500 Works

Household relocation and recovery following the 2017 Edgecumbe flooding: results of a survey

Finn R. Scheele, Lucy H. Kaiser & Ryan Paulik
In April 2017, the Rangitāiki River breached a stopbank, resulting in widespread flooding within the town of Edgecumbe, Bay of Plenty. The evacuation of the town and damage to homes led to major disruption for residents. The relocation of households, both temporary and permanent, had long-lasting effects on the community. A questionnaire to gather residents’ experiences during the event and subsequent recovery was hand-delivered to residential addresses in Edgecumbe in November 2020. Topics included housing...

Geothermal gas emission and its impact on hauora and taiao at Whakarewarewa, the Living Village

Agnes Mazot, R. Huata, Diane Bradshaw, Perry K. Davy, B. Millar, J. Warbrick, J. Davis & Andreas Markwitz
This research explores the effect of Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S), a primary geothermal gas and in a certain extent Carbon Dioxide (CO2), has on humans when exposed to extreme environmental conditions. In this report we document and record the traditional histories/Mātauranga concerning the connection between H2S and the hauora (health) of people at the Whakarewarewa Village. An integrated database helped with the integration of technical, scientific and traditional Māori information, and the support of agile knowledge...

Gravity survey data

A catalogue of over 40,000 gravity survey observations in New Zealand, including free air, Bouguer and isostatic gravity anomalies has been assembled. These data have been assembled from survey measurements mostly made by Geophysics Division, Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, (now GNS Science) since the 1940s using a variety of meters. Some gravity data has been contributed by petroleum explorers and universities. In 2004 all data were uniformly reprocessed using GNS Science software and...

Principles of project-based engagement

Wendy S. A. Saunders
This guidance has been produced to help researchers from any research programme understand the basic principles and expectations of engagement. It is aimed at researchers with little engagement knowledge or experience and is very general in nature; the level of engagement and amount of planning will be dependent on the scale of the project and its potential impact. Three stages of research and associated engagement activities are presented: During the proposal development and design During...

Better spatial characterisation of evapotranspiration and rainfall recharge estimates to groundwater using remote sensing multispectral techniques at lysimeter sites

Frederika Mourot, Rogier S. Westerhoff, Nick Macdonald & Stuart G. Cameron
Regional councils have the responsibility to set up allocation limits to protect and ensure the sustainable use of their freshwater resources. An important part of allocation limit setting consists in assessing the amount of recharge to groundwater. Improvement of recharge models and assessments of sustainable allocation limits will become more important in the context of climate change, where more variable rainfall inputs are expected in the future. This study, commissioned by Envirolink for Hawke’s Bay...

Auckland Volcanic Field eruption crisis management decision-making workshop

A. J. Wild, Jan M Lindsay, S. B. Costello, Natalia I. Deligne, A. Doherty, Graham S. Leonard, K. Maxwell, J. Rollin & Tom M. Wilson
Auckland is the largest city in New Zealand with 1.6 million residents. This major metropolitan region is situated upon the Auckland Volcanic Field (AVF), posing a considerable risk to the city’s population and essential services. On 17 December 2018, a workshop jointly run by DEVORA (Determining Volcanic Risk in Auckland) and Auckland Emergency Management (AEM) was held to discuss evacuation decision-support options in the event of a volcanic crisis in Auckland. The workshop brought together...

A 3D gas hydrate model of the southern Hikurangi Margin

Karsten F Kroeger, Gareth J Crutchley, Richard L Kellett & P Barnes
This dataset contains underlying data and results of 3D gas hydrate modelling at the southern Hikurangi Margin using PetroMod™ software and accompanies a manuscript published in the Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems journal (DOI10.1029/2019GC008275). The model integrates thermal and microbial gas generation, migration and hydrate formation. Modelling these processes has improved the understanding of factors controlling hydrate distribution. Three spatial trends of concentrated hydrate occurrence are predicted. The first trend (I) is aligned with the principal deformation...

Ground motions in New Zealand from Kermadec earthquakes

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We use numerical simulations of earthquake ground shaking to test the ability of natural warning to trigger self-evacuation in communities in the north-western North Island that are at risk of tsunami generated along the Kermadec Subduction Zone in the southwest Pacific. In this region, self-evacuation defined as “Long or Strong, Get Gone” is the dominant mechanism for risk mitigation. However, we conclude that many possible earthquakes will not be felt strongly in these regions, including...

