579 Works

Using photogrammetry for geomorphic change detection after the 2016 Kaikōura Earthquake using pre- and post- aerial photographs

KE Jones, MP Hill & J Lee
Following the 2016 Mw 7.8 Kaikōura Earthquake high resolution aerial photography of the affected area in the northeast of the South Island was captured. Showing fault rupture and landslide failure beyond the areas of limited post-earthquake LiDAR capture, this dataset was to be used for generating the landslide mapping digital dataset and analysing tectonic displacement. GNS Science requested delivery of the raw stereo image pairs from the chosen supplier immediately post capture for in-house photogrammetry...

High-resolution Inundation Modelling with Explicit Buildings

X Wang, B Lukovic, WL Power & C Mueller
The effects of Explicitly Representing Buildings (ERB) on the estimate of tsunami flow depth and flow speed were investigated at Wellington Central Business District (CBD) in New Zealand, using an Mw 9.0 Hikurangi subduction zone earthquake scenario. With modelling grids at 1.5 metre horizontal resolution, individual buildings were treated as solid-filled blocks and assumed to remain standing during tsunami impact. The latter is likely to happen in well-built urban areas such as Wellington CBD. The...

Multiple infrastructure failures and restoration estimates from an Alpine Fault earthquake

TR Robinson, R Buxton, TM Wilson, WJ Cousins & A Christophersen
The Economics of Resilient Infrastructure (ERI) research program aims to develop techniques and tools that allow the modelling and analysis of the economic consequences of infrastructure outages. The development of a Modelling the Economic Resilience of Infrastructure Tool (MERIT) has been a cornerstone deliverable for the ERI project. The underpinning concept of MERIT is that of a System Dynamic economic model with some aspects of Computable General Equilibrium (CGE). MERIT is, in fact, three different...

The role of science in land use planning

M. Kilvington & W.S.A. Saunders
The report is the output of a project funded through the GNS Science Strategic Development Fund to examine the relationship between natural hazard science and local government land use planning in New Zealand. In this project we looked at what prompts and incentives there are for including natural hazards science in decisions on land use; and assessed some of the barriers to successful uptake of natural hazards science in local government planning and policy development....

Threading the basket of knowledge: the role of iwi and hapū management plans for natural hazard research design

Lucy H. Kaiser, Wendy S. A. Saunders & L Taylor
The Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment (MBIE) Vision Mātauranga policy has created a clear message for researchers in Aotearoa/New Zealand—that research conducted in Aotearoa New Zealand should recognise and support the “unlocking of the innovative potential of Māori for the benefit of all New Zealand” and be designed with a clear engagement pathway. However, there is still confusion amongst many researchers on where to begin when considering the Vision Mātauranga component of their research....

Mapping natural hazards and risk for land-use planning for district plans

Scott D. Kelly, Wendy S. A. Saunders, B. A. Payne & J. Mathieson
Maps can play a critical role to the identification and communication of risk, and those associated with regional and district plans are among the most commonly referred to parts of a plan. However, currently there is no coordinated or regulated consistency for regional or district plan maps produced by local authorities under the Resource Management Act 1991. This study undertook a detailed review of international and national literature and practice on mapping, including the identification...

Data tables for detrital zircon age studies of Haast Schist in western Otago and Marlborough, New Zealand

Chris J Adams, Hamish J Campbell & William L Griffin
Supplementary Data Table 1 Otago and Marlborough schist, detrital zircon ages of schist protoliths U-Th-Pb isotopic ratios, measured and common-Pb corrected detrital zircon ages A) Western Otago: Samples 1-18 B) Marlborough: Samples 19-30 Supplementary Data Table 2 U-Pb zircon age data, southern New England Orogen granite suites: Samples 1-6

Reference gravity stations

A catalogue of reference gravity stations in New Zealand has been assembled from measurements made since the 1950s using mostly Lacoste and Romberg D- and G-model meters. These data are from the New Zealand Primary Gravity Network and GNS Science gravity stations for measuring secular changes in gravity. In 2004 the observation data were uniformly processed using GNS Science software and tied to gravity base stations in Auckland and Dunedin. The 2004 revised gravity values...

2019 thermal infrared survey of the Waiotapu Geothermal Field

Robert R. Reeves & Fiona Sanders
An aerial thermal infrared (TIR) survey of the Waiotapu Geothermal Field was undertaken on 13 April 2019. Approximately 2260 TIR images were processed and mosaicked to produce a single, 16-bit image with a ground pixel size of approximately 2 m x 2 m (Figure A.1). The purpose of this report is to summarise the method of data collection and present the final TIR image and accompanying brief interpretation. The TIR data is of good quality...

