38 Works

Hikurangi Ocean Bottom Investigation of Tremor and Slow Slip (HOBITSS VI, TAN1907)

Laura M. Wallace &
HOBITSS VI was a 12-day (29 October – 9 November 2019) Wellington to Wellington R/V Tangaroa voyage (TAN1907). Objectives of TAN1907 were to undertake seafloor geodetic and seismic instrument deployments, recoveries and surveys offshore of the Gisborne, Hawke’s Bay and Wairarapa coasts. The seafloor geodetic aims involve using Bottom Pressure Recorders (BPRs) to determine the cm-level vertical movement (upward or downward) of the seafloor during slow-slip events (SSEs), as well as to deploy a Wave...

Household relocation and recovery following the 2017 Edgecumbe flooding: results of a survey

Finn R. Scheele, Lucy H. Kaiser & Ryan Paulik
In April 2017, the Rangitāiki River breached a stopbank, resulting in widespread flooding within the town of Edgecumbe, Bay of Plenty. The evacuation of the town and damage to homes led to major disruption for residents. The relocation of households, both temporary and permanent, had long-lasting effects on the community. A questionnaire to gather residents’ experiences during the event and subsequent recovery was hand-delivered to residential addresses in Edgecumbe in November 2020. Topics included housing...

February 2020 Southland flooding evacuation and response: Results of a survey

Lucy H. Kaiser, Finn R. Scheele, Sally H. Potter, Maureen A. Coomer & Joshua Stewart
In February 2020, the communities of Gore, Mataura and Wyndham in Southland, Aotearoa New Zealand, were impacted by a significant flood event, leading to a mandatory evacuation of the community and numerous flooded properties. A survey of the communities of Gore, Mataura and Wyndham was conducted in July 2020 to gather residents’ perspectives and experiences during the flooding event and ensuing evacuation. Topics included risk perception, weather and flood warnings, evacuation, impacts and demographics. Of...

Modelling fire following earthquake for multiple scenarios affecting Wellington City

Finn R. Scheele, Biljana Lukovic, Jose Moratalla, Alexandre Dunant & Nick A. Horspool
Fires are a common secondary hazard following earthquakes and, on rare occasions, can develop into major events with severe consequences. Wellington City has many characteristics that make it susceptible to fire following earthquake (FFE), including the potential for conflagrations and significant losses (e.g. property, infrastructure and casualties). Through the ‘It’s Our Fault’ (IOF) research programme, we are revisiting FFE modelling for Wellington City, building on the previous models developed by Cousins et al. (2002). Previous...

Clyde Dam seismic hazard reassessment, phase 3: seismic hazard analysis

Mark W. Stirling, Nicola J. Litchfield, David A. Rhoades, Graeme H. McVerry & Russ J. Van Dissen

Earthquake-Induced Landscape Dynamics (EILD) end-user and stakeholder tools engagement plan

Philip J. Glassey & Wendy S. A. Saunders
The 14 November 2016 MW 7.8 Kaikōura Earthquake generated thousands of landslides, hundreds of significant landslide dams and damaged hillslopes that are now susceptible to failure during rainstorms and aftershocks. This debris, when further mobilised, will create new hazards, including further landslides, dams, rapid aggradation and formation of alluvial fans and floodplains, and increased river channel instability as the debris cascades from hillslope to sea. These hazards can persist for decades, requiring active management by...

Cascading hazard and risk framework for Hikurangi Flagship project

David R. Burbidge, Alex Dunant, Jose Moratalla, Vinod K. Sadashiva, S. R. Uma & Annemarie Christophersen

Chatham Islands cabled observatory science opportunities: workshop 23–24 February 2021 summary report

Laura M. Wallace, John Townend, Craig Stevens, Richard L. Kellett, Joao De Souza, Giacamo Giorli, Jess I. T. Hillman, Caroline Holden, Bruce Howe, Daniel Leduc, Nate Lindsay, Joshu J. Mountjoy, William L. Power & Emily Warren-Smith
Our ability to address many key questions regarding physical oceanography, plate boundary processes and marine biodiversity, and to undertake geohazards monitoring in the New Zealand region, is greatly hampered by the lack of access to real-time, continuous offshore monitoring of a range of key observables beneath our oceans, which comprises >95% of our Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). Developing the ability to monitor geological, biological and oceanographic processes within our EEZ is required to better understand...

Indigenous co-governance of volcanoes

Smrithi Talwar
Westernised nations typically conceptualise nature and landscapes as being subject to property-based ownership. Whether owned by private individual(s) or by the state, the owner has the right to modify its features, to permit its modification by others, and the right to take action against those who modify or impact the resource through their actions. By contrast, traditional or indigenous relationships with nature and landscapes are rooted in a very different paradigm of human-nature relations. This...