The refinement of isotopic data layers for three catchment-scale studies in the Southland, Horizons, and Gisborne regions: activities between May 2017 and May 2018

Rob W. van der Raaij, Magali Moreau & Rogier S. Westerhoff
The National Institute for Water and Atmospheric Research established, and is leading, the 'National Hydrological Project (NHP), with GNS Science (GNS) and Landcare Research as sub-contracted partners. This report details the GNS activities in the NHP task "design and conceptualisation of catchment-wide isotopic data layers, including data-acquisition of isotope field samples, in selected case studies" and aims to refine isotopic data layers, for stable isotopes and tritium, to make them applicable for studies that estimate...

New Zealand ShakeOut 2018 Observation Evaluation Report: a summary of high-level findings

Emily Lambie, Julia S Becker & Maureen A Coomer
The New Zealand ShakeOut 2018, organised by the Ministry of Civil Defence and Emergency Management (MCDEM), was the latest national earthquake drill to be held in New Zealand. Over 870,000 participants registered to participate in the drill via the ShakeOut website. The drill was held on 18 October 2018 at 9:30 a.m., and participants were encouraged to practice ‘Drop, Cover and Hold’ in response to a potential earthquake. In addition to the drill, other activities...

Uppermost Teurian to lowermost Bortonian foraminiferal biostratigraphy of the Mead Stream section, Clarence River valley, Kaikoura district, New Zealand

C. Percy Strong
This report reviews and revises foraminiferal samples collected over some 3 decades from c. 245 m of the medial Amuri Limestone at Mead Stream, including all the Lower Marl and Upper Limestone, together with adjacent strata of the Lower Limestone and Upper Marl. These strata range from in age from Late Paleocene to Middle Eocene, however, most of the samples are Early Eocene in age. One-hundred and two samples were previously studied, 35 are new...

Obtaining water level data at Whakarewarewa Geothermal Valley using unmanned aerial vehicle photogrammetry

Nick Macdonald, Robert R. Reeves, Duncan J. Graham & Thomas Brakenrig
Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) offer a novel means of studying dangerous and inaccessible areas. They have the advantage of having the ability to survey large study areas relatively quickly, while utilising a wide array of sensors. Monitoring the water level of geothermal pools is important for providing insight into how fluids may be flowing and interacting between geothermal surface features and shallow groundwater aquifers. Making manual measurements of water levels in geothermal areas can be...

Application of the risk-based planning approach in the Bay of Plenty Regional Council Regional Policy Statement

Sarah N Gunnell
The Bay of Plenty region is subject to a wide range of natural hazards, including earthquake, tsunami, volcanic eruption, flood, slope instability, sea level rise, coastal erosion and liquefaction (Bay of Plenty CDEM, 2018). During the development of the now operative Bay of Plenty Regional Policy Statement (BOPRPS) it was recognised that a stronger stance was needed to better manage the risk posed by natural hazards in the region, in particular the potential impacts of...

Seismic Array HiKurangi Experiment (SAHKE) data

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This is the data collected by a major controlled-source and passive seismic imaging experiment, the Seismic Array HiKurangi Experiment (SAHKE). The SAHKE project was designed to investigate the physical parameters controlling locking at the plate boundary beneath the southern North Island and characterise slip processes in a major segment of the Hikurangi system. The components of data were acquired between November 2009 and April 2010 by GNS Science, Victoria University of Wellington, and Earthquake Research...

Assessing the uncertainty of water quality and quantity predictions made using complex regional models: Ruamāhanga North Case Study

Brioch Hemmings, Matthew J Kowling & Catherine R Moore
The Smart models for Aquifer Management research programme aims to explore the utility and implications of using simple numerical models for decision support applications. This report details a case study example of the application of a complex numerical groundwater model as a tool of assessing the effectiveness of land- and water-use scenarios. The case study focuses on the upper Ruamāhanga catchment, Greater Wellington, NZ (Ruamāhanga North). The effect of land- and water-use scenarios are assessed...

Selection of representative ground motion input for Wellington

Elizabeth R Abbott & Chris Van Houtte
he goal of the Stability of Land In Dynamic Environments (SLIDE) project is to better understand the behaviour of slopes in order to develop strategies for more robust remediation approaches and improve resilience of New Zealand’s buildings and infrastructure. Numerical simulations of slope stability are used to better understand how anthropogenically modified slopes may perform in future strong earthquakes. The aim of this report is to provide a range of realistic earthquake ground motions, selected...

