336 Works

Better spatial characterisation of evapotranspiration and rainfall recharge estimates to groundwater using remote sensing multispectral techniques at lysimeter sites

Frederika Mourot, Rogier S. Westerhoff, Nick Macdonald & Stuart G. Cameron
Regional councils have the responsibility to set up allocation limits to protect and ensure the sustainable use of their freshwater resources. An important part of allocation limit setting consists in assessing the amount of recharge to groundwater. Improvement of recharge models and assessments of sustainable allocation limits will become more important in the context of climate change, where more variable rainfall inputs are expected in the future. This study, commissioned by Envirolink for Hawke’s Bay...

Auckland Volcanic Field eruption crisis management decision-making workshop

A. J. Wild, Jan M Lindsay, S. B. Costello, Natalia I. Deligne, A. Doherty, Graham S. Leonard, K. Maxwell, J. Rollin & Tom M. Wilson
Auckland is the largest city in New Zealand with 1.6 million residents. This major metropolitan region is situated upon the Auckland Volcanic Field (AVF), posing a considerable risk to the city’s population and essential services. On 17 December 2018, a workshop jointly run by DEVORA (Determining Volcanic Risk in Auckland) and Auckland Emergency Management (AEM) was held to discuss evacuation decision-support options in the event of a volcanic crisis in Auckland. The workshop brought together...

Ground motions in New Zealand from Kermadec earthquakes

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We use numerical simulations of earthquake ground shaking to test the ability of natural warning to trigger self-evacuation in communities in the north-western North Island that are at risk of tsunami generated along the Kermadec Subduction Zone in the southwest Pacific. In this region, self-evacuation defined as “Long or Strong, Get Gone” is the dominant mechanism for risk mitigation. However, we conclude that many possible earthquakes will not be felt strongly in these regions, including...

The refinement of isotopic data layers for three catchment-scale studies in the Southland, Horizons, and Gisborne regions: activities between May 2017 and May 2018

Rob W. van der Raaij, Magali Moreau & Rogier S. Westerhoff
The National Institute for Water and Atmospheric Research established, and is leading, the 'National Hydrological Project (NHP), with GNS Science (GNS) and Landcare Research as sub-contracted partners. This report details the GNS activities in the NHP task "design and conceptualisation of catchment-wide isotopic data layers, including data-acquisition of isotope field samples, in selected case studies" and aims to refine isotopic data layers, for stable isotopes and tritium, to make them applicable for studies that estimate...

New Zealand ShakeOut 2018 Observation Evaluation Report: a summary of high-level findings

Emily Lambie, Julia S Becker & Maureen A Coomer
The New Zealand ShakeOut 2018, organised by the Ministry of Civil Defence and Emergency Management (MCDEM), was the latest national earthquake drill to be held in New Zealand. Over 870,000 participants registered to participate in the drill via the ShakeOut website. The drill was held on 18 October 2018 at 9:30 a.m., and participants were encouraged to practice ‘Drop, Cover and Hold’ in response to a potential earthquake. In addition to the drill, other activities...

Uppermost Teurian to lowermost Bortonian foraminiferal biostratigraphy of the Mead Stream section, Clarence River valley, Kaikoura district, New Zealand

C. Percy Strong
This report reviews and revises foraminiferal samples collected over some 3 decades from c. 245 m of the medial Amuri Limestone at Mead Stream, including all the Lower Marl and Upper Limestone, together with adjacent strata of the Lower Limestone and Upper Marl. These strata range from in age from Late Paleocene to Middle Eocene, however, most of the samples are Early Eocene in age. One-hundred and two samples were previously studied, 35 are new...

Obtaining water level data at Whakarewarewa Geothermal Valley using unmanned aerial vehicle photogrammetry

Nick Macdonald, Robert R. Reeves, Duncan J. Graham & Thomas Brakenrig
Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) offer a novel means of studying dangerous and inaccessible areas. They have the advantage of having the ability to survey large study areas relatively quickly, while utilising a wide array of sensors. Monitoring the water level of geothermal pools is important for providing insight into how fluids may be flowing and interacting between geothermal surface features and shallow groundwater aquifers. Making manual measurements of water levels in geothermal areas can be...

Application of the risk-based planning approach in the Bay of Plenty Regional Council Regional Policy Statement

Sarah N Gunnell
The Bay of Plenty region is subject to a wide range of natural hazards, including earthquake, tsunami, volcanic eruption, flood, slope instability, sea level rise, coastal erosion and liquefaction (Bay of Plenty CDEM, 2018). During the development of the now operative Bay of Plenty Regional Policy Statement (BOPRPS) it was recognised that a stronger stance was needed to better manage the risk posed by natural hazards in the region, in particular the potential impacts of...

