336 Works

Bathymetric map of Te Riu-a-Māui / Zealandia

Nick Mortimer, Belinda Smith Lyttle & Jenny Black
This map poster shows the height and shape of the solid Earth within and near Earth's eighth continent, Te Riu-a-Māui / Zealandia, as if the oceans had been drained of water. The names of onland features are shown in plain text and undersea features in italics. Territorial limits of the Exclusive Economic Zones of various countries and New Zealand's Extended Continental Shelf are shown as lines, along with the extent of the Te Riu-a-Māui /...

February 2020 Southland flooding evacuation and response: Results of a survey

Lucy H. Kaiser, Finn R. Scheele, Sally H. Potter, Maureen A. Coomer & Joshua Stewart
In February 2020, the communities of Gore, Mataura and Wyndham in Southland, Aotearoa New Zealand, were impacted by a significant flood event, leading to a mandatory evacuation of the community and numerous flooded properties. A survey of the communities of Gore, Mataura and Wyndham was conducted in July 2020 to gather residents’ perspectives and experiences during the flooding event and ensuing evacuation. Topics included risk perception, weather and flood warnings, evacuation, impacts and demographics. Of...

Modelling fire following earthquake for multiple scenarios affecting Wellington City

Finn R. Scheele, Biljana Lukovic, Jose Moratalla, Alexandre Dunant & Nick A. Horspool
Fires are a common secondary hazard following earthquakes and, on rare occasions, can develop into major events with severe consequences. Wellington City has many characteristics that make it susceptible to fire following earthquake (FFE), including the potential for conflagrations and significant losses (e.g. property, infrastructure and casualties). Through the ‘It’s Our Fault’ (IOF) research programme, we are revisiting FFE modelling for Wellington City, building on the previous models developed by Cousins et al. (2002). Previous...

Clyde Dam seismic hazard reassessment, phase 3: seismic hazard analysis

Mark W. Stirling, Nicola J. Litchfield, David A. Rhoades, Graeme H. McVerry & Russ J. Van Dissen

Earthquake-Induced Landscape Dynamics (EILD) end-user and stakeholder tools engagement plan

Philip J. Glassey & Wendy S. A. Saunders
The 14 November 2016 MW 7.8 Kaikōura Earthquake generated thousands of landslides, hundreds of significant landslide dams and damaged hillslopes that are now susceptible to failure during rainstorms and aftershocks. This debris, when further mobilised, will create new hazards, including further landslides, dams, rapid aggradation and formation of alluvial fans and floodplains, and increased river channel instability as the debris cascades from hillslope to sea. These hazards can persist for decades, requiring active management by...

The 2021 update to New Zealand's National Tsunami Hazard Model

William L. Power, David R. Burbidge & Aditya R. Gusman
The National Tsunami Hazard Model (NTHM) provides estimates of tsunami heights at the shoreline for return periods of up to 2500 years. It is used as a basis for selecting scenarios used for tsunami inundation modelling, which underpins tsunami evacuation zone design, land use planning and risk assessments. The original NTHM was completed in 2013, though it built upon a 2005 study focused only on the main coastal cities. Since 2013, there have been improvements...

Comparison of ammonia-nitrogen measurements between unpreserved and acid-sulfuric preserved groundwater samples

M. Estefania Santamaria Cerrutti & Magali Moreau
In 2016, the National Groundwater Monitoring Programme (NGMP) sampling kit was modified by adding a 100 mL sulfuric-acidified sampling bottle for the analysis of ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N). This change was prompted by a review applying the most recent version of Standard Methods (Rice et al. 2012), which is the basis for the sampling protocol adopted by the programme since 2006. Acidification was recommended to inhibit bacterial activity and prevent salt formation with organic bases. This report...

Cascading hazard and risk framework for Hikurangi Flagship project

David R. Burbidge, Alex Dunant, Jose Moratalla, Vinod K. Sadashiva, S. R. Uma & Annemarie Christophersen

Planning for natural hazards in the Wellington region under the National Policy Statement on Urban Development 2020

Sarah N. Gunnell & Jiri G. Beban
Councils in Aotearoa New Zealand’s largest cities are currently grappling with the implementation of the National Policy Statement on Urban Development (NPS-UD), with effect needing to be given to the prescribed development intensification provisions in their land-use planning documents by August 2022. In addition to these relatively short timeframes, the evidentiary bar is set high for excluding areas subject to natural hazard risk where a higher intensity of development is directed. The concern is that...

