579 Works

Impacts of the 2015 eruption of Calbuco volcano on Chilean infrastructure, utilities, agriculture, and health

Josh L. Hayes, Natalia I. Deligne, L. Bertin, R. Calderon, Johnny B. Wardman, Thomas M. Wilson, Graham S. Leonard, Carol Stewart, Kristi L. Wallace & Peter Baxter

Preparation of polished thin sections and double polished fluid inclusion samples

Ben Durrant & Neville Orr
Polished thin sections (PTS) and double-polished fluid inclusion plates (FI plates) are useful tools in the investigation of geological processes. PTS allow both transmitted- and reflectedlight petrographic examination of minerals and microscopic features, while FI plates allow inference of the conditions at the time of mineral formation. The quality of PTS and FI plates is directly related to the quality of information which they provide. This report documents materials and procedures which produce quality PTS...

SLIDE (Wellington): seismic profiling of Camrose Grove, Wellington

Zane R. Bruce & Hamish Cameron
This report represents an aspect of the ground truthing methods used to confirm the geomorphic mapping carried out as part of the Stability of Land In Dynamic Environments (SLIDE) project within the Wellington Region. A simple hammer plate seismic survey was completed in Camrose Grove, Kingston, Wellington, on an area of fill identified from historical records of US Marine Corps construction in Camrose Grove during WW2. The purpose of the survey is to confirm the...

Kinematics of the New Zealand plate boundary: field report on GNSS surveys of the Taranaki Network in 2019 (TARA2019)

Rory J. A. Hart & Neville G. Palmer
Between March and June 2019, a combined team from GNS Science and Land Information New Zealand (LINZ) re-measured a network of 109 geodetic survey markers using Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) methods throughout the Taranaki and Manawatu regions of New Zealand for monitoring the regional deformation due to tectonic processes. Included in the survey were 13 sites located in the Te Urewera mountains and Raukumara Peninsula that were observed to complete the requirements for the...

Ohau and Waikawa catchments of the Horowhenua Groundwater Management Zone - groundwater dynamics, source, and hydrochemical processes as inferred from the groundwater tracer data

Uwe Morgenstern, Rob W. van der Raaij, W. Troy Baisden, Mike K. Stewart, Heather Martindale, Abby Matthews & S Collins
Groundwater age, chemistry, gas, and isotope tracers were applied in the Ohau and Waikawa catchments of the Horowhenua Groundwater Management Zone to understand groundwater dynamics, source, and hydrochemical processes. The measurement of river and stream water age provided a detailed understanding of the ability of geologic formations to let rainwater enter into large groundwater systems with large groundwater stores. Groundwater age tracer results allowed for the identification of: groundwater recharge rates; areas of recharge and...

Dunedin groundwater monitoring and spatial observations

Simon C. Cox, M. J. H. Ettima, S. M. Mager, Phil J. Glassey, S. Hornblow & S. Yeo
Dunedin City has a large number of assets and critical infrastructure sitting on a low-lying coastal plain that is underlain by a largely unseen and relatively poorly understood hazard. Shallow groundwater in this area limits the unsaturated ground available to store rain and runoff, promotes flooding and creates opportunities for infiltration into stormwater and wastewater networks. Groundwater levels are expected to rise as sea level rises, causing greater frequency of flooding and/or direct inundation once...

Sea-level projections for New Zealand's Scott Base rebuild

Richard H. Levy, Tim R. Naish, Nick R. Golledge, R Bell, P Stocchi, R Kopp, Sigrun Hreinsdottir, Andrew F. Boyes & J Arnold
A primary goal in the NZ SeaRise Programme – Te Tai Pari o Aotearoa is to produce local sea-level projections for New Zealand / Aotearoa to include local effects like vertical land movement. These projections are not restricted to the coastline of Aotearoa, as New Zealand has interests and responsibilities that lie outside our Extended Economic Zone. Antarctica is one region where New Zealand has strategic interests and environmental responsibilities. The impact of sea-level change...