Assessing the uncertainty of water quality and quantity predictions made using complex regional models: Ruamāhanga North Case Study

Brioch Hemmings, Matthew J Kowling & Catherine R Moore
The Smart models for Aquifer Management research programme aims to explore the utility and implications of using simple numerical models for decision support applications. This report details a case study example of the application of a complex numerical groundwater model as a tool of assessing the effectiveness of land- and water-use scenarios. The case study focuses on the upper Ruamāhanga catchment, Greater Wellington, NZ (Ruamāhanga North). The effect of land- and water-use scenarios are assessed...

Selection of representative ground motion input for Wellington

Elizabeth R Abbott & Chris Van Houtte
he goal of the Stability of Land In Dynamic Environments (SLIDE) project is to better understand the behaviour of slopes in order to develop strategies for more robust remediation approaches and improve resilience of New Zealand’s buildings and infrastructure. Numerical simulations of slope stability are used to better understand how anthropogenically modified slopes may perform in future strong earthquakes. The aim of this report is to provide a range of realistic earthquake ground motions, selected...

SLIDE (Wellington): risk remediation approaches for anthropogenically modified slopes in the Wellington region

F. Monteith
The goal of the Stability of Land In Dynamic Environments (SLIDE) research project is to improve the resilience of New Zealand's buildings and infrastructure through better knowledge of the behaviour of slopes in response to strong earthquake shaking and significant rain events and the development of strategies for more robust remediation approaches. The current focus of the SLIDE project is on Wellington, where the project is combining research funds from various sources to establish a...

SLIDE (Wellington): geomorphological characterisation of the Wellington urban area

Dougal Townsend, Chris I Massey, Biljana Lukovic, Brenda J Rosser, William Ries, Regine Morgenstern, Salman Ashraf, Katie E Jones & Jon M Carey
The goal of the Stability of Land In Dynamic Environments (SLIDE) research project is to improve the resilience of New Zealand’s buildings and infrastructure through better knowledge of the behaviour of slopes and the development of strategies for more robust remediation approaches. One aspect of the SLIDE research is the development of a geomorphology map for terrain within the Wellington urban area in order to help identify those slopes that have been anthropogenically modified and...

Te Ropū Pūtaiao Pāpori Vision Mātauranga Strategy and Action Plan 2018-2022

LC Carter
In 2007 the Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment released their Vision Mātauranga policy for “unlocking the Innovation Potential of Māori knowledge, Resources and People” (MBIE, 2007) and to provide strategic direction for Vote RS&T funding for research. Elements of MBIE’s Vision Mātauranga policy are increasingly being adapted by organisations who recognise the unique opportunities for Māori communities to make distinct contributions to research, science and technology. Additionally, Vision Mātauranga is increasingly a core assessment...

Kaikōura Earthquake Short-Term Project

NJ Litchfield, KJ Clark, WF Ries, P Villamor, RJ Van Dissen, RM Langridge, DJA Barrell, KE Jones, DW Heron, B Lukovic & J Pettinga
Ground deformation in the 14th November 2016 magnitude 7.8 Kaikōura Earthquake was extra-ordinarily complex, including multiple (>20) ground-surface fault ruptures and extensive (>110 km) coastal uplift. This report documents work undertaken after the initial GeoNet response phase to document the ground-surface fault ruptures and coastal uplift, with a large focus on high resolution topographic (Light Detecting and Ranging) data. This work provides essential information for better understand what happened in the earthquake, and to inform...

Rapid remote sensing data collection

KE Jones, JM Lee, GC Archbald, S Lawson & C Asher
The acquisition of remotely sensed, high resolution, topographic data has been transformed considerably over the past decade by new technology and geospatial processing platforms. Originally developed within the computer vision industry, Structure from Motion (SfM) is a photogrammetric method for creating 3D models of a feature or topography from overlapping two-dimensional photographs taken from many locations and orientations. SfM algorithms search for unique matches of points between two images, determining internal camera geometry and camera...

Businesses and the Canterbury earthquakes

T Hatton, E Seville, C Brown & Stevenson
his report describes the results of 14 case studies carried out with organisations in Christchurch and Auckland to further inform and refine the Business Behaviours Module of MERIT. The Business Behaviours Module has been developed based on extensive statistical analysis of the responses of 541 Canterbury organisations to a 2013 survey on their experiences following the 2010/11 Canterbury earthquakes. We needed to test the applicability of the Business Behaviours Module to other types of disruption...

