358 Works

Sea-level projections for New Zealand's Scott Base rebuild

Richard H. Levy, Tim R. Naish, Nick R. Golledge, R Bell, P Stocchi, R Kopp, Sigrun Hreinsdottir, Andrew F. Boyes & J Arnold
A primary goal in the NZ SeaRise Programme – Te Tai Pari o Aotearoa is to produce local sea-level projections for New Zealand / Aotearoa to include local effects like vertical land movement. These projections are not restricted to the coastline of Aotearoa, as New Zealand has interests and responsibilities that lie outside our Extended Economic Zone. Antarctica is one region where New Zealand has strategic interests and environmental responsibilities. The impact of sea-level change...

Machine learning for decision support systems

Rob Buxton, Yannik Behr, Craig A. Miller & Annemarie Christophersen
In early 2020 the GNS Executive Management Team made available $500k of SSIF funding to support Data Science research. The newly formed Artificial Intelligence and Advanced Analytics team proposed several research projects that could utilise the funding and provide useful research outputs within the challenging timeframe available (to June 2020). Two of the supported projects had a strong volcanic hazard theme. The project discussed herein covers two main streams of research. Firstly, the investigation of...

Revised stratigraphic framework for the Pliocene to Holocene sedimentary deposits of the Auckland area

David J. A. Barrell, Kyle J. Bland, Matthew P. Hill & Julie M. Lee
Existing terminology for the relatively young and weak sedimentary geological formations of the Auckland area has limited utility for geological and geotechnical classification, because there is considerable variety in their material content. A revised stratigraphic naming framework has been developed for the Pliocene to Holocene sedimentary strata of the Auckland area, in consultation with Auckland geological and geotechnical practitioners. Sedimentary strata previously identified as Tauranga Group and/or its constituent Puketoka Formation in the Auckland area...

Modelling interdependencies of critical infrastructure network recovery using a decision support system

SR Uma, Yassir Syed, Sapthala Karalliyadda & R Prasanna
Critical infrastructure networks provide functional services to support the wellbeing of the community. In the event of a hazard, failures of one or more infrastructure networks and their components disrupt their functionality, affecting the supply of services. Damage to one network could potentially result in cascading functional failures based on their order of dependencies and interdependencies. Understanding the extent of disruption and quantifying their consequences is important to assist various stakeholders in their decision-making processes...

Connecting real-time hazard and impact data with users: proof of concept of a visualisation tool

Sally H. Potter, Sara Harrison, Kristie-Lee Thomas, Graham S. Leonard, Janet Skilton, M Apiti, Natalie J Balfour, Sue Harvey, Maureen A Coomer & Geoff N. Kilgour
When a hazardous event occurs, such as an earthquake, eruption, storm, tsunami or landslide, there are often delays in understanding the severity and extent of the hazard and impacts. There are gaps in loss databases that inform forecast and warning systems, monitoring networks have gaps and there is limited capacity for officials to quickly visit every site to assess the damage. This results in delays in response, a reliance on media for situational awareness and...

Information sources for GNS Science Poster Series 7 and 8: bathymetric and tectonic maps of Te Riu-a-Māui / Zealandia

Nick Mortimer
This science report accompanies the Mortimer et al. (2020a, 2020b) bathymetric and tectonic map posters of Te Riu-a-Māui / Zealandia. The purpose of this report is to document the various information sources used to compile the posters and outline the assumptions and reasoning behind choices and modifications of portrayed information. The report is not intended to be a descriptive or interpretive account of the geology and tectonics of Zealandia, or of its geotectonic history. If...

Preliminary common-form ground-motion models for shallow crustal earthquakes and their use in ergodic and partially-ergodic seismic hazard calculations in New Zealand

Chris Van Houtte
A key aspect of seismic hazard assessment is the prediction of the ground motion distribution from seismic sources. The prediction can either be made using an empirical ground-motion model, sometimes referred to as a ground-motion prediction equation, or using semi-physical, semi-empirical ground-motion simulations. The choice of technique, and model within each technique, often has a very large effect on the results, which renders the final hazard results uncertain. This type of uncertainty is often referred...

Tsunami travel time estimates for local sources for Porirua and Kapiti Coast suburbs

Xiaoming Wang, Biljana Lukovic, Christof Mueller, David W. Heron & William L. Power
In local fault source tsunami events, the effectiveness of self-evacuation planning is constrained by two pieces of timing information: the tsunami travel (arrival) time estimate and evacuation travel time estimate. This study estimates travel times of tsunami from local active fault sources to coastal suburbs of Porirua and Kāpiti Coast in the Greater Wellington region of New Zealand. The estimates include the arrivals of 1.0 m tsunami elevation above local ambient sea condition, i.e. the...