Machine learning for decision support systems

Rob Buxton, Yannik Behr, Craig A. Miller & Annemarie Christophersen
In early 2020 the GNS Executive Management Team made available $500k of SSIF funding to support Data Science research. The newly formed Artificial Intelligence and Advanced Analytics team proposed several research projects that could utilise the funding and provide useful research outputs within the challenging timeframe available (to June 2020). Two of the supported projects had a strong volcanic hazard theme. The project discussed herein covers two main streams of research. Firstly, the investigation of...

Initial GeoNet Landslide response report: Priscilla Crescent landslide, 2014

Chris I. Massey & Nick D. Perrin
The purpose of this initial GeoNet landslide response report is to provide the preliminary results of walkover surveys of a landslide that occurred at the corner of Priscilla Crescent and Breton Grove in Kingston on the morning of 1 June 2013. Please note that the information contained in this report is preliminary in nature and based on limited data. This information is intended to aid Wellington City Council manage the emergency situation immediately after the...

Revised stratigraphic framework for the Pliocene to Holocene sedimentary deposits of the Auckland area

David J. A. Barrell, Kyle J. Bland, Matthew P. Hill & Julie M. Lee
Existing terminology for the relatively young and weak sedimentary geological formations of the Auckland area has limited utility for geological and geotechnical classification, because there is considerable variety in their material content. A revised stratigraphic naming framework has been developed for the Pliocene to Holocene sedimentary strata of the Auckland area, in consultation with Auckland geological and geotechnical practitioners. Sedimentary strata previously identified as Tauranga Group and/or its constituent Puketoka Formation in the Auckland area...

Modelling interdependencies of critical infrastructure network recovery using a decision support system

SR Uma, Yassir Syed, Sapthala Karalliyadda & R Prasanna
Critical infrastructure networks provide functional services to support the wellbeing of the community. In the event of a hazard, failures of one or more infrastructure networks and their components disrupt their functionality, affecting the supply of services. Damage to one network could potentially result in cascading functional failures based on their order of dependencies and interdependencies. Understanding the extent of disruption and quantifying their consequences is important to assist various stakeholders in their decision-making processes...

Connecting real-time hazard and impact data with users: proof of concept of a visualisation tool

Sally H. Potter, Sara Harrison, Kristie-Lee Thomas, Graham S. Leonard, Janet Skilton, M Apiti, Natalie J Balfour, Sue Harvey, Maureen A Coomer & Geoff N. Kilgour
When a hazardous event occurs, such as an earthquake, eruption, storm, tsunami or landslide, there are often delays in understanding the severity and extent of the hazard and impacts. There are gaps in loss databases that inform forecast and warning systems, monitoring networks have gaps and there is limited capacity for officials to quickly visit every site to assess the damage. This results in delays in response, a reliance on media for situational awareness and...

Information sources for GNS Science Poster Series 7 and 8: bathymetric and tectonic maps of Te Riu-a-Māui / Zealandia

Nick Mortimer
This science report accompanies the Mortimer et al. (2020a, 2020b) bathymetric and tectonic map posters of Te Riu-a-Māui / Zealandia. The purpose of this report is to document the various information sources used to compile the posters and outline the assumptions and reasoning behind choices and modifications of portrayed information. The report is not intended to be a descriptive or interpretive account of the geology and tectonics of Zealandia, or of its geotectonic history. If...

Preliminary common-form ground-motion models for shallow crustal earthquakes and their use in ergodic and partially-ergodic seismic hazard calculations in New Zealand

Chris Van Houtte
A key aspect of seismic hazard assessment is the prediction of the ground motion distribution from seismic sources. The prediction can either be made using an empirical ground-motion model, sometimes referred to as a ground-motion prediction equation, or using semi-physical, semi-empirical ground-motion simulations. The choice of technique, and model within each technique, often has a very large effect on the results, which renders the final hazard results uncertain. This type of uncertainty is often referred...

Tsunami travel time estimates for local sources for Porirua and Kapiti Coast suburbs

Xiaoming Wang, Biljana Lukovic, Christof Mueller, David W. Heron & William L. Power
In local fault source tsunami events, the effectiveness of self-evacuation planning is constrained by two pieces of timing information: the tsunami travel (arrival) time estimate and evacuation travel time estimate. This study estimates travel times of tsunami from local active fault sources to coastal suburbs of Porirua and Kāpiti Coast in the Greater Wellington region of New Zealand. The estimates include the arrivals of 1.0 m tsunami elevation above local ambient sea condition, i.e. the...

