48 Works

The 2021 update to New Zealand's National Tsunami Hazard Model

William L. Power, David R. Burbidge & Aditya R. Gusman
The National Tsunami Hazard Model (NTHM) provides estimates of tsunami heights at the shoreline for return periods of up to 2500 years. It is used as a basis for selecting scenarios used for tsunami inundation modelling, which underpins tsunami evacuation zone design, land use planning and risk assessments. The original NTHM was completed in 2013, though it built upon a 2005 study focused only on the main coastal cities. Since 2013, there have been improvements...

Comparison of ammonia-nitrogen measurements between unpreserved and acid-sulfuric preserved groundwater samples

M. Estefania Santamaria Cerrutti & Magali Moreau
In 2016, the National Groundwater Monitoring Programme (NGMP) sampling kit was modified by adding a 100 mL sulfuric-acidified sampling bottle for the analysis of ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N). This change was prompted by a review applying the most recent version of Standard Methods (Rice et al. 2012), which is the basis for the sampling protocol adopted by the programme since 2006. Acidification was recommended to inhibit bacterial activity and prevent salt formation with organic bases. This report...

Planning for natural hazards in the Wellington region under the National Policy Statement on Urban Development 2020

Sarah N. Gunnell & Jiri G. Beban
Councils in Aotearoa New Zealand’s largest cities are currently grappling with the implementation of the National Policy Statement on Urban Development (NPS-UD), with effect needing to be given to the prescribed development intensification provisions in their land-use planning documents by August 2022. In addition to these relatively short timeframes, the evidentiary bar is set high for excluding areas subject to natural hazard risk where a higher intensity of development is directed. The concern is that...

Understanding the unique environmental attributes and biological materials of Kāwhia - Aotea South

Diane Bradshaw, Karyne M. Rogers & O. McLeod
The Tainui and Aotea waka arrived almost 1000 years ago from Hawaiki, sailing into two harbours at Kaawhia and Aotea, on the west coast of the North Island, New Zealand. These earliest settlers left a legacy of physical evidence from their activities in this region, as well as oral stories, waiata and traditions. During 2020, a project funded by MacDiarmid Institute was undertaken to investigate the material science and geochemical properties of geological taonga held...

Coastal inundation associated with sea-level rise in the Pacific: a review

Shannon A. Bengtson, Elizabeth D Keller & Annemarie Christophersen
This literature review was developed for the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade (MFAT) to provide background for the project Probabilistic Assessment of Coastal Inundation in the Pacific. Projected sea-level rise greatly differs depending on future emissions scenarios and ice sheet modelling uncertainties. When considering the impacts of sea-level rise, it is compounding factors, such as high tides, waves generated from tropical cyclones and storm surges, that pose the most significant threat to low-lying communities....

Explainable Artificial Intelligence for unsupervised models

Rob Buxton
Explainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI) is a branch of Computer Science that is gaining popularity, as it addresses the fundamental concept of ‘trust in AI’ – in other words, when users should trust outputs from Artificial Intelligence (AI) models (Ribeiro et al. 2016). GNS Science has been studying XAI as part of a collaboration with Callaghan Innovation since 2020. Callaghan Innovation’s focus has been on XAI applied to supervised AI models. For the 2020/21 financial year,...

Effects of saltwater intrusion on groundwater microbial community diversity

Karen M. Houghton, Magali Moreau & Conny Tschritter
Microbial communities in groundwater carry out biochemical processes that are essential ecosystem functions, such as nutrient cycling and removal of contaminants. These processes play an important role in the quality of groundwater used for drinking and irrigation as well as interconnected surface water. The effects of climate change on these communities, e.g. from increasing salt levels from rising sea levels, or from global temperature increases, are unknown. This study used a combination of culture-dependent (growth...

'Geologic Champagne' voyage report R/V Tangaroa TAN2006: 26 June - 17 July 2020, Wellington-Wellington

Ingo A. Pecher, Jess I. T. Hillman, Bryan W. Davy, A. R. Gorman, Suzi Woelz, D. Andrew, L. Boettger, A. Dalbeth, P. Gerring, J. Hoffman, A. Macnaughtan, P. Oluwunmi, W. Quinn, A. Shorrock & M. Tankersley
Tangaroa voyage TAN2006 took place from 26 June – 17 July 2020, with an unscheduled port call in Wellington from 29 June – 1 July due to equipment problems. The voyage objectives focused on geophysical studies of seafloor pockmarks on the Chatham Rise, as well as possible pockmarks and contourite deposits in the Bounty Trough. We acquired ~800 km of 2D seismic data, ~500 km of which were in a dense grid designed for high-resolution...

Total magnetic intensity grid of Taupo Volcanic Zone

Jenny Barretto & Fabio Caratori Tontini
A procedure for merging gridded airborne and shipborne magnetic data over the upper North Island has been formulated using Geosoft scripts. The two main products are an integrated total magnetic intensity (TMI) Geosoft grid with 100 m cell size and UTM 60S projection on the NZGD2000 datum and a master database containing the data from 37 individual surveys and from a TMI regional drape grid created from three regional grids. The integrated grid preserves the...

Prognoses for two supercritical well designs

Brian S. Carey, Andrew J. Rae, Paul Bixley, Lucy B. Carson, Samantha A. Alcaraz & Isabelle Chambefort
This report has been assembled to provide parameters to assist with the design of geothermal wells that are expected to encounter supercritical geothermal conditions at depth in the Taupō Volcanic Zone (TVZ). To advance well design, two synthetic well prognoses have been developed, structured to define the conditions expected to be encountered and to be contained by a supercritical geothermal well in the TVZ drilled to a depth of ~6 km. Two sites were selected...