SLIDE (Wellington): risk remediation approaches for anthropogenically modified slopes in the Wellington region

F. Monteith
The goal of the Stability of Land In Dynamic Environments (SLIDE) research project is to improve the resilience of New Zealand's buildings and infrastructure through better knowledge of the behaviour of slopes in response to strong earthquake shaking and significant rain events and the development of strategies for more robust remediation approaches. The current focus of the SLIDE project is on Wellington, where the project is combining research funds from various sources to establish a...

SLIDE (Wellington): geomorphological characterisation of the Wellington urban area

Dougal Townsend, Chris I Massey, Biljana Lukovic, Brenda J Rosser, William Ries, Regine Morgenstern, Salman Ashraf, Katie E Jones & Jon M Carey
The goal of the Stability of Land In Dynamic Environments (SLIDE) research project is to improve the resilience of New Zealand’s buildings and infrastructure through better knowledge of the behaviour of slopes and the development of strategies for more robust remediation approaches. One aspect of the SLIDE research is the development of a geomorphology map for terrain within the Wellington urban area in order to help identify those slopes that have been anthropogenically modified and...

Te Ropū Pūtaiao Pāpori Vision Mātauranga Strategy and Action Plan 2018-2022

LC Carter
In 2007 the Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment released their Vision Mātauranga policy for “unlocking the Innovation Potential of Māori knowledge, Resources and People” (MBIE, 2007) and to provide strategic direction for Vote RS&T funding for research. Elements of MBIE’s Vision Mātauranga policy are increasingly being adapted by organisations who recognise the unique opportunities for Māori communities to make distinct contributions to research, science and technology. Additionally, Vision Mātauranga is increasingly a core assessment...

Kaikōura Earthquake Short-Term Project

NJ Litchfield, KJ Clark, WF Ries, P Villamor, RJ Van Dissen, RM Langridge, DJA Barrell, KE Jones, DW Heron, B Lukovic & J Pettinga
Ground deformation in the 14th November 2016 magnitude 7.8 Kaikōura Earthquake was extra-ordinarily complex, including multiple (>20) ground-surface fault ruptures and extensive (>110 km) coastal uplift. This report documents work undertaken after the initial GeoNet response phase to document the ground-surface fault ruptures and coastal uplift, with a large focus on high resolution topographic (Light Detecting and Ranging) data. This work provides essential information for better understand what happened in the earthquake, and to inform...

Rapid remote sensing data collection

KE Jones, JM Lee, GC Archbald, S Lawson & C Asher
The acquisition of remotely sensed, high resolution, topographic data has been transformed considerably over the past decade by new technology and geospatial processing platforms. Originally developed within the computer vision industry, Structure from Motion (SfM) is a photogrammetric method for creating 3D models of a feature or topography from overlapping two-dimensional photographs taken from many locations and orientations. SfM algorithms search for unique matches of points between two images, determining internal camera geometry and camera...

Businesses and the Canterbury earthquakes

T Hatton, E Seville, C Brown & Stevenson
his report describes the results of 14 case studies carried out with organisations in Christchurch and Auckland to further inform and refine the Business Behaviours Module of MERIT. The Business Behaviours Module has been developed based on extensive statistical analysis of the responses of 541 Canterbury organisations to a 2013 survey on their experiences following the 2010/11 Canterbury earthquakes. We needed to test the applicability of the Business Behaviours Module to other types of disruption...

Economics of Resilient Infrastructure Auckland Volcanic Field Scenario

NI Deligne, DM Blake, AJ Davies, ES Grace, J Hayes, SH Potter, C Stewart, G Wilson & TM Wilson
The Economics of Resilient Infrastructure (ERI) research programme is a four year project funded by the New Zealand Government. The final output of the programme is a software tool, MERIT (Modelling the Economics of Resilient Infrastructure Tool) which will quantify the economic consequences of infrastructure failure and explore various post disaster recovery strategies. This report documents one of two multi-sector outage scenarios developed for the MERIT tool, a volcanic eruption in the Auckland Volcanic Field...

Auckland electricity outage scenario

JH Kim, NJ Smith & GW McDonald
In the ERI programme we developed a Dynamic Interoperability Input-Output Model (DIIM) to assess the economic impacts of a hypothetical electricity outage scenario in the Auckland region. We apply a hypothetical electricity transmission infrastructure loss scenario, co-developed with Transpower (electricity provider) and Vector (electricity retailer), to test the impacts of a substantial electricity outage in Auckland. The probability of the scenario is highly unlikely, but plausible for the Auckland region. The scenario is fully outlined...

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