47 Works

Selection of representative ground motion input for Wellington

Elizabeth R Abbott & Chris Van Houtte
he goal of the Stability of Land In Dynamic Environments (SLIDE) project is to better understand the behaviour of slopes in order to develop strategies for more robust remediation approaches and improve resilience of New Zealand’s buildings and infrastructure. Numerical simulations of slope stability are used to better understand how anthropogenically modified slopes may perform in future strong earthquakes. The aim of this report is to provide a range of realistic earthquake ground motions, selected...

SLIDE (Wellington): risk remediation approaches for anthropogenically modified slopes in the Wellington region

F. Monteith
The goal of the Stability of Land In Dynamic Environments (SLIDE) research project is to improve the resilience of New Zealand's buildings and infrastructure through better knowledge of the behaviour of slopes in response to strong earthquake shaking and significant rain events and the development of strategies for more robust remediation approaches. The current focus of the SLIDE project is on Wellington, where the project is combining research funds from various sources to establish a...

SLIDE (Wellington): geomorphological characterisation of the Wellington urban area

Dougal Townsend, Chris I Massey, Biljana Lukovic, Brenda J Rosser, William Ries, Regine Morgenstern, Salman Ashraf, Katie E Jones & Jon M Carey
The goal of the Stability of Land In Dynamic Environments (SLIDE) research project is to improve the resilience of New Zealand’s buildings and infrastructure through better knowledge of the behaviour of slopes and the development of strategies for more robust remediation approaches. One aspect of the SLIDE research is the development of a geomorphology map for terrain within the Wellington urban area in order to help identify those slopes that have been anthropogenically modified and...

Effects of afforestation on groundwater recharge: perspectives for New Zealand in relation to the One Billion Trees Programme

Frederika Mourot, Rogier S. Westerhoff & Stewart G. Cameron
Global attention on the development of afforestation programmes and the need to evaluate the trade-off between tree carbon sequestration potential and tree water use are increasing. In New Zealand, a large afforestation programme (the One Billion Tree Programme) was launched in 2018. This programme aims to assist the nation’s transition to a low-emission economy while also providing employment, improving erosion control and water quality; and supporting Māori objectives for their land and forests. Most of...

Awatarariki catchment debris flow early warning system framework

Chris I. Massey, Sally H. Potter & Graham S. Leonard
In 2005, a large debris flow occurred in the Awatarariki catchment, above the township of Matatā, in the North Island of New Zealand. The debris flow damaged homes and infrastructure in Matatā. Risk assessments have been carried out by Tonkin & Taylor, and the calculated annual individual fatality risk to dwelling occupants in the area affected by debris flow hazards has been assessed as being intolerable by Whakatāne District Council (WDC) and most of the...

New Zealand Building Attribute Catalogue and Standard development

Sheng-Lin Lin & Jose Moratalla
This report documents the development of the New Zealand building attribute catalogue and standard. The purpose of the New Zealand building attribute catalogue and standard is to describe buildings in a uniform manner as a key step towards assessing their risk to multiple hazards. Criteria for development of the building attribute catalogue and standard were New-Zealand-focused and multi-hazard-focused. Only natural hazards, such as earthquake, flood, wind, volcanic eruption, tsunami and landslide, were considered. A literature...

Māori interests in petroleum

Hemi Waitaiki-Curry & Richard L. Kellett
As part of a wider study of the public perception of the petroleum resource sector in New Zealand, the relationship between Māori and the oil and gas industry has been reviewed in the context of cultural, economic and societal factors. Existing literature on the subject can be divided into several themes, including submissions to and reports from the Waitangi Tribunal, books and articles on the early history of the petroleum industry in New Zealand, guides...

Tectonic map of Te Riu-a-Māui / Zealandia

Nick Mortimer, Belinda Smith Lyttle & Jenny Black
This map poster shows the main tectonic features of the region within and near Te Riu-a-Māui / Zealandia. Earth's eighth continent is c. 5 Mkm2 in area and 95% submerged. Like all continents, it has a foundation of old, hard, crystalline rocks and a cargo of younger sedimentary basins and volcanoes. Te Riu-a-Māui / Zealandia is surrounded by oceanic crust of various ages and cut by the active Pacific-Australia plate boundary. Crust type (continental, oceanic,...

Bathymetric map of Te Riu-a-Māui / Zealandia

Nick Mortimer, Belinda Smith Lyttle & Jenny Black
This map poster shows the height and shape of the solid Earth within and near Earth's eighth continent, Te Riu-a-Māui / Zealandia, as if the oceans had been drained of water. The names of onland features are shown in plain text and undersea features in italics. Territorial limits of the Exclusive Economic Zones of various countries and New Zealand's Extended Continental Shelf are shown as lines, along with the extent of the Te Riu-a-Māui /...

