511 Works

Magnetic properties of volcanic rocks from the southern Coromandel

GM Turner, RL Kellett, F Caratori Tontini, VM Stagpoole & AB Christie
Magnetic properties have been measured in 33 samples of Miocene to Pliocene age volcanic rocks from the southern Coromandel Peninsula, Waikato region. These new data, combined with data from 191 existing samples, provide a comprehensive set of magnetic susceptibility data on andesites, dacites, rhyolites, ignimbrites, and some sedimentary rocks that can support the interpretation of airborne magnetic surveys in the region. The new analysis includes measurements of the remanent and induced magnetisations that indicate an...

Community engagement on future petroleum exploration in New Zealand

JS Becker, V Baker, CJ Hollis, L Roncaglia & FJ Coyle
This literature review sought to identify effective approaches to engaging with communities on the topic of petroleum exploration (i.e. exploration for oil and gas). Community engagement is often utilised to help build constructive dialogue to explore controversial policy areas, such as that related to petroleum exploration. The aims of community engagement typically include supporting open and honest debate, building enhanced public understanding of complex socio-technical topics, alerting policy and industry to public concerns so these...

An introduction to the geology of the Napier area

KJ Bland & T Bunny
This field guide accompanies a one-day field trip in the Napier area, eastern North Island, as part of the 2017 New Zealand Geotechnical Society symposium. Three geological localities are visited, namely Ahuriri lagoon, Lake Tutira, and Waipatiki Beach. The field trip provides an introduction into the key geological features of this tectonically active part of New Zealand.

Outcrop analogues for methane hydrate habitats, East Coast, New Zealand

BD Field
Modern methane hydrates occur in the offshore part of the Hikurangi margin, and this report outlines some potential outcrop analogues for them. Outcrop analogues are present for: methane conduits (as concretions); methane vents (as bioherms); sandstone reservoirs of various deepwater facies; and as fine-grained “reservoir” units. Analogues covering a wide range of ages are present, though this report focuses more on Neogene examples — the range in ages provides a range of burial depths and...

A review on rubidium and cesium extraction methods from geothermal and radioactive sourced materials

TD Christopher & EK Mroczek
A review has been undertaken of methods employed to extract rubidium and cesium from a range of different aqueous sources at the laboratory and pilot scale. The techniques included solvent extraction, ionic exchange and fractional precipitation. In this study, we evaluated the extraction potentials of selected extraction methods on simulant solutions containing rubidium and cesium at concentrations similar to that found in geothermal waters in New Zealand (~5 mg/kg). Our work has shown that the...

Modelling fire following earthquake in Wellington

F Scheele & NA Horspool
Fires are a common secondary hazard following earthquakes, and can result in extensive damage if they spread over a large area. As part of the It’s Our Fault research programme, fire following earthquake (FFE) modelling is being updated for Wellington City, building on earlier work undertaken over a decade ago. This report presents a literature review of globally available methodologies for modelling FFE, focused on relevance to the New Zealand context and the case study...

Investigation of toxic treatments on Māori textiles and wooden objects for MTG Hawkes Bay using a portable x-ray fluorescence machine

KM Rogers
Toxic biocide treatments were widely and liberally applied to museum collections in the 19th and 20th centuries to protect precious objects from degradation due to insect attack and mould growth. Now, recognised as being hazardous, many museums are left with an unknown legacy of heavy metal contamination, or worse, not knowing if their collections are affected. More recently, portable x-ray fluorescence (pXRF) has been developed as a useful tool to detect contaminants on collection items....

Setting the scene: the role of iwi management plans in natural hazard management

WSA Saunders
This report forms the first stage in a four-stage research programme investigating the role of iwi management plans in natural hazard management. Iwi management plans provide a valuable strategic tool for natural hazard management, however their potential influence and role within Council planning is uncertain. The aim of this Stage 1 report is to provide the context for the next stages of the overall research project. Key findings of this report include that: IMPs provide...

Geologic, earthquake and tsunami modelling of the active Cape Egmont Fault Zone

Hannu Seebeck, Glenn P Thrasher, G. P. D. Viskovic, Clarrie Macklin, Suzanne Bull, Xiaoming Wang, Caroline Holden, Yoshihiro Kaneko, V Mouslopoulou & John G. Begg
The Cape Egmont Fault Zone in the southern Taranaki Basin, New Zealand, is a complex series of synthetic and antithetic dip-slip normal faults accommodating present-day extension. The fault zone comprises new and reactivated faults developed over multiple phases of plate boundary deformation during the last 100 Myrs. The fault zone is well imaged on petroleum industry seismic reflection data, with a number of faults exposed and studied onshore. The Cape Egmont Fault Zone is seismically...

