336 Works

Kinematics of the New Zealand plate boundary: field report on GNSS surveys of the Taranaki Network in 2019 (TARA2019)

Rory J. A. Hart & Neville G. Palmer
Between March and June 2019, a combined team from GNS Science and Land Information New Zealand (LINZ) re-measured a network of 109 geodetic survey markers using Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) methods throughout the Taranaki and Manawatu regions of New Zealand for monitoring the regional deformation due to tectonic processes. Included in the survey were 13 sites located in the Te Urewera mountains and Raukumara Peninsula that were observed to complete the requirements for the...

Revised stratigraphic framework for the Pliocene to Holocene sedimentary deposits of the Auckland area

David J. A. Barrell, Kyle J. Bland, Matthew P. Hill & Julie M. Lee
Existing terminology for the relatively young and weak sedimentary geological formations of the Auckland area has limited utility for geological and geotechnical classification, because there is considerable variety in their material content. A revised stratigraphic naming framework has been developed for the Pliocene to Holocene sedimentary strata of the Auckland area, in consultation with Auckland geological and geotechnical practitioners. Sedimentary strata previously identified as Tauranga Group and/or its constituent Puketoka Formation in the Auckland area...

Seismogenesis at Hikurangi Integrated Research Experiment (SHIRE) onshore seismic acquisition field report

Katie Jacobs, Stuart A Henrys, D Okaya, H Van Avendonk, Jenny Black, Dan H. N. Barker, Sapthala C Karalliyadda, E Kurashimo, Wanda R. Stratford, M Savage, R Sullivan, Zane R. Bruce & L Hughes
This report documents the acquisition and archiving of a major controlled source and passive seismic imaging project, the Seismogenesis Hikurangi Integrated Research Experiment (SHIRE). The SHIRE project aims to identify and quantify factors controlling the long-term evolution of the Hikurangi margin and the mode of slip along the subduction megathrust. The components of the data volume were acquired in two phases; between October 2017 – April 2018 (SHIRE I) and February–March 2019 (SHIRE II). The...

Kaikoura Earthquake Short-Term Project: landslide inventory and landslide dam assessments

Chris I Massey, Dougal B Townsend, G. D. Dellow, Biljana Lukovic, Brenda J Rosser, Garth C Archibald, M Villeneuve, J Davidson, Katie E Jones, Regine Morgenstern, Delia T Strong, Barbara M Lyndsell, J Tunnicliffe, Jon M Carey & S McColl
The MW 7.8 14 November 2016 Kaikoura Earthquake generated more than 20,000 mapped landslides and about 200 significant landslide dams. Besides the immediate hazard from the landslides, cracked ground, landslide debris and landslide dams also pose longer-term risk to infrastructure, because if the landslides and debris remobilise and the dams breach, they could generate future debris flows and floods. These in turn, could sever transport routes and further damage infrastructure, adversely impacting the post-earthquake economic...

SLIDE (Wellington): seismic profiling of Camrose Grove, Wellington

Zane R. Bruce & Hamish Cameron
This report represents an aspect of the ground truthing methods used to confirm the geomorphic mapping carried out as part of the Stability of Land In Dynamic Environments (SLIDE) project within the Wellington Region. A simple hammer plate seismic survey was completed in Camrose Grove, Kingston, Wellington, on an area of fill identified from historical records of US Marine Corps construction in Camrose Grove during WW2. The purpose of the survey is to confirm the...

Landslides and debris flows in the Tasman District caused by ex-Tropical Cyclone Gita, 20-21 February, 2018

Brenda J. Rosser, Jon M. Carey, Katie E. Jones, Dougal B. Townsend & J. F. Crouch
Ex-Tropical Cyclone Gita hit New Zealand on 20–21 February 2018, bringing heavy rain and high winds to much of the country. The heaviest rainfall occurred in the Tasman District where more than 230 mm of rain fell in 18 hours triggering extensive shallow landslides and debris flows. The Takaka Hill Road was closed by 16 slips, which impacted the road for the following year. The most intense rainfall (78 mm/hr) occurred over a 3-hour period...

Field report on GNSS surveys of the Top of the South Island Network in 2018 (TOPS2018)

Rory J.A. Hart & Neville G. Palmer
During a 28-day period between January and April 2018, a combined team from GNS Science and Land Information New Zealand re-measured a network of 108 geodetic survey stations using Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) methods throughout the Upper South Island of New Zealand. This Top of the South Island campaign (TOPS2018) covers an area from Cheviot in the south to Cape Farewell in the north and is intended to repeat previous comprehensive GNSS surveys of...

