60 Works

Quality control and quality assurance of Hawkes Bay dryland rainfall recharge measurements: 2011 - 2014

PA White & AP Lovett
The Hawke’s Bay Regional Council (HBRC) has installed a network of five groundwater recharge measurement sites in the region. These sites have been installed as part of an investigation programme in collaboration with GNS Science and the National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research’s Waterscape Research Programme. Four sites measure rainfall recharge (i.e., recharge through dry land, which is non-irrigated soil) and one measures recharge from rainfall and irrigation. This report describes quality assurance and...

Earthquake awareness and preparedness in Auckland - a 2016 survey

DM Johnston, JS Becker, C Orchiston, T Egbelakin, MA Thompson & MA Coomer
The purpose of the survey was to assess the earthquake awareness and preparedness in Auckland, as part of a wider survey including Oamaru and Dunedin, and Hamilton. The survey invited residents to participate in a study seeking to develop a clearer understanding of earthquake awareness and preparedness. A total of 1500 surveys were delivered to Auckland residents on 8th November 2016. Preparedness for earthquakes and other hazards is critical in the recovery of affected communities...

Earthquake awareness and preparedness in Hamilton - a 2016 survey

DM Johnston, JS Becker, C Orchiston, T Egbelakin, MA Thompson, B Pace & MA Coomer
The purpose of the survey was to assess the earthquake awareness and preparedness in Hamilton, as part of a wider survey including Auckland, and Oamaru and Dunedin. The survey invited residents to participate in a study seeking to develop a clearer understanding of earthquake awareness and preparedness. A total of 500 surveys were delivered to Hamilton residents, with 65 returned. Preparedness for earthquakes and other hazards is critical in the recovery of affected communities in...

Urban Geochemical Atlas of Dunedin City, New Zealand

RE Turnbull, AP Martin, MS Rattenbury, KM Rogers, DT Strong & R Morgenstern
A geochemical atlas for Dunedin City, New Zealand is presented that highlights the variation in trace, minor and major element concentrations in surficial soil materials across the urban landscape. Sampling was undertaken at 83 sites across a 1 km grid, with a further 30 sites sampled within the grid from almost all primary, intermediate and secondary schools within the survey area. At each site, three samples were collected using a hand auger: an upper O-depth...

Voyage report for SS2012V06 Eastern Coral Sea Tectonics (ECOSAT), R/V Southern Surveyor, October-November 2012

M Seton, S Williams, N Mortimer, S Meffre & S Micklethwaite

Measuring community resilience

AH Kwok
As New Zealand seeks to develop tools for assessing resilience as part of its national resilience strategy, this report illustrates how a direct translation of resilience indictors and indicator variables from the Benchmarking Resilience Indicators for Communities (BRIC) – a U.S.-based resilience assessment tool – for New Zealand presents both challenges and opportunities. Key challenges include the absence of publicly available datasets at different geographic scales and the applicability of indicator concepts that reflect New...

Developing GNS's capability in multispectral satellite imagery as a tool for geothermal and mineral exploration

PMJ Durance, S Ashraf, AJ Rae & G Kereszturi
Multispectral satellite data and their interpretation have potential to provide an efficient, environmentally friendly, socially acceptable and inexpensive method to map, study, and explore New Zealand’s mineral and geothermal resources at a reconnaissance scale. In particular, the method can potentially help reduce the area of interest for follow-up exploration by ground-based methods. Recent technological advances, namely the launch of the WorldView3 (WV-3) satellite, have made it possible to make a serious attempt at applying remote...

Te Kura Whenua ki Wairarapa & Porangahau wānanga completion report

M Terezow, RH Levy, CJ Hollis, UA Cochran & KJ Bland
During March and October 2016, GNS Science and Ngāti Kahungunu Iwi Incorporated led two Te Kura Whenua wānanga at Kohunui Marae, Pirinoa, Wairarapa and Rongomaraeroa Marae, Porangahau, respectively. Te Kura Whenua is a community engagement initiative aimed at creating dialogue and sharing knowledge between scientists and Māori communities on geoscience-related topics, such as climate change, geological hazards, geological resources, and Māori perspectives on the whenua. The two three-day wānanga involved field-based and hands-on activity-based learning....