Preparing for a sustained volcanic degassing episode in Auckland

Carol Stewart, E Smid, D Charlton, Graham S. Leonard, I Tomašek, T. M. Wilson & N. Talbot
The Auckland metropolitan area is built upon the intraplate Auckland Volcanic Field (AVF), which poses a considerable threat to the highly exposed people and infrastructure of Auckland. An important component of evaluating and quantifying volcanic risks to Auckland has been the development of AVF eruption scenarios. These are useful for purposes such as assessing impacts on buildings and critical infrastructure and providing decision support for emergency managers and civil authorities. However, while several scenario-based studies...

Measured section through latest Cretaceous to middle Eocene strata in Mead Stream, north-eastern South Island, New Zealand

James S. Crampton, Chris J. Hollis, Brad D. Field & C. Percy Strong
Mead Stream in the Clarence Valley, north-eastern South Island, New Zealand, exposes a remarkable stratigraphic section through uppermost Cretaceous to Eocene formations. This section has been studied in detail since 1979 and has yielded internationally important data on the Cretaceous/Paleogene Boundary, the Paleocene–Eocene thermal maximum and several other global and regional paleoclimatic or paleoenvironmental events. The section has been sampled intensively for microfossil analyses (radiolarians, foraminifera, nannofossils, dinoflagellates), trace fossil analysis, paleomagnetic analysis and geochemical...

Tsunami modelling for Porirua City: the methodology to inform land use planning response

Aditya R. Gusman, William L. Power & Christof Mueller
Tsunami pose a risk to communities on the New Zealand coast and land-use planning is one of the key methods for mitigating that risk. This report includes a probabilistic assessment of the tsunami inundation hazard to the city of Porirua. The method used is to identify earthquake caused tsunami scenarios contributing to the tsunami hazard at the coast at chosen return periods (100, 500, 1000, 2500 years) and model these scenarios through to inundation. The...

2019 Groundwater residence time assessment of Hawkes Bay water supply wells in the context of the Drinking-water Standards for New Zealand

Uwe Morgenstern & Rob van der Raaij
This report provides new context regarding groundwater dating in the Hawke’s Bay region and the results of age-tracer analyses and modelled mean residence times (MRT), together with piston flow times (minimum groundwater age) and figures of age distributions, of groundwater from water supply wells sampled in April 2019 from 21 Hastings District Council (HDC) wells and 7 Napier City Council (NCC) wells. These results have been interpreted with respect to Section of the Drinking-water...

Lithostratigraphic framework summary and geological context of the southern Auckland area

Kyle J. Bland, Julie M Lee, Matt P Hill & Katie E. Jones
The geological context and lithostratigraphic framework of southern Auckland are essential components of urban geological maps and for the general understanding of the area’s surface and subsurface earth materials. The composition and stratigraphic relationships of important geological units are described for an 829 km2 area located around the centres of Pukekohe, Papakura, Waiuku, between the southern shoreline of the Manukau Harbour, the Waikato River, Āwhitu Peninsula, and Hunua Ranges. Knowledge of the regional geology will...

Suitability of quantitative volcanic hazard and risk assessment methods and tools for crisis management in Auckland, New Zealand

A. J. Wild, Jan M. Lindsay, M. S. Bebbington, M.A. Clive & T. M. Wilson
In the lead up to the next Auckland Volcanic Field (AVF) eruption, it is likely decision-makers will need to determine when and where to call an evacuation. Over the past two decades there has been a growing body of research aimed at exploring the use of quantitative hazard and risk models to support decision-makers. There is a wide range of existing quantitative approaches for assessing risk and its components: hazard, exposure and vulnerability. A detailed...

Spend to save: investigating the property acquisition process for risk reduction in Aotearoa New Zealand

Wendy S. A. Saunders & G. Smith
Limiting development in known high-hazard areas is among one of the most effective tools available to local governments to reduce future hazard risk and increase resilience, and yet, the widespread practice of acquiring hazard-prone properties and converting the land to open space in New Zealand remains highly varied. This report outlines Aotearoa New Zealand examples of hazard-prone housing acquisition (or buyout) processes, based on four legislative mechanisms: special legislation (Canterbury Earthquake Recovery Act 2011), the...

An empirical model for attributing sources of particulate matter

Perry K. Davy & W. B. Trompetter
Airborne particulate matter (PM) pollution is well-known to have significant adverse effects on human health. It also has a range of environmental effects, including local reductions in visibility, effects on the radiative balance and deposition of contaminated material onto land and waterways. Because of these effects, PM concentrations are routinely monitored in numerous countries and managed according to local legislation. In New Zealand, the National Environmental Standard (NES) for PM sets a 24-hour average limit...

Geological mapping and structural analysis from combined field mapping, GPS surveying, photogrammetry and 3D modelling at Crawford Knob, Franz Josef, New Zealand

Matthew P. Hill, Susan M. Ellis, Timothy A. Little & Kirby R. D. MacLeod
Survey work using real-time kinematic (RTK) GPS in tandem with a remotely piloted aircraft system (RPAS) has resulted in detailed surface and structural models of a glaciated outcrop at Crawford Knob near Franz Josef Glacier in the Southern Alps of New Zealand. Crawford Knob is located ~8 km from Franz Josef township on the north-eastern side of the Franz Josef Glacier and exposes structures that were interpreted to have been deformed at ~20 km depth...