User requirements of RiskScape 2.0 software and opportunities for disaster risk research in Aotearoa-New Zealand

Kristie-Lee Thomas, Richard J. Woods, R Garlick, Finn R Scheele, Maureen A Coomer, R Paulik & Lara B Clarke
RiskScape is open-access risk modelling software jointly developed by NIWA and GNS Science, funded through their respective Strategic Science Investments Funds (SSIF) research programmes since 2004. The first versions of the RiskScape software have served as a proof of concept in Aotearoa-New Zealand and the Pacific to demonstrate how risk science can be used through a software tool to effectively model natural hazard losses and quantitively evaluate the benefits of implementing planning and mitigation options....

The New Zealand Community Fault Model: Information management principles and processes

Mark S. Rattenbury
Information management around the New Zealand Community Fault Model (NZ-CFM) project is most relevant at the start and conclusion of the building of the first version of the 3D geometrical fault model. Various components of the NZ-CFM information management should be summarised in two or three documents: 1.NZ-CFM information management principles and processes documentation that underpins the wider project (this report). 2. NZ-CFM design documentation that describes key decisions and assumptions around the design and...

New Zealand National Seismic Hazard Model Framework Plan

Matt C. Gerstenberger, Chris Van Houtte, Elizabeth R. Abbott, Russ J. Van Dissen, Anna E. Kaiser, Brendon Bradley, Andy Nicol, David A. Rhoades, Mark W. Stirling & K. K. S. Thingbaijam
The New Zealand National Seismic Hazard Model (NSHM) Revision Project is an MBIE- and EQC-funded project and is expected to deliver a revised model by August 2022. This document presents the major components of work that the NSHM team will be undertaking over the next two years to deliver the revision. The framework has been formed via numerous working group meetings and scientific development over the past six months, including a review and revision process...

Materials for improved assessment of the petroleum source potential of New Zealand coaly rocks, 2: Jurassic to Early Cretaceous stratigraphy, coal abundance, flora and climate

J. Ian Raine, Angela G. Griffin, Elizabeth M. Kennedy, Chris D. Clowes & Richard Sykes
Jurassic to Early Cretaceous strata of New Zealand were deposited at high latitude on the southern margin of Gondwana in several tectonic situations, now recognised as distinct tectonostratigraphic terranes within the Eastern Province of Zealandia. To develop a chronostratigraphic framework of coaly petroleum source rock potential in relation to vegetation and climate, we review the stratigraphy of non-marine strata, estimate relative abundance of coaly lithologies in available exploration wells and outcrop sections and discuss macrofloral...

Towards the calibration of tsunami models in the Auckland region using paleotsunami deposits

Kate J. Clark, Bruce Hayward & Regine Morgenstern
The Auckland region does not have a historic record of any significant tsunamis, but it is exposed to a number of local, regional and distant tsunami sources. Of these potential sources, the largest tsunamis are expected to be generated by large earthquakes on the Kermadec Trench. Tsunami models of large Kermadec Trench earthquakes (M 8.5–9.4) suggest parts of the eastern coastline of the Auckland Region could be exposed to tsunamis with wave amplitudes of up...

SLIDE (Wellington): summary of borehole image and full-waveform acoustic processing and interpretation results

Angela G. Griffin & Mark J. F. Lawrence
This report provides a summary of data and results derived from eleven geotechnical boreholes that were drilled at six localities in and around the Wellington city area. The borehole localities are Orchy Crescent (Southgate), Priscilla Crescent (Kingston), St Gerard’s Monastery (Mt Victoria), Ngauranga Gorge, along with Dungarvan Road and Bendigo Grove (State Highway 2 near Newlands). Seismic velocity data (full-waveform acoustic logs or downhole seismic data) were acquired in all boreholes and acoustic and optical...

Revisiting fire following earthquake modelling for Wellington City

Finn R. Scheele, Biljana Lukovic & Nicholas A. Horspool
Fires are a common secondary hazard following earthquakes and, on rare occasions, can develop into major events with severe consequences. Wellington City has many characteristics that make it susceptible to fire following earthquake (FFE), including the potential for conflagrations and significant losses (e.g. property, infrastructure and casualties). Through the ‘It’s Our Fault’ research programme, we are revisiting FFE modelling for Wellington City, building on the previous models developed by Cousins et al. (2002). We have...

The role of natural gas resources on the path to a low carbon economy : Workshop discussion (7 Aug 2019, Dunedin)

Richard L. Kellett, Marianna G. Terezow, Christopher J. Hollis, Robert H. Funnell & R. Ellison
Transitioning to a net-zero-emission future will require a transformation of New Zealand’s economy and society. The costs of meeting the Government’s emissions reduction targets could be large, and new technologies will be required. In coming decades, petroleum products will continue to play an important role in society, both for transportation and petrochemicals (and potentially some industrial heat applications). The dilemma we face is that our current petroleum and natural gas resources will only last for...

Integrated 3D petroleum generation, migration and charge modelling in the Kupe-Kapuni region, south-eastern Taranaki Basin

Karsten F Kroeger, Rob H Funnell, M Fohrmann & Matt G Hill
This report presents workflows and results of integrated petroleum systems modelling of the Kupe region in the south-eastern Taranaki Basin. A series of PetroMod™ 3D models have been built for numerical forward modelling of the complex tectonic and sedimentological evolution of the area. The models use a detailed structural and stratigraphic model based on high-resolution grids (100 x 100 m) developed from new reflection seismic data interpretation carried out as part of the GNS 4D...