Understanding the unique environmental attributes and biological materials of Kāwhia - Aotea South

Diane Bradshaw, Karyne M. Rogers & O. McLeod
The Tainui and Aotea waka arrived almost 1000 years ago from Hawaiki, sailing into two harbours at Kaawhia and Aotea, on the west coast of the North Island, New Zealand. These earliest settlers left a legacy of physical evidence from their activities in this region, as well as oral stories, waiata and traditions. During 2020, a project funded by MacDiarmid Institute was undertaken to investigate the material science and geochemical properties of geological taonga held...

Coastal inundation associated with sea-level rise in the Pacific: a review

Shannon A. Bengtson, Elizabeth D Keller & Annemarie Christophersen
This literature review was developed for the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade (MFAT) to provide background for the project Probabilistic Assessment of Coastal Inundation in the Pacific. Projected sea-level rise greatly differs depending on future emissions scenarios and ice sheet modelling uncertainties. When considering the impacts of sea-level rise, it is compounding factors, such as high tides, waves generated from tropical cyclones and storm surges, that pose the most significant threat to low-lying communities....

Explainable Artificial Intelligence for unsupervised models

Rob Buxton
Explainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI) is a branch of Computer Science that is gaining popularity, as it addresses the fundamental concept of ‘trust in AI’ – in other words, when users should trust outputs from Artificial Intelligence (AI) models (Ribeiro et al. 2016). GNS Science has been studying XAI as part of a collaboration with Callaghan Innovation since 2020. Callaghan Innovation’s focus has been on XAI applied to supervised AI models. For the 2020/21 financial year,...

Effects of saltwater intrusion on groundwater microbial community diversity

Karen M. Houghton, Magali Moreau & Conny Tschritter
Microbial communities in groundwater carry out biochemical processes that are essential ecosystem functions, such as nutrient cycling and removal of contaminants. These processes play an important role in the quality of groundwater used for drinking and irrigation as well as interconnected surface water. The effects of climate change on these communities, e.g. from increasing salt levels from rising sea levels, or from global temperature increases, are unknown. This study used a combination of culture-dependent (growth...

'Geologic Champagne' voyage report R/V Tangaroa TAN2006: 26 June - 17 July 2020, Wellington-Wellington

Ingo A. Pecher, Jess I. T. Hillman, Bryan W. Davy, A. R. Gorman, Suzi Woelz, D. Andrew, L. Boettger, A. Dalbeth, P. Gerring, J. Hoffman, A. Macnaughtan, P. Oluwunmi, W. Quinn, A. Shorrock & M. Tankersley
Tangaroa voyage TAN2006 took place from 26 June – 17 July 2020, with an unscheduled port call in Wellington from 29 June – 1 July due to equipment problems. The voyage objectives focused on geophysical studies of seafloor pockmarks on the Chatham Rise, as well as possible pockmarks and contourite deposits in the Bounty Trough. We acquired ~800 km of 2D seismic data, ~500 km of which were in a dense grid designed for high-resolution...

Mineral extraction from geothermal brines in New Zealand

M Climo, EK Mroczek & BS Carey
New Zealand’s geothermal brines offer potential for the extraction of various metals and minerals, given both the fluid compositions and volumes discharged. The realisation of commercial value from the extracted constituents could create new industries, support economic development, and potentially provide additional revenue streams for geothermal energy generation and related industries. This 2013-2015 New Zealand Government-funded research programme “From Waste to Wealth” (Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment research contract C05X1307), identified potential processing technologies...

HMNZS Wellington Kermadec '15 cruise report

CEJ De Ronde, F Caratori Tontini, C Timm & SL Walker
A preliminary survey of targets in the northern Kermadec arc, centred around the large (~10 km in diameter) Macauley caldera volcano, was completed during the ten day HMNZS Wellington Kermadec ‘15 cruise. This included five days of geophysical surveying and three deployments of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution’s (WHOI) Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) Sentry. The cruise was part of a multi-disciplinary expedition using the New Zealand Navy’s HMNZS Wellington — an Offshore Patrol Vessel —...