U-Th-Ra analyses of samples from the 2016 drill core of the Rangitoto lava field: Devora report

Lucy McGee
A recent drill core into the western flank of Rangitoto volcano in the Auckland Volcanic Field (AVF) found possible evidence that its eruptive history may have begun as long ago as 6000 years BP (Linnell et al. 2016). This evidence was in the form of a layer of fossiliferous sedimentary material that returned radiocarbon ages of 650–7400 years between basaltic lavas. The potential longevity of Rangitoto volcano was addressed with the analysis of U-Th-Ra isotopes...

Continued Professional Development (CPD) Strategy for natural hazards

Wendy S. A. Saunders
In July 2020, Dr Wendy Saunders of GNS Science became the ‘EQC Champion of Land Use Planning for Natural Hazards’. With support from the planning team at GNS Science, the position is for three years. There are three key objectives associated with the role: 1. to build land use planning capacity and capability in natural hazards and climate change; 2. to contribute to national and local initiatives that lead to improved land use planning outcomes...

An updated set of tsunami action maps for Kermadec earthquakes

Aditya R. Gusman, David R. Burbidge & William L. Power
In previous work Gusman et al. (2019) created a new tsunami scenario database containing Tsunami Threat Forecast maps of New Zealand for tsunamis caused by earthquakes around the Pacific Ocean, including the Kermadec subduction zone. The purpose of the database is to rapidly provide a Threat Forecast Map when an earthquake similar to one in the database occurs. The Threat Forecast Maps provide a threat estimate expected in each coastal region around New Zealand from...

Landslides caused by the March 2019 West Coast storm, South Island, New Zealand

Matthew Wride & Saskia J. de Vilder
During the week of 25–31 March 2019, the West Coast of the South Island experienced an intense rainstorm. The rain was widespread, extending from Haast to Hokitika, with the highest intensity of rainfall recorded in the range front south of Hokitika. The March 2019 storm resulted in a record amount of rainfall recorded over a 48-hour period in the Cropp River Catchment. The result of this extreme rainfall event was widespread flooding and landslides, including...

Bathymetric map of Lake Rotomahana

Cornel E. J. de Ronde, Fabio Caratori Tontini, S. L. Walker & Jenny Black
This map poster shows a detailed map of the lake floor of Lake Rotomahana at a scale of 1:11 000. As well as the main bathymetric map, there are three smaller maps and two seismic cross sections. These smaller maps show magnetic and heatflow data, and show several hundred locations where plumes of gas bubbles have been recorded. This map shows lake floor features and other subtleties that have not been seen for more than...

Geological model of South Dunedin

Phil J. Glassey, David J. Barrell, Belinda Smith-Lyttle, S Hornblow & B Mackay
The South Dunedin suburb of Dunedin city lies on a coastal plain, which was a salt marsh prior to urban development, that began in 1840. Now one of the more densely populated areas in New Zealand, South Dunedin is within 2 m of current sea level, has groundwater close to the surface and is vulnerable to flood hazards that are expected to be worsened by sea-level rise. In addition, soft sediments that underlie much of...

Geologic, earthquake and tsunami modelling of the active Cape Egmont Fault Zone

Hannu Seebeck, Glenn P Thrasher, G. P. D. Viskovic, Clarrie Macklin, Suzanne Bull, Xiaoming Wang, Caroline Holden, Yoshihiro Kaneko, V Mouslopoulou & John G. Begg
The Cape Egmont Fault Zone in the southern Taranaki Basin, New Zealand, is a complex series of synthetic and antithetic dip-slip normal faults accommodating present-day extension. The fault zone comprises new and reactivated faults developed over multiple phases of plate boundary deformation during the last 100 Myrs. The fault zone is well imaged on petroleum industry seismic reflection data, with a number of faults exposed and studied onshore. The Cape Egmont Fault Zone is seismically...

Thermal properties of Matahina Ignimbrite

L. McGovern, Fiona Sanders, Michael D. Rosenberg, Anya M. Seward, Isabelle Chambefort & Rob H. Funnell
Thermal properties of a 140 m section of the Matahina Formation ignimbrite were determined from a rock core drilled near Rotorua, New Zealand. For this project, thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and specific heat capacity were determined using the divided-bar method in order to investigate interrelationships with density/porosity and lithological variation throughout the unit. Thermal conductivity ranged from 0.25 to 1.44 W/(m.K) for dry samples and 1.06 to 2.18 W/(m.K) for water-saturated samples. Specific heat capacity...