Aggregate opportunity modelling for New Zealand

Matthew P. Hill
Efficient utilisation of New Zealand’s aggregate resources is critical to supporting infrastructure development as well as reducing operational and transport costs related to extraction of the raw materials. A mineral potential modelling approach has been used to identify places with opportunity for future hard rock and gravel extraction across New Zealand. Geographic information system (GIS) software has been used to build a spatial model of the critical components of aggregate opportunity using digital geological, land-use,...

It's Our Fault Hikurangi Subduction Zone hazard: south Palliser Bay Holocene marine terraces

Nicola J. LItchfield, Andrew Howell, Kate J. Clark & Genevieve Coffey
The Greater Wellington region sits above a currently locked part of the Hikurangi Subduction Zone (interface) and, to date, no unequivocal evidence for past subduction earthquakes has been found in the region. In this study, we investigate Holocene marine terraces along the south Palliser Bay coast to test if they were uplifted in earthquakes on the Palliser–Kaiwhata Fault in the Pacific Plate or the Hikurangi subduction interface. Up to four low-lying marine terraces were mapped...

Geochemical characterisation of Māori artefacts from Kawhia Museum, New Zealand using pXRF

Karyne M. Rogers, John Thomson, Hamish J. Campbell, Boss Mahara, Oliver McLeod & Diane Bradshaw
Non-destructive portable X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (pXRF) was used to geochemically characterise 160 indigenous Māori stone artefacts residing in the Kāwhia Museum. Geochemical comparisons were made to determine relationships between artefacts and assign lithology and origin based on their elemental composition. The most abundant artefacts were toki (adzes, 80 samples), made of either argillite (48 samples) or basalt (32 samples) rock, but also included obsidian flakes, sinker stones, patu and patu ōnewa. Key rock types included...

Evacuation time estimates for local source tsunami for Porirua and Kapiti suburbs

David W. Heron, Biljana Lukovic, Xiaoming Wang & William L. Power
Porirua and the Kapiti Coast are in an active earthquake region. Both areas sit above the Hikurangi Subduction Interface and are cut by or close to a number of major local faults (e.g. the Fisherman Fault, Manaota Fault, Mascarin Fault, Ohariu Fault, Okupe Fault, Onepoto Fault, offshore Rangitikei Fault and Wairau Fault). Modelling of the tsunami generated by these local major faults was completed as a separate piece of research and for the scenarios undertaken,...

CSEM, TOPAS and Echo Sounder survey of the Southern Hikurangi Margin 1st – 13th November: RV Tangaroa TAN2012 voyage report

Peter Kannberg, Karsten F. Kroeger, Ingo A. Pecher, Chris Armerding, Jake Perez, Suzi Woelz, Chris Ray, Roz King, Laurenz Boettger, Francesco Turco & Tayla Hill
The TAN2012 voyage took place between the 1st and 13th of November 2020 aboard RV Tangaroa. Controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) data, multibeam bathymetry, single beam echo sounder, water column and TOPAS sub-bottom profile data were collected at the southern end of the Hikurangi subduction margin. CSEM profiles were collected along existing regional 2D reflection seismic lines to characterise and quantify gas and gas hydrate accumulations in the sub-seafloor. Multibeam bathymetry and water column data, as...

New Zealand ShakeOut 2018: tabulated results of a school survey

E. S. Lambie, Julia S. Becker & Maureen A. Coomer
The New Zealand-wide ShakeOut earthquake drills are part of the National CDEM (Civil Defence Emergency Management) Exercise Programme organised and promoted by the Ministry of Civil Defence & Emergency Management (MCDEM). Individuals and groups are encouraged to sign up to ShakeOut online at (www.shakeout.govt.nz) and, on a selected date, practice appropriate actions in response to a potential earthquake (i.e., ‘Drop, Cover and Hold’). Participants are also encouraged to undertake other emergency response planning and exercising,...

Te Ahi Tipua ki Tahorakuri A1 Section 30: science review of the Ohaaki Geothermal Field to inform a hapū economic plan in degraded geothermal environments

Paul A. White, Anya M. Seward, T. Kora & Diane Bradshaw
Ohaaki Geothermal Field is one of the geothermal fields within the Taupō Volcanic Zone that has been used by Ngāti Tahu for centuries providing social, cultural, environmental and economic value to iwi. Ohaki is one of the principal settlements of the Ngāti Tahu iwi who have lived in close association with the Waikato River in permanent and temporary kāinga from Huka Falls west to Orākei Korakō and Pohaturoa, with the river having an important part...

Can GeoNet’s Felt RAPID reports be reliably used to produce rapid earthquake intensity maps?