Community understanding of tsunami risk in Coastal Washington: 2016 focus group study

C Orchiston, DM Johnston, JS Becker, K Boersen, S Jensen, E Lambie & C Jellum
This report presents findings from focus groups conducted in April 2016. Data collection took place in both Pacific and Grays Harbor Counties in western Washington (Figure 2.1). Focus group participants were also asked to complete a short questionnaire investigating tsunami awareness and understanding of appropriate preparedness and response actions. The survey was designed to gather additional information from participants with specific reference to tsunami and earthquake hazard preparedness and evacuation behaviours.

May 2016 Mud Rift hydrothermal eruption

BJ Scott, JT McLeod, KM Luketina, J Barber, MC Harvey & RF Keam

Chatham Islands cabled observatory science opportunities: workshop 23–24 February 2021 summary report

Laura M. Wallace, John Townend, Craig Stevens, Richard L. Kellett, Joao De Souza, Giacamo Giorli, Jess I. T. Hillman, Caroline Holden, Bruce Howe, Daniel Leduc, Nate Lindsay, Joshu J. Mountjoy, William L. Power & Emily Warren-Smith
Our ability to address many key questions regarding physical oceanography, plate boundary processes and marine biodiversity, and to undertake geohazards monitoring in the New Zealand region, is greatly hampered by the lack of access to real-time, continuous offshore monitoring of a range of key observables beneath our oceans, which comprises >95% of our Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). Developing the ability to monitor geological, biological and oceanographic processes within our EEZ is required to better understand...

Indigenous co-governance of volcanoes

Smrithi Talwar
Westernised nations typically conceptualise nature and landscapes as being subject to property-based ownership. Whether owned by private individual(s) or by the state, the owner has the right to modify its features, to permit its modification by others, and the right to take action against those who modify or impact the resource through their actions. By contrast, traditional or indigenous relationships with nature and landscapes are rooted in a very different paradigm of human-nature relations. This...

Predicted column heights for carbon dioxide storage in New Zealand based on membrane seal capacity

BD Field
The underground storage of carbon dioxide requires assessments of many factors but particularly of security of storage. One of the main contributors to security of storage is the membrane capacity of seal units. This report uses mercury injection capillary pressure threshold entry pressures to assess the membrane seal capacities and hence column heights of various New Zealand mudstones. Column heights are estimated at in situ conditions for the samples analysed, except that where samples were...

Water and nutrient flow pathways in the Papanui catchment: Source, mean residence time, and connection between ground and surface water

U Morgenstern & D Gordon
Hawke’s Bay Regional Council aims to reduce algal growths in surface waters through improved management of nutrients in the Papanui Catchment. In this study, age, gas, isotope, and chemistry tracers were analysed in groundwater and surface water to understand the source, pathways, and lag times of the water and the nutrients that travel with the water from land to the waterways. All investigated groundwater wells contained anoxic water, and four of the six wells contained...

Canterbury Earthquakes 2010/11 Port Hills slope stability

ZR Bruce & B Lyndsell
P-wave and S-wave velocity measurements were carried out in the GNS Science Rock and Soil Mechanics Laboratory at Avalon on cored drillhole samples of rocks recovered during the ground investigations performed in the northern margin of the Port Hills following the 2010/11 Canterbury Earthquake Sequence. The velocities were measured by ultrasonic pulse transmission through the core lengths using an Olympus pulse generator and SBEL 200 kilohertz P- and S-wave piezoelectric crystals mounted in transmission and...

Proximal to distal hydrothermal alteration patterns around epithermal low-intermediate sulfidation vein deposits and their implications for precious metal exploration

SF Simmons
Low-intermediate sulfidation epithermal vein deposits form at shallow levels in hydrothermal systems and contain important resources of gold and silver. Individual veins dip steeply, extend for strike lengths of 500 to 5000 m, whereas vein districts cover areas ranging from <10 to 100 km2 Within epithermal veins, ore bodies are often localised, extending several hundred metres along strike, owing to the boiling conditions that favour gold and silver precipitation within upflow zones. The patterns of...

Perspectives on future hazards research

JS Becker
The Natural Hazards Research Platform (NHRP) and Resilience to Nature's Challenges (Resilience Challenge, RNC) research initiatives will merge within the next two years. The research community, in consultation with stakeholders, has been tasked by the Ministry of Business Innovation and Employment (MBIE) to agree on a future pathway for natural hazards, risk and societal impacts research. The merger of NHRP and RNC will become a redefined Phase 2 Resilience Challenge, with associated funding arrangements. An...

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