West Coast groundwater dynamics and hydrochemical evolution as inferred from regional water age and chemistry tracer data

Magali Moreau, Uwe Morgenstern, Rob W. van der Raaij & J. Horrox
This study aims to holistically describe the flow sources, pathways and lag times of water through the rivers and aquifers of the West Coast catchments. This information is required to ground truth and improve groundwater flow models and management tools. Such improvements will help to prevent degradation of rivers and aquifers from land-use activities that impact on cultural, recreational and economical values, as well as on drinking water supplies and quality. This study is mainly...

ACE Programme – Critical Incident Leadership course learner guide

Hana Craig & Scott Kelly
The seventh batch (2021 intake) of the AHA Centre Executive (ACE) Programme are undertaking the programme online. The Critical Incident Leadership course is one component of the ACE Programme and is facilitated by GNS Science. To deliver the course online, GNS Science will utilise iQualify and Zoom platforms. This document forms a Learner Guide for participants, and sets out the following: Course requirements; Activities needing to be completed before commencing the course; Logging into iQualify,...

Average coseimic slip profiles

Kiran K.S. Thingbaijam, Russ J. Van Dissen, B. E. Shaw & Matt C. Gerstenberger
Despite the potential impact on earthquake rupture forecasts for seismic hazard analysis, derivation of applicable average coseismic slip profiles has received relatively limited attention. Here, we present improved insight using a set of rupture models of past earthquakes. We find that along-strike slip profiles are well approximated by a power-of-sine function with index = 1/2 (i.e. sinesqrt function), corroborating Biasi and Weldon (2006). However, elongated ruptures (with aspect ratios >5.0) have a flatter profile. Additionally,...

Discussion paper of Building Act and Resource Management Act tensions and issues

J Carter, R Evans, B Belgrave, F Beck & K Cook
This report provides a review of how the Building Act 2004 (the Building Act) and the Resource Management Act 1991 (the RMA) work in practise with regard to the management of or response to natural hazards and natural hazard risk. The report reflects an initial high-level scan of potential issues and opportunities and potential overlaps and tensions between the two Acts. (The authors)

New Zealand Community Fault Model - version 1.0

Hannu Seebeck, Russ J. Van Dissen, Nicola J. Litchfield, P. M. Barnes, Andy Nicol, Rob M. Langridge, David J. A. Barrell, Pilar Villamor, Susan M. Ellis & Mark S. Rattenbury
Fault models developed by the scientific community aim to provide a consistent and broadly agreed-upon representation of faults in a region for such societally important endeavours as seismic hazard assessment (e.g. national seismic hazard models), strong ground-motion predictions and physics-based fault systems modelling. The New Zealand Community Fault Model (NZ CFM) is a two- and three-dimensional representation of fault zones associated with the New Zealand plate boundary for which Quaternary activity has been established (or...

New Zealand Paleoseismic Site Database: design and overview of version 1.0

Nicola J. Litchfield, Jade Humphrey, Regine Morgenstern, Robert M. Langridge, Genevieve L. Coffey & Russ J. Van Dissen
The New Zealand Paleoseismic Site Database (new term, new database) contains paleoseismic data (grouped into Slip Rate, Earthquake [EQ] Timings and Recurrence Interval [RI], and Single-Event Displacement [SED]) collected at specific sites along active faults throughout New Zealand. The database was developed as part of the New Zealand National Seismic Hazard Model 2022 Revision Project (NSHM 2022). The primary purpose is to compile paleoseismic data at specific sites to be used either as inputs into,...

Regional fault orientation and length analysis, Aotearoa New Zealand

Mark S. Rattenbury
Over the past few decades, several faults have been identified in Aotearoa New Zealand only because they ruptured in recent damaging earthquakes. The recognition of these previously unidentified earthquake-generating faults has heightened awareness of seismic hazard that extends beyond Aotearoa New Zealand’s large, but still fragmentary, record of known active faults. This has reinforced how important estimating distributed ‘off-fault’ seismicity is for characterising earthquake hazard. To help quantify aspects of distributed seismicity for the National...

Landslide hazard and risk assessment for the Fox and Franz Josef Glacier valleys

Chris I. Massey, Saskia J. de Vilder, T. Taig, Biljana Lukovic, Garth C. Archibald & Regine Morgenstern
This report has been prepared by the Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences Limited (GNS Science) for the Department of Conservation (DOC), in response to a request from them for a quantitative assessment of the risk posed by landslides within the Fox and Franz Josef Glacier valleys. The quantitative landslide risk assessment is based on risk-estimation methods that follow appropriate parts of the Australian Geomechanics Society framework for landslide risk management. It provides landslide risk...

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