Preparation of polished thin sections and double polished fluid inclusion samples

Ben Durrant & Neville Orr
Polished thin sections (PTS) and double-polished fluid inclusion plates (FI plates) are useful tools in the investigation of geological processes. PTS allow both transmitted- and reflectedlight petrographic examination of minerals and microscopic features, while FI plates allow inference of the conditions at the time of mineral formation. The quality of PTS and FI plates is directly related to the quality of information which they provide. This report documents materials and procedures which produce quality PTS...

Post-earthquake building functionality and habitability in New Zealand: Survey results

Finn R. Scheele, SR Uma, Tatiana Goded, Maureen A Coomer, Nick A. Horspool & Jose Moratalla
The habitability and functionality of buildings following earthquake events has a significant impact on the recovery process. Understanding the factors that influence levels of post-event habitability and functionality can assist in identifying areas for improvement in risk reduction and resilience and allows for improved modelling of social impacts. We developed an online survey to gather data from individuals that had experienced recent earthquake events in New Zealand. Broadly, questions were asked regarding the following categories:...

Assessing the uncertainty of water quality and quantity predictions made using complex regional models: Ruamāhanga South case study

Brioch Hemmings, Matthew J. Knowling & Catherine R. Moore
The Smart models for Aquifer Management research programme aims to explore the utility and implications of using simple numerical models for decision support applications. This report details a case study example of the application of complex numerical groundwater model as a tool of assessing the effectiveness of land-use resource management scenarios. The case study focuses on the lower Ruamāhanga catchment, Greater Wellington, NZ (Ruamāhanga South). Scenarios relate to nitrate loading change related to distributed change...

Hei koha tū, hei kura huna a papa: a resource characterisation and ancestry of minerals for Ngāti Hako

Mark P. Simpson, P. Clarkin, Anthony B Christie & Diane Bradshaw
Mineral resources have long provided Māori with trading opportunities and growth through innovative developments with those from the Hauraki rohe used and traded by Ngāti Hako; the earliest inhabitants of Hauraki. Basalt from Tahanga was fashioned into adzes and obsidian from Tūhua (Mayor Island) was used as cutting tools; the latter traded throughout New Zealand. Other rocks and minerals from the Hauraki rohe have since become of economic significance (e.g. gold and silver) or are...

Quantifying uncertainty within an ecologically-coupled lake hydrodynamic model: Lake Wairarapa case study

Mat Allan
The present study investigated uncertainty within an ecologically coupled 1-D hydrodynamic model of Lake Wairarapa and uncertainty of total chlorophyll a (TCHLA) estimation. This uncertainty was compared and resulted from both model history matching or model parametrization (within lake) and uncertainty generated from inflowing nitrate concentrations derived from prior and posterior catchment modelling. The study indicated that catchment model calibration effort has significant implications for lake modelling uncertainty. The posterior catchment model scenario led to...

Ohau and Waikawa catchments of the Horowhenua Groundwater Management Zone - groundwater dynamics, source, and hydrochemical processes as inferred from the groundwater tracer data

Uwe Morgenstern, Rob W. van der Raaij, W. Troy Baisden, Mike K. Stewart, Heather Martindale, Abby Matthews & S Collins
Groundwater age, chemistry, gas, and isotope tracers were applied in the Ohau and Waikawa catchments of the Horowhenua Groundwater Management Zone to understand groundwater dynamics, source, and hydrochemical processes. The measurement of river and stream water age provided a detailed understanding of the ability of geologic formations to let rainwater enter into large groundwater systems with large groundwater stores. Groundwater age tracer results allowed for the identification of: groundwater recharge rates; areas of recharge and...

Structural and sedimentological interpretation of well data from the Wairoa area, North Island, New Zealand

MJF Lawrence
Seventeen wells were drilled in the Wairoa area of northern Hawke’s Bay, to investigate hydrocarbon potential. In four of these wells, drilled on the Kauhauroa Anticline (Kauhauroa- 2, Kauhauroa-5, Waitahora-1) and the Tuhara Anticline (Tuhara-1A), borehole image data was acquired. The Schlumberger Oil Based Mud Imaging tool (OBMITM) was used in well Waitahora-1, while the Schlumberger Fullbore Formation MicroImager tool (FMITM) was acquired in the other three wells. These data suites provided an opportunity to...

TAN1712-1803 voyage report for ocean bottom seismograph recovery in support of seismic surveys (ORCSS 2 and 3): 3D survey offshore East Coast North Island

Richard Kellett, Dan Bassett, R. Arai, K. Obana, Valerie K. Stucker, Stuart A. Henrys, S. R. Davidson, Rory J. Hart, S. Kodaira, T. Maekawa, K. Michailos, S. Mori, Grant A. O'Brien, T. Saijo, I. Terada, N. L. Bangs & R. Bell

An updated set of tsunami action maps for Kermadec earthquakes

Aditya R. Gusman, David R. Burbidge & William L. Power
In previous work Gusman et al. (2019) created a new tsunami scenario database containing Tsunami Threat Forecast maps of New Zealand for tsunamis caused by earthquakes around the Pacific Ocean, including the Kermadec subduction zone. The purpose of the database is to rapidly provide a Threat Forecast Map when an earthquake similar to one in the database occurs. The Threat Forecast Maps provide a threat estimate expected in each coastal region around New Zealand from...