U-Th-Ra analyses of samples from the 2016 drill core of the Rangitoto lava field: Devora report

Lucy McGee
A recent drill core into the western flank of Rangitoto volcano in the Auckland Volcanic Field (AVF) found possible evidence that its eruptive history may have begun as long ago as 6000 years BP (Linnell et al. 2016). This evidence was in the form of a layer of fossiliferous sedimentary material that returned radiocarbon ages of 650–7400 years between basaltic lavas. The potential longevity of Rangitoto volcano was addressed with the analysis of U-Th-Ra isotopes...

Continued Professional Development (CPD) Strategy for natural hazards

Wendy S. A. Saunders
In July 2020, Dr Wendy Saunders of GNS Science became the ‘EQC Champion of Land Use Planning for Natural Hazards’. With support from the planning team at GNS Science, the position is for three years. There are three key objectives associated with the role: 1. to build land use planning capacity and capability in natural hazards and climate change; 2. to contribute to national and local initiatives that lead to improved land use planning outcomes...

An updated set of tsunami action maps for Kermadec earthquakes

Aditya R. Gusman, David R. Burbidge & William L. Power
In previous work Gusman et al. (2019) created a new tsunami scenario database containing Tsunami Threat Forecast maps of New Zealand for tsunamis caused by earthquakes around the Pacific Ocean, including the Kermadec subduction zone. The purpose of the database is to rapidly provide a Threat Forecast Map when an earthquake similar to one in the database occurs. The Threat Forecast Maps provide a threat estimate expected in each coastal region around New Zealand from...

Landslides caused by the March 2019 West Coast storm, South Island, New Zealand

Matthew Wride & Saskia J. de Vilder
During the week of 25–31 March 2019, the West Coast of the South Island experienced an intense rainstorm. The rain was widespread, extending from Haast to Hokitika, with the highest intensity of rainfall recorded in the range front south of Hokitika. The March 2019 storm resulted in a record amount of rainfall recorded over a 48-hour period in the Cropp River Catchment. The result of this extreme rainfall event was widespread flooding and landslides, including...

RGMAD Archive 1930-1958 Era

Bathymetric map of Lake Rotomahana

Cornel E. J. de Ronde, Fabio Caratori Tontini, S. L. Walker & Jenny Black
This map poster shows a detailed map of the lake floor of Lake Rotomahana at a scale of 1:11 000. As well as the main bathymetric map, there are three smaller maps and two seismic cross sections. These smaller maps show magnetic and heatflow data, and show several hundred locations where plumes of gas bubbles have been recorded. This map shows lake floor features and other subtleties that have not been seen for more than...

Geological model of South Dunedin

Phil J. Glassey, David J. Barrell, Belinda Smith-Lyttle, S Hornblow & B Mackay
The South Dunedin suburb of Dunedin city lies on a coastal plain, which was a salt marsh prior to urban development, that began in 1840. Now one of the more densely populated areas in New Zealand, South Dunedin is within 2 m of current sea level, has groundwater close to the surface and is vulnerable to flood hazards that are expected to be worsened by sea-level rise. In addition, soft sediments that underlie much of...

Geologic, earthquake and tsunami modelling of the active Cape Egmont Fault Zone

Hannu Seebeck, Glenn P Thrasher, G. P. D. Viskovic, Clarrie Macklin, Suzanne Bull, Xiaoming Wang, Caroline Holden, Yoshihiro Kaneko, V Mouslopoulou & John G. Begg
The Cape Egmont Fault Zone in the southern Taranaki Basin, New Zealand, is a complex series of synthetic and antithetic dip-slip normal faults accommodating present-day extension. The fault zone comprises new and reactivated faults developed over multiple phases of plate boundary deformation during the last 100 Myrs. The fault zone is well imaged on petroleum industry seismic reflection data, with a number of faults exposed and studied onshore. The Cape Egmont Fault Zone is seismically...

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