Sampling of features in the Ohaaki-Broadlands, Whangairorohea and Reporoa geothermal systems

Thomas Brakenrig, Duncan J. Graham, Nick Macdonald & Fiona Sanders
Seven features were sampled in the Ohaaki Broadlands, Whangairorohea and Reporoa geothermal systems. This was done to help improve understanding of discharging features and fluids within each system. Five samples were collected via grab sample. Two samples were collected using an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). This report summarises the data collected and the results of the water quality analyses – no data interpretation is made. (auth)

The canary in the community: do surf life saving clubs have a role in community adaptation to climate change?

Wendy S. A. Saunders, Scott D. Kelly, Finn R. Scheele, Maureen A. Coomer & Kristie-Lee Thomas
Surf life saving clubs (SLSCs) around New Zealand are at the frontline of the coastal interface. Sea-level rise around New Zealand is in the order of 1.8 mm per year over the last 100 years (up to 2015) (Ministry for the Environment 2017), and, with significant historical investment in the coastal environment, SLSCs have inadvertently become ‘the canary in the community’ for sea-level rise and the associated effects of climate change on the coastal interface....

Material provided to the Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-Hazards Department by GNS Science in response to Ambrym volcano activity in December 2018- early 2019

Natalia I. Deligne, Craig A. Miller, Salman Ashraf, Yannik Behr, Nico Fournier, Arthur D. Jolly, Ian J. Hamling, Graham S. Leonard, Bradley J. Scott, Steve Sherburn, M. Aru, S. Cevuard & E. Garaebiti
In December 2018, Ambrym Volcano in Vanuatu entered a period of heightened activity, with a marked change in summit lava lake activity and felt seismicity, a summit rift eruption, the appearance of cracks along the eastern rift zone, and other obvious deformation (e.g. uplifted beaches). This heightened activity continued for several weeks and, at the time, there was considerable uncertainty and concern as to how the situation would unfold. This report compiles documents provided to...

Earthquake simulator hazard: Natural Hazards Research Platform

K. Richards-Dinger, Bill Fry, Matt C. Gerstenberger & Charles A. Williams
Under the National Hazards Research Platform (NHRP) contract 2019-GNS-04-NHRP, we work collaboratively with Keith Richards-Dinger (University of California, Riverside), to produce a large scale model of multiple earthquake cycles in New Zealand based on simple physical relations describing the way stresses are transferred to faults and result in earthquakes. As a proof of concept, we use basic physical descriptions (rate-state equations) of the rate-dependent strength of New Zealand faults to create 100,000 virtual years generating...

Tsunami threat level database update: regional sources and tsunami warning text

Aditya R. Gusman, Biljana Lukovic & Baishan Peng
GNS science has recently developed a tsunami threat level database (version 3.00) for tsunami early warning purposes in New Zealand with 723 earthquake scenarios around the Pacific Ocean. Here we extend the database to include a further 275 regional earthquake scenarios in New Hebrides, Tonga, Kermadec, Hikurangi, Puysegur and Hjort source areas. Scenarios now exist down to lower magnitudes for all of these source areas. The method and assumptions used to create threat level maps...

Kinematics of the New Zealand plate boundary: field report on GNSS surveys of the Top of the South Island Network (TOPS2020)

Rory J. A. Hart & Neville G. Palmer
Between January and February 2020, a combined team from GNS Science, Land Information New Zealand (LINZ), Otago University (OU) and Leeds University (LU) re-measured a network of 118 geodetic survey markers using Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) methods throughout the Top of the South Island region of New Zealand for monitoring the regional deformation due to tectonic processes. Previous comprehensive GNSS surveys of this region have been carried out by Department of Survey and Land...

User requirements of RiskScape 2.0 software and opportunities for disaster risk research in Aotearoa-New Zealand

Kristie-Lee Thomas, Richard J. Woods, R Garlick, Finn R Scheele, Maureen A Coomer, R Paulik & Lara B Clarke
RiskScape is open-access risk modelling software jointly developed by NIWA and GNS Science, funded through their respective Strategic Science Investments Funds (SSIF) research programmes since 2004. The first versions of the RiskScape software have served as a proof of concept in Aotearoa-New Zealand and the Pacific to demonstrate how risk science can be used through a software tool to effectively model natural hazard losses and quantitively evaluate the benefits of implementing planning and mitigation options....

Registration Year

  • 2020

Resource Types

  • Text


  • GNS Science
  • Victoria University of Wellington
  • University of Otago
  • //ror.org/03vaqfv64:GNS Science
  • The University of Texas at Austin
  • University of Auckland
  • University of Southern California
  • University of Canterbury
  • North Carolina State University
  • Massey University