Residual gravity anomalies of the Taupō Volcanic Zone and adjacent region

Vaughan M Stagpoole, Craig A Miller, Thomas Brakenrig, Nick Macdonald & Fabio Caratori Tontini
The 2019 map of residual gravity anomalies of the Taupō Volcanic Zone and adjacent region is an update of the map of Stagpoole and Bibby (1999). An additional 1795 observations have been used in the 2019 compilation, bringing the total to 9189. All data used for the map have been uniformly processed and anomalies calculated using high resolution digital terrain models. The regional gravity field, used to separate the residual gravity anomalies from Bouguer anomalies,...

Hikurangi Ocean Bottom Investigation of Tremor and Slow Slip (HOBITTS IV)

Laura M. Wallace &
HOBITSS IV was a 12-day (24 June–5 July 2017) Wellington to Wellington R/V Tangaroa voyage (TAN1705). Objectives of TAN1705 were to (1) undertake seafloor geodetic instrument deployments, recoveries, and surveys offshore Gisborne and Mahia, and (2) acquire multicores along the Hikurangi margin and offshore the north-eastern South Island to evaluate the extent of turbidite deposition following the November 2016 Kaikōura earthquake. The seafloor geodetic aims involve using Bottom Pressure Recorders (BPRs) to determine the cm...

New Zealand 3D Full Waveform Inversion (NZ3D-FWI) 2017-2018 field acquisition report

R. Bell, M. Gray, J. Morgan, M. Warner, A. Fagereng, L. McNeill, Katie Jacobs, Stuart A. Henrys, Bill Fry, S. Watkins, H. Lacey, Jenny Black, V. Lane, D. Daly, D. Lindsay, N. Bangs, R. Arai, S. Kodaira &
This report documents the acquisition and archiving of a major 3D active-source and passive seismic imaging experiment, NZ3D-FWI. The NZ3D-FWI project aims to image the Hikurangi subduction zone (upper and lower plates and plate boundary fault) along the north Hikurangi margin where shallow slow slip events occur. The primary aim of the project is to collect data optimally to produce high-resolution velocity models using Full-waveform inversion (FWI). The deployment, servicing and collection of the NZ3D-FWI...

Integrating tsunami inundation modelling into risk-based land-use planning: an update of guidance

James G. Beban, Sarah N. Gunnell & Wendy S. A. Saunders
In 2011, GNS Science produced guidance aimed at land-use planners and decision makers on how tsunami inundation modelling can be incorporated into land-use planning to reduce the risk posed by this hazard (Saunders et al. 2011). However, land-use planning for tsunami hazard remains an underutilised tool in New Zealand, with most modelling completed to date only being sufficient to produce tsunami evacuation zone maps. In order to encourage and support the uptake of land-use planning...

Smart models for aquifer management: TopNet modelling suite

Christian Zammit, Jing Yang, James A. Griffiths & Channa Rajanayaka
This report presents the application of the TopNet model suite as one of the ‘simple’ models considered in the Smart Models for Aquifer Management (SAM) research programme. Led by GNS Science, the SAM programme aimed to investigate the implications of model simplification for uncertainty and water resource management decision-making. Comparison of different models in terms of prediction uncertainty relevant to key decision variables, both pre (‘priori’) and post (‘posteriori’) calibration, has been carried out. Models...

Ash leachate characteristics of the 27 April 2016 and 13 September 2016 eruptions of Whakaari/White Island volcano

Carol Stewart, Geoff N. Kilgour & Michael D. Rosenberg
Volcanic ash samples from the 27 April 2016 and 13 September 2016 eruptions of Whakaari / White Island volcano were collected on-island within 24 hours of each eruption. Water-extractable concentrations of a range of elements were determined in these samples, following the International Volcanic Health Hazard Network (IVHHN) protocol. These results are reported here to add to the broader geochemical data series for Whakaari / White Island and because of interest in the 2016 ash...

New Zealand Fault-Rupture Depth Model v1.0: a provisional estimate of the maximum depth of seismic rupture on New Zealand’s active faults

Susan M. Ellis, Stephen Bannister, Russ J. Van Dissen, Donna Eberhart-Phillips, Caroline Holden, Carolyn Boulton, Martin E. Reyners, Robert H. Funnell, Nick Mortimer & Phaedra Upton
This report presents a new and provisional estimate of the maximum depth of rupture on New Zealand’s active faults (“New Zealand Fault-Rupture Depth Model v1.0”) based on a combination of two independent models. The first model uses regional seismicity distribution from a relocated earthquake catalogue to calculate the 90% seismicity cut-off depth (D90) representing the seismogenic depth limit H. This is multiplied by an overshoot factor representing dynamic propagation of rupture into the conditional stability...

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