May 2016 Mud Rift hydrothermal eruption

BJ Scott, JT McLeod, KM Luketina, J Barber, MC Harvey & RF Keam

Evaluating the validity of 2D seismic slope stability assessments

FN Della-Pasqua, RA Benites & CI Massey
Seismic slope stability assessments based on two-dimensional (2D) analyses limits the interpretation of in-plane motion as the effects on ground motions due to internal wave reflections by lateral heterogeneities are neglected. In this study, we assess the extent to which a 2D model of a simple topographic crest (spur) is valid, using equivalent 3D simulations. We show that seismic analyses based on only 2D analysis of irregular topography can misrepresent the response of the slope...

Canterbury Earthquakes 2010/11 Port Hills slope stability

ZR Bruce & B Lyndsell
P-wave and S-wave velocity measurements were carried out in the GNS Science Rock and Soil Mechanics Laboratory at Avalon on cored drillhole samples of rocks recovered during the ground investigations performed in the northern margin of the Port Hills following the 2010/11 Canterbury Earthquake Sequence. The velocities were measured by ultrasonic pulse transmission through the core lengths using an Olympus pulse generator and SBEL 200 kilohertz P- and S-wave piezoelectric crystals mounted in transmission and...

Proximal to distal hydrothermal alteration patterns around epithermal low-intermediate sulfidation vein deposits and their implications for precious metal exploration

SF Simmons
Low-intermediate sulfidation epithermal vein deposits form at shallow levels in hydrothermal systems and contain important resources of gold and silver. Individual veins dip steeply, extend for strike lengths of 500 to 5000 m, whereas vein districts cover areas ranging from <10 to 100 km2 Within epithermal veins, ore bodies are often localised, extending several hundred metres along strike, owing to the boiling conditions that favour gold and silver precipitation within upflow zones. The patterns of...

Water and nutrient flow pathways in the Papanui catchment: Source, mean residence time, and connection between ground and surface water

U Morgenstern & D Gordon
Hawke’s Bay Regional Council aims to reduce algal growths in surface waters through improved management of nutrients in the Papanui Catchment. In this study, age, gas, isotope, and chemistry tracers were analysed in groundwater and surface water to understand the source, pathways, and lag times of the water and the nutrients that travel with the water from land to the waterways. All investigated groundwater wells contained anoxic water, and four of the six wells contained...

Mineral extraction from geothermal brines in New Zealand

M Climo, EK Mroczek & BS Carey
New Zealand’s geothermal brines offer potential for the extraction of various metals and minerals, given both the fluid compositions and volumes discharged. The realisation of commercial value from the extracted constituents could create new industries, support economic development, and potentially provide additional revenue streams for geothermal energy generation and related industries. This 2013-2015 New Zealand Government-funded research programme “From Waste to Wealth” (Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment research contract C05X1307), identified potential processing technologies...

HMNZS Wellington Kermadec '15 cruise report

CEJ De Ronde, F Caratori Tontini, C Timm & SL Walker
A preliminary survey of targets in the northern Kermadec arc, centred around the large (~10 km in diameter) Macauley caldera volcano, was completed during the ten day HMNZS Wellington Kermadec ‘15 cruise. This included five days of geophysical surveying and three deployments of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution’s (WHOI) Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) Sentry. The cruise was part of a multi-disciplinary expedition using the New Zealand Navy’s HMNZS Wellington — an Offshore Patrol Vessel —...

Community understanding of tsunami risk in Coastal Washington: 2016 focus group study

C Orchiston, DM Johnston, JS Becker, K Boersen, S Jensen, E Lambie & C Jellum
This report presents findings from focus groups conducted in April 2016. Data collection took place in both Pacific and Grays Harbor Counties in western Washington (Figure 2.1). Focus group participants were also asked to complete a short questionnaire investigating tsunami awareness and understanding of appropriate preparedness and response actions. The survey was designed to gather additional information from participants with specific reference to tsunami and earthquake hazard preparedness and evacuation behaviours.