Landslides caused by the March 2019 West Coast storm, South Island, New Zealand

Matthew Wride & Saskia J. de Vilder
During the week of 25–31 March 2019, the West Coast of the South Island experienced an intense rainstorm. The rain was widespread, extending from Haast to Hokitika, with the highest intensity of rainfall recorded in the range front south of Hokitika. The March 2019 storm resulted in a record amount of rainfall recorded over a 48-hour period in the Cropp River Catchment. The result of this extreme rainfall event was widespread flooding and landslides, including...

Geological model of South Dunedin

Phil J. Glassey, David J. Barrell, Belinda Smith-Lyttle, S Hornblow & B Mackay
The South Dunedin suburb of Dunedin city lies on a coastal plain, which was a salt marsh prior to urban development, that began in 1840. Now one of the more densely populated areas in New Zealand, South Dunedin is within 2 m of current sea level, has groundwater close to the surface and is vulnerable to flood hazards that are expected to be worsened by sea-level rise. In addition, soft sediments that underlie much of...

Modelling interdependencies of critical infrastructure network recovery using a decision support system

SR Uma, Yassir Syed, Sapthala Karalliyadda & R Prasanna
Critical infrastructure networks provide functional services to support the wellbeing of the community. In the event of a hazard, failures of one or more infrastructure networks and their components disrupt their functionality, affecting the supply of services. Damage to one network could potentially result in cascading functional failures based on their order of dependencies and interdependencies. Understanding the extent of disruption and quantifying their consequences is important to assist various stakeholders in their decision-making processes...

Connecting real-time hazard and impact data with users: proof of concept of a visualisation tool

Sally H. Potter, Sara Harrison, Kristie-Lee Thomas, Graham S. Leonard, Janet Skilton, M Apiti, Natalie J Balfour, Sue Harvey, Maureen A Coomer & Geoff N. Kilgour
When a hazardous event occurs, such as an earthquake, eruption, storm, tsunami or landslide, there are often delays in understanding the severity and extent of the hazard and impacts. There are gaps in loss databases that inform forecast and warning systems, monitoring networks have gaps and there is limited capacity for officials to quickly visit every site to assess the damage. This results in delays in response, a reliance on media for situational awareness and...

Sea-level projections for New Zealand's Scott Base rebuild

Richard H. Levy, Tim R. Naish, Nick R. Golledge, R Bell, P Stocchi, R Kopp, Sigrun Hreinsdottir, Andrew F. Boyes & J Arnold
A primary goal in the NZ SeaRise Programme – Te Tai Pari o Aotearoa is to produce local sea-level projections for New Zealand / Aotearoa to include local effects like vertical land movement. These projections are not restricted to the coastline of Aotearoa, as New Zealand has interests and responsibilities that lie outside our Extended Economic Zone. Antarctica is one region where New Zealand has strategic interests and environmental responsibilities. The impact of sea-level change...

Machine learning for decision support systems

Rob Buxton, Yannik Behr, Craig A. Miller & Annemarie Christophersen
In early 2020 the GNS Executive Management Team made available $500k of SSIF funding to support Data Science research. The newly formed Artificial Intelligence and Advanced Analytics team proposed several research projects that could utilise the funding and provide useful research outputs within the challenging timeframe available (to June 2020). Two of the supported projects had a strong volcanic hazard theme. The project discussed herein covers two main streams of research. Firstly, the investigation of...

Continued Professional Development (CPD) Strategy for natural hazards

Wendy S. A. Saunders
In July 2020, Dr Wendy Saunders of GNS Science became the ‘EQC Champion of Land Use Planning for Natural Hazards’. With support from the planning team at GNS Science, the position is for three years. There are three key objectives associated with the role: 1. to build land use planning capacity and capability in natural hazards and climate change; 2. to contribute to national and local initiatives that lead to improved land use planning outcomes...

Bathymetric map of Lake Rotomahana

Cornel E. J. de Ronde, Fabio Caratori Tontini, S. L. Walker & Jenny Black
This map poster shows a detailed map of the lake floor of Lake Rotomahana at a scale of 1:11 000. As well as the main bathymetric map, there are three smaller maps and two seismic cross sections. These smaller maps show magnetic and heatflow data, and show several hundred locations where plumes of gas bubbles have been recorded. This map shows lake floor features and other subtleties that have not been seen for more than...

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