Revised stratigraphic framework for the Pliocene to Holocene sedimentary deposits of the Auckland area

David J. A. Barrell, Kyle J. Bland, Matthew P. Hill & Julie M. Lee
Existing terminology for the relatively young and weak sedimentary geological formations of the Auckland area has limited utility for geological and geotechnical classification, because there is considerable variety in their material content. A revised stratigraphic naming framework has been developed for the Pliocene to Holocene sedimentary strata of the Auckland area, in consultation with Auckland geological and geotechnical practitioners. Sedimentary strata previously identified as Tauranga Group and/or its constituent Puketoka Formation in the Auckland area...

Landslides caused by the March 2019 West Coast storm, South Island, New Zealand

Matthew Wride & Saskia J. de Vilder
During the week of 25–31 March 2019, the West Coast of the South Island experienced an intense rainstorm. The rain was widespread, extending from Haast to Hokitika, with the highest intensity of rainfall recorded in the range front south of Hokitika. The March 2019 storm resulted in a record amount of rainfall recorded over a 48-hour period in the Cropp River Catchment. The result of this extreme rainfall event was widespread flooding and landslides, including...

Assessing the uncertainty of water quality and quantity predictions made using complex regional models: Ruamāhanga South case study

Brioch Hemmings, Matthew J. Knowling & Catherine R. Moore
The Smart models for Aquifer Management research programme aims to explore the utility and implications of using simple numerical models for decision support applications. This report details a case study example of the application of complex numerical groundwater model as a tool of assessing the effectiveness of land-use resource management scenarios. The case study focuses on the lower Ruamāhanga catchment, Greater Wellington, NZ (Ruamāhanga South). Scenarios relate to nitrate loading change related to distributed change...

Summary of Kaikoura District Council risk engagement workshop for the proposed review of the district plan

Margaret Kilvington & Wendy S. A. Saunders
Kaikōura District Council (KDC) are undertaking a plan change process for the natural hazards chapter of their district plan, in response to the 2016 earthquake. The earthquake resulted in a number of physical changes within the district, including changes in land levels, landslides, and river channels (and subsequent flooding). With these changed hazard and risk profiles, the KDC are undertaking a process to change the district plan to adopt a risk-based approach, informed by findings...

Impacts of the 2015 eruption of Calbuco volcano on Chilean infrastructure, utilities, agriculture, and health

Josh L. Hayes, Natalia I. Deligne, L. Bertin, R. Calderon, Johnny B. Wardman, Thomas M. Wilson, Graham S. Leonard, Carol Stewart, Kristi L. Wallace & Peter Baxter

Seismogenesis at Hikurangi Integrated Research Experiment (SHIRE) onshore seismic acquisition field report

Katie Jacobs, Stuart A Henrys, D Okaya, H Van Avendonk, Jenny Black, Dan H. N. Barker, Sapthala C Karalliyadda, E Kurashimo, Wanda R. Stratford, M Savage, R Sullivan, Zane R. Bruce & L Hughes
This report documents the acquisition and archiving of a major controlled source and passive seismic imaging project, the Seismogenesis Hikurangi Integrated Research Experiment (SHIRE). The SHIRE project aims to identify and quantify factors controlling the long-term evolution of the Hikurangi margin and the mode of slip along the subduction megathrust. The components of the data volume were acquired in two phases; between October 2017 – April 2018 (SHIRE I) and February–March 2019 (SHIRE II). The...

Hei koha tū, hei kura huna a papa: a resource characterisation and ancestry of minerals for Ngāti Hako

Mark P. Simpson, P. Clarkin, Anthony B Christie & Diane Bradshaw
Mineral resources have long provided Māori with trading opportunities and growth through innovative developments with those from the Hauraki rohe used and traded by Ngāti Hako; the earliest inhabitants of Hauraki. Basalt from Tahanga was fashioned into adzes and obsidian from Tūhua (Mayor Island) was used as cutting tools; the latter traded throughout New Zealand. Other rocks and minerals from the Hauraki rohe have since become of economic significance (e.g. gold and silver) or are...