Single infrastructure failures: Capturing outage information for MERIT Modelling the Economics of Resilient Infrastructure Tool

R Buxton, KC Wright, MC Daly, L Timar & DH Mieler
The Economics of Resilient Infrastructure (ERI) research programme is a four year project funded by the New Zealand Government. The aims of the project are to study and quantify the impacts of natural hazards on infrastructure and to model the economic consequences of these impacts. To this end a new software tool called MERIT (Modelling the Economics of Resilient Infrastructure) is being developed as part of the program. This report outlines the progress undertaken to...

Voyage report for IN2016T01 Eastern Coral Sea Tectonics followup (ECOSAT II), R/V Investigator, June-July 2016

S Williams, N Mortimer, S Etienne, J Whittaker, J Herold, L O'Toole, I Sauermilch, J Tobin, S Yeung, M Seton & J Collot
ECOSAT II (Eastern Coral Sea Tectonics II) was a 15 day Lautoka to Hobart transit voyage conducted on the R/V Investigator from 30th June to 14th July 2016. Some time was allocated to rock dredging during the transit as well as to water sampling and analysis by other specialists. A total of seven rock dredges were made on three parts of Fairway Ridge, west of New Caledonia. Underway gravity and multibeam bathymetry data were also...

Feasibility study for the use of radon-222 to quantify groundwater discharge to rivers in New Zealand

H Martindale, RW Van Der Raaij & U Morgenstern
Radon-222 is a decay isotope of uranium now known to be a useful tracer for identifying locations of groundwater discharge within New Zealand rivers and streams. It is prevalent in many groundwater systems. Internationally, radon has been used to not only qualitatively assess where groundwater is being discharged into rivers, but also to quantify the groundwater discharge. However, GNS Science does not yet have the capability to quantify the volume of groundwater discharge using radon,...

Development and multi-operator calibration of a standardised palynofacies analysis technique

CD Clowes, JG Prebble, EM Crouch & L Roncaglia
This report presents the results of a project to develop and test a standard approach and criteria for palynofacies analysis. Palynofacies analysis is a palynological method of sedimentary depositional facies recognition. It is the study of all particulate organic matter recovered in a palynological assemblage, and can be used to reconstruct depositional histories of sedimentary rocks. The primary applications of palynofacies analysis are to provide information about depositional setting, thermal maturity, and petroleum source rock...

Forecasting volcanic eruptions on White Island in the next month with Bayesian network modelling

A Christophersen
This report presents preliminary findings of an expert elicitation workshop to estimate probabilities for a Bayesian Network (BN) model that forecasts volcanic eruptions on White Island. As well as describing the procedures this report includes all original answers as well as the preliminary analysis of the BN. It has the purpose to provide feedback to the participating experts and serve as a discussion document for future model development. The aim of the project is twofold:...

Review of groundwater monitoring in the Poverty Bay aquifer system

M Moreau, C Tschritter, P Murphy & PA White
GNS Science and Gisborne District Council (GDC) jointly undertook a review of the long-term groundwater monitoring network for the Poverty Bay aquifer system. The system consists of three shallow aquifer units: Shallow Fluvial Deposit (SFD), Te Hapara Sand (THS), and Waipaoa Gravel (WPG); and two deeper units: Makauri Gravel (MKG) and Matokitoki Gravel (MTK). This review was prompted by GDC’s 2015 proposed regional plan, in response to the 2014 National Policy Statement for Freshwater Management,...

Groundwater dynamics, source, and hydrochemical processes as inferred from Horizon’s Regional Age Tracer Data

U Morgenstern, RW Van Der Raaij, H Martindale, MW Toews, MK Stewart, A Matthews, V Trompetter & DB Townsend
To quantify the impact and lag time of changes in land-use and climate on the quantity and quality of the available groundwater resources within the framework of the National Policy Statement for Freshwater Management 2014, Horizons is increasingly focusing research on age tracers that provide new innovative approaches for understanding groundwater dynamics and hydrochemical evolution. The age tracers provide measurable information that is essential for conceptualising the regional groundwater - surface water system and inform...

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