Tatiana Goded, Jose Moratalla, Silvia Caness, Rand Huso, Maureen A. Coomer, Jonathan Hanson & Sally H. Potter
During the response to a moderate-to-large earthquake in New Zealand, there is a great need for information on the geographical distribution of the damage. Emergency responders and decision makers use this information to prioritise mitigation actions, such as evacuation procedures and building interventions. At present, GeoNet produces only maps with the strong-motion data (in Peak Ground Velocity, Peak Ground Acceleration or Modified Mercalli intensity [MMI]) from the last hour. In addition, for each earthquake, currently...

Kaitiakitanga of geothermal ecosytems through joint scientific and Mātauranga-a-iwi approaches: Waiotapu case study

Robert R. Reeves, M. Phillips, E. Forrest, H. Te Ngaru, Mark P. Simpson, Samantha A. Alcaraz & Nick Macdonald
Geothermal areas are unique environments that can include geothermal surface features, and exhibit unique flora and fauna that has adapted to these environmental conditions. Iwi have a strong historical and contemporary cultural association with geothermal resources, including cooking, bathing, trading and for spiritual purposes. This report integrates geological, geophysical, geothermal surface feature and vegetation data with Ngati Tahu-Ngati Whaoa matauranga into a holistic knowledge-base combining indigenous knowledge and Western science regarding the Waiotapu Geothermal Field...

A geomorphological characterisation of the coastal environment of the West Coast Region, South Island

David J. A. Barrell, Dougal B. Townsend & Tom M FitzGerald
A methodology has been developed for a geomorphological assessment of coastal environments in the West Coast Region. The aim is to provide technical input for the West Coast Regional Council in their work to define the nature and extent of the West Coast coastal environment. In this desktop assessment, 1:250,000-scale geological and topographic map digital datasets were used to derive geomorphological maps as a foundation for interpretations. The resources developed were a nominally 7-km wide...

Development of population models for risk assessment in New Zealand

Finn R. Scheele, Adrian Benson & Nick A. Horspool
Population models are key components for natural hazard risk modelling of human impacts, such as evacuation, casualty estimation or household relocation. Existing models designed for this purpose in New Zealand lack the required details for accurate risk modelling. We propose the development of three population models. The first is a model of households containing demographics of interest. The second is a network model describing the movement of individuals from source (usual residence) to other locations...

Agent-based tsunami evacuation modelling of the Wellington CBD

William L. Power, Biljana Lukovic & Xiaoming Wang
The Wellington CBD is at risk from tsunami, which in some cases could arrive as soon as 30 minutes after an earthquake. The primary means for saving lives is to educate the public to self-evacuate from tsunami-prone areas if they feel a long or strong earthquake: “Long or strong, get gone!”. In densely populated areas like the Wellington CBD, Civil Defence and Emergency Management (CDEM) encourage people to evacuate on foot if they can. Mass...

Earthquake-induced landslide forecast tool for New Zealand: version 2.0

Chris I. Massey, Biljana Lukovic, Rand Husu, Rob Buxton & Sally H. Potter
This report outlines a prototype earthquake-induced landslide (EIL) forecast tool (Version 2.0) for New Zealand. This tool will produce outputs for the GeoNet landslide duty officers and Geohazard Analysts (within the National Geohazard Monitoring Centre) after a significant earthquake in near-real time – approximately 5–7 minutes after being triggered and based on the speed of the computer used. A ‘tool’ in the context of this report is defined as software written to carry out a...

Interpreting borehole data with machine learning: A pilot rtudy

Robert Buxton, Donal Krouse, Cecile Massiot & Mark J. F. Lawrence
Classifying and interpreting multi-sensor geophysical borehole (wireline) data is normally undertaken manually by a geologist and is extremely resource intensive, both in terms of skilled people and time. Machine learning techniques have been applied to wireline data overseas; however, those techniques are not necessarily directly applicable to New Zealand sedimentary rocks and little investigation has been done in geothermal settings. This pilot study aims to investigate machine learning algorithms and approaches to allow the automated...

New Zealand Fault-Rupture Depth Model v1.0: a provisional estimate of the maximum depth of seismic rupture on New Zealand’s active faults

Susan M. Ellis, Stephen Bannister, Russ J. Van Dissen, Donna Eberhart-Phillips, Caroline Holden, Carolyn Boulton, Martin E. Reyners, Robert H. Funnell, Nick Mortimer & Phaedra Upton
This report presents a new and provisional estimate of the maximum depth of rupture on New Zealand’s active faults (“New Zealand Fault-Rupture Depth Model v1.0”) based on a combination of two independent models. The first model uses regional seismicity distribution from a relocated earthquake catalogue to calculate the 90% seismicity cut-off depth (D90) representing the seismogenic depth limit H. This is multiplied by an overshoot factor representing dynamic propagation of rupture into the conditional stability...

Registration Year

  • 2021

Resource Types

  • Text


  • GNS Science
  • Victoria University of Wellington
  • National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research
  • University of Otago
  • University of Hawaii at Manoa
  • Callaghan Innovation
  • University of Auckland
  • Massey University