. However, the focus on measuring results needs to be coordinated with other strategically important aspects of the aid and development effectiveness agenda, such as adapting to local needs and harmonisation among development actors. Combining these different goals remains a challenge in the development community. Studies show that most donors have similar problems when measuring results. The...

Digitalisation and its impact on SME finance in Sub-Saharan Africa: reviewing the hype and actual developments

Sabrina Disse & Christoph Sommer
The vast majority of enterprises worldwide can be categorized as small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). They play a crucial role in providing a livelihood and income for diverse segments of the labour force, in creating new jobs, fostering valued added and economic growth. In addition, SMEs are associated with innovation, productivity enhancement as well as economic diversification and inclusiveness. However, almost half of the formal enterprises in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) are financially constrained,...

Eine integrierte Perspektive auf die Wirksamkeit von Entwicklungszusammenarbeit

Heiner Janus, Paul Marschall & Hans Öhler
Trägt die Entwicklungszusammenarbeit (EZ) zu Entwicklung bei? Wenn ja, unter welchen Bedingungen und in welchem Umfang? Diese Fragen sind so alt wie die Entwicklungspolitik selbst. Sie werden seither in der Wissenschaft und der Politik kontrovers diskutiert. Zwei aktuelle Trends rücken Fragen zur Wirksamkeit wieder ganz oben auf die politische Agenda. Erstens wollen EZ-Akteur*innen ihren Beitrag zu den Nachhaltigkeitszielen (Sustainable Development Goals, SDGs) verstehen und verbessern. Zweitens zweifeln rechtspopulistische Parteien die Relevanz von EZ grundsätzlich an....

Earmarking in the multilateral development system: many shades of grey

Silke Weinlich, Max-Otto Baumann, Erik Lundsgaarde & Peter Wolff
Earmarking financial contributions for specific geographic, thematic or other priorities has emerged as an important modality for funding multilateral development organisations. Earmarking has had positive consequences, such as the mobilisation of resources for multilateral organisations and new partnership modalities, including with non-state actors. Yet, there has been a rising concern about challenges relating to the effectiveness, efficiency and legitimacy of multilateral development cooperation. Understanding and addressing these negative aspects has gained a new urgency. The...

Verhalten im Fokus: wie eine verhaltenswissenschaftliche Perspektive Politikmaßnahmen in der Entwicklungszusammenarbeit verbessern kann

Lennart Kaplan, Sascha Kuhn & Jana Kuhnt
Für die Gestaltung und Umsetzung von Politikmaßnahmen ist es wichtig zu verstehen, was menschliches Verhalten bestimmt. Nur wenn die jeweilige Zielgruppe ein positives Verhalten gegenüber der Maßnahme einnimmt, kann dieses auch erfolgreich umgesetzt werden. Untersuchungen haben gezeigt, dass Menschen keine rationalen Akteure sind und es oft nicht ausreicht, ihnen finanzielle oder materielle Anreize zu geben, um langfristige Verhaltensänderungen zu fördern. Dies gilt auch für Programme in der Entwicklungszusammenarbeit. Aus diesem Grund ist die Berücksichtigung menschlichen...

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