Kaikoura Earthquake Short-Term Project: landslide inventory and landslide dam assessments

Chris I Massey, Dougal B Townsend, G. D. Dellow, Biljana Lukovic, Brenda J Rosser, Garth C Archibald, M Villeneuve, J Davidson, Katie E Jones, Regine Morgenstern, Delia T Strong, Barbara M Lyndsell, J Tunnicliffe, Jon M Carey & S McColl
The MW 7.8 14 November 2016 Kaikoura Earthquake generated more than 20,000 mapped landslides and about 200 significant landslide dams. Besides the immediate hazard from the landslides, cracked ground, landslide debris and landslide dams also pose longer-term risk to infrastructure, because if the landslides and debris remobilise and the dams breach, they could generate future debris flows and floods. These in turn, could sever transport routes and further damage infrastructure, adversely impacting the post-earthquake economic...

Field report on GNSS surveys of the Top of the South Island Network in 2018 (TOPS2018)

Rory J.A. Hart & Neville G. Palmer
During a 28-day period between January and April 2018, a combined team from GNS Science and Land Information New Zealand re-measured a network of 108 geodetic survey stations using Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) methods throughout the Upper South Island of New Zealand. This Top of the South Island campaign (TOPS2018) covers an area from Cheviot in the south to Cape Farewell in the north and is intended to repeat previous comprehensive GNSS surveys of...

Kinematics of the New Zealand plate boundary: field report on GNSS surveys of the Taranaki Network in 2019 (TARA2019)

Rory J. A. Hart & Neville G. Palmer
Between March and June 2019, a combined team from GNS Science and Land Information New Zealand (LINZ) re-measured a network of 109 geodetic survey markers using Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) methods throughout the Taranaki and Manawatu regions of New Zealand for monitoring the regional deformation due to tectonic processes. Included in the survey were 13 sites located in the Te Urewera mountains and Raukumara Peninsula that were observed to complete the requirements for the...

Ohau and Waikawa catchments of the Horowhenua Groundwater Management Zone - groundwater dynamics, source, and hydrochemical processes as inferred from the groundwater tracer data

Uwe Morgenstern, Rob W. van der Raaij, W. Troy Baisden, Mike K. Stewart, Heather Martindale, Abby Matthews & S Collins
Groundwater age, chemistry, gas, and isotope tracers were applied in the Ohau and Waikawa catchments of the Horowhenua Groundwater Management Zone to understand groundwater dynamics, source, and hydrochemical processes. The measurement of river and stream water age provided a detailed understanding of the ability of geologic formations to let rainwater enter into large groundwater systems with large groundwater stores. Groundwater age tracer results allowed for the identification of: groundwater recharge rates; areas of recharge and...

Post-earthquake building functionality and habitability in New Zealand: Survey results

Finn R. Scheele, SR Uma, Tatiana Goded, Maureen A Coomer, Nick A. Horspool & Jose Moratalla
The habitability and functionality of buildings following earthquake events has a significant impact on the recovery process. Understanding the factors that influence levels of post-event habitability and functionality can assist in identifying areas for improvement in risk reduction and resilience and allows for improved modelling of social impacts. We developed an online survey to gather data from individuals that had experienced recent earthquake events in New Zealand. Broadly, questions were asked regarding the following categories:...

Preparation of polished thin sections and double polished fluid inclusion samples

Ben Durrant & Neville Orr
Polished thin sections (PTS) and double-polished fluid inclusion plates (FI plates) are useful tools in the investigation of geological processes. PTS allow both transmitted- and reflectedlight petrographic examination of minerals and microscopic features, while FI plates allow inference of the conditions at the time of mineral formation. The quality of PTS and FI plates is directly related to the quality of information which they provide. This report documents materials and procedures which produce quality PTS...

Quantifying uncertainty within an ecologically-coupled lake hydrodynamic model: Lake Wairarapa case study

Mat Allan
The present study investigated uncertainty within an ecologically coupled 1-D hydrodynamic model of Lake Wairarapa and uncertainty of total chlorophyll a (TCHLA) estimation. This uncertainty was compared and resulted from both model history matching or model parametrization (within lake) and uncertainty generated from inflowing nitrate concentrations derived from prior and posterior catchment modelling. The study indicated that catchment model calibration effort has significant implications for lake modelling uncertainty. The posterior catchment model scenario led to...

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