Economics of Resilient Infrastructure Auckland Volcanic Field Scenario

NI Deligne, DM Blake, AJ Davies, ES Grace, J Hayes, SH Potter, C Stewart, G Wilson & TM Wilson
The Economics of Resilient Infrastructure (ERI) research programme is a four year project funded by the New Zealand Government. The final output of the programme is a software tool, MERIT (Modelling the Economics of Resilient Infrastructure Tool) which will quantify the economic consequences of infrastructure failure and explore various post disaster recovery strategies. This report documents one of two multi-sector outage scenarios developed for the MERIT tool, a volcanic eruption in the Auckland Volcanic Field...

Auckland electricity outage scenario

JH Kim, NJ Smith & GW McDonald
In the ERI programme we developed a Dynamic Interoperability Input-Output Model (DIIM) to assess the economic impacts of a hypothetical electricity outage scenario in the Auckland region. We apply a hypothetical electricity transmission infrastructure loss scenario, co-developed with Transpower (electricity provider) and Vector (electricity retailer), to test the impacts of a substantial electricity outage in Auckland. The probability of the scenario is highly unlikely, but plausible for the Auckland region. The scenario is fully outlined...

Natural Hazards 2016

C Pinal

Effects of afforestation on groundwater recharge: perspectives for New Zealand in relation to the One Billion Trees Programme

Frederika Mourot, Rogier S. Westerhoff & Stewart G. Cameron
Global attention on the development of afforestation programmes and the need to evaluate the trade-off between tree carbon sequestration potential and tree water use are increasing. In New Zealand, a large afforestation programme (the One Billion Tree Programme) was launched in 2018. This programme aims to assist the nation’s transition to a low-emission economy while also providing employment, improving erosion control and water quality; and supporting Māori objectives for their land and forests. Most of...

Awatarariki catchment debris flow early warning system framework

Chris I. Massey, Sally H. Potter & Graham S. Leonard
In 2005, a large debris flow occurred in the Awatarariki catchment, above the township of Matatā, in the North Island of New Zealand. The debris flow damaged homes and infrastructure in Matatā. Risk assessments have been carried out by Tonkin & Taylor, and the calculated annual individual fatality risk to dwelling occupants in the area affected by debris flow hazards has been assessed as being intolerable by Whakatāne District Council (WDC) and most of the...

Te Kura Whenua ki Pukearuhe wānanga completion report

Malcolm J. Arnot, Kyle J. Bland, Hannu C. Seebeck, Richard L. Kellett, Greg H. Browne, Tania Gerrard, Hemi Waitaiki-Curry & Tiaan Bonica-Kururangi
In March 2019, GNS Science and Ngāti Tama, in collaboration with Ngāti Mutunga, led a Te Kura Whenua wānanga at Pukearuhe Marae, Urenui, Taranaki. Te Kura Whenua is a community engagement initiative aimed at creating dialogue and sharing knowledge between scientists and Māori communities on geoscience-related topics, such as climate change, geological hazards and geological resources, and Māori perspectives on the whenua. The two-and-a-half day wānanga involved field-based and hands-on activity-based learning. This report outlines...

New Zealand Building Attribute Catalogue and Standard development

Sheng-Lin Lin & Jose Moratalla
This report documents the development of the New Zealand building attribute catalogue and standard. The purpose of the New Zealand building attribute catalogue and standard is to describe buildings in a uniform manner as a key step towards assessing their risk to multiple hazards. Criteria for development of the building attribute catalogue and standard were New-Zealand-focused and multi-hazard-focused. Only natural hazards, such as earthquake, flood, wind, volcanic eruption, tsunami and landslide, were considered. A literature...

Māori interests in petroleum

Hemi Waitaiki-Curry & Richard L. Kellett
As part of a wider study of the public perception of the petroleum resource sector in New Zealand, the relationship between Māori and the oil and gas industry has been reviewed in the context of cultural, economic and societal factors. Existing literature on the subject can be divided into several themes, including submissions to and reports from the Waitangi Tribunal, books and articles on the early history of the petroleum industry in New Zealand, guides...

Tectonic map of Te Riu-a-Māui / Zealandia

Nick Mortimer, Belinda Smith Lyttle & Jenny Black
This map poster shows the main tectonic features of the region within and near Te Riu-a-Māui / Zealandia. Earth's eighth continent is c. 5 Mkm2 in area and 95% submerged. Like all continents, it has a foundation of old, hard, crystalline rocks and a cargo of younger sedimentary basins and volcanoes. Te Riu-a-Māui / Zealandia is surrounded by oceanic crust of various ages and cut by the active Pacific-Australia plate boundary. Crust type (continental, oceanic,...

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