Empirical and physics-based runout models

Saskia J. de Vilder, Mark-Andre Brideau & Chris I. Massey
The Stability of Land In Dynamic Environments (SLIDE) research project aims to improve the resilience of New Zealand’s buildings and infrastructure through better knowledge of the behaviour of slopes in response to strong earthquake shaking and significant rain events and the development of strategies for more robust remediation approaches. The SLIDE project’s main objectives are: 1.to establish inventories and data relating to slope processes, and 2.to use these data to underpin landslide hazard and risk...

An investigation of surrogate modelling in multi-hazards

Rob Buxton
The aim of this work is to review the use of surrogate modelling in the field of tsunami modelling or similar fields involving complex non-linear systems such as those involving Computational Fluid Dynamics or Partial Differential Equations. This study discuses some of the main concepts in order to add context but the main part of the work concentrates on publications of interest where the abstract and/or conclusions of the publications are quoted directly for accuracy....

New Zealand Paleoseismic Site Database: Data Dictionary

Nicola J. Litchfield
The New Zealand Paleoseismic Site Database (new term, new database) contains paleoseismic data (grouped into Slip Rate, Earthquake [EQ] Timings and Recurrence Interval [RI], and Single-Event Displacement [SED]) collected at specific sites along active faults throughout New Zealand. The database was developed as part of the New Zealand National Seismic Hazard Model 2022 Revision Project (NSHM 2022). The primary purpose is to compile paleoseismic data at specific sites to be used either as inputs into,...

Graph Models and explainable AI

Rob Buxton
This work presents a brief review of different graph models and then discusses how they can be utilised as an approach for Explainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI). XAI is a branch of computer science that is gaining in popularity, as it addresses the fundamental concept of ‘trust in AI’ – in other words, when should users trust outputs from Artificial Intelligence (AI) models? GNS Science has been studying XAI as part of a collaboration with Callaghan...

5 March 2021 tsunami in Whangarei: post-tsunami field survey and numerical modelling

Jean H. Roger
The 5 March 2021 tsunami triggered by the Mw 8.1 Raoul Island earthquake propagated on a Pacific-wide scale. Being one of the countries closest to the epicentre, New Zealand issued a tsunami warning which was quickly confirmed by the New Zealand DART network and the coastal tsunami gauges. Preliminary modelling of wave propagation showed that some places in the Northland New Zealand, especially along the east coast of the Whangārei District, could have seen wave...

History of New Zealand pre-digital seismograph stations

G. Paul D. Viskovic & T. M. Wilson
The Geophysics Division of the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research (DSIR) published a historical catalogue of New Zealand seismograph stations that provided metadata on station history and instrument changes (Smith 1981). This invaluable resource comprehensively covered station and instrumental changes for the pre-1980 period but needs additions to cover the subsequent period until 2001 when the last analogue paper recording stations were decommissioned from the network and GeoNet took over management of the sensor...

FAIR Principles applied to high-value geoscience datasets

Maria Mavroeidi & Mark S. Rattenbury
The FAIR Principles outline how digital data can be Findable, Accessible, Interoperable and Reusable. GNS Science has committed to achieving compliance with FAIR Principles for its high-value geoscience datasets. Initial assessment and improvement of FAIR compliance of GNS Science’s eight Nationally Significant Collections and Databases (NSCDs) as well as high-value natural hazards datasets has been undertaken. The Findable principle is largely met by GNS Science’s Dataset Catalogue that links metadata to datasets. The metadata registered...

Taupo Volcanic Zone: tour guides C1, C4, C5, and A2

B. F. Houghton & S. D. Weaver
An overview is given of much of the Cenozoic volcanism of the North Island particularly the Taupo Volcanic Zone, but also including the Hauraki (Coromandel) Volcanic Region, and the Auckland region. A specialist tour emphasising physical volcanology encompasses White Island and the active composite volcanoes pf the Tongariro Volcanic Centre. Welded and non-welded ignimbrites erupted 1 Ma to 1.8 ka from Mangakino and Taupo volcanoes are examined. Also included is a specialist tour emphasising the...

Ngawha geothermal area, Northland

David B. Skinner, A. Steiner, N. de B. Hornibrook, George H. Scott, A. R. Edwards, F. E. Bowen, J. Healy & D. Kear
The results of surface geological mapping and shallow drilling of the Ngawha region are given. The stratigraphic, petrological and paleontological results from a subsequent deep drillhole are followed by discussion of these results and recommendations for further investigations. Whilst surface mapping had indicated the presence of only superficial deposits of Onerahi Chaos-breccia, the deep drillhole showed at least 1500 ft of this formation to be present in the Ngawha basin. This precludes the use of...

Critical element concentration in high temperature producing geothermal fluids in New Zealand

Lucjan Sajkowski, Rose E. Turnbull, Patrina Dumaru & Karyne M. Rogers
This review compiles and presents a publicly available database on the chemical composition of geothermal waters from wells and springs in the Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ) and Ngawha, New Zealand. The purpose of this review is to collate previously dispersed datasets, to enable the typical geothermal reservoir water compositions at various locations around the TVZ (and Ngawha) to be assessed and compared. In addition to the tabulated chemical data, we summarise several elements that occur...

A wellbeing impact assessment framework for the National Seismic Hazard Model

Patrina Dumaru, Adam P. Martin, Smrithi Talwar, Christina Magill & Matt C. Gerstenberger
This report proposes an approach for assessing the impact (a return on investment) of resilience investments on wellbeing and a framework for assessing the impacts of the National Seismic Hazard Model (NSHM) research programme on wellbeing in New Zealand. The NSHM calculates the likelihood and strength of earthquake shaking across New Zealand to inform the design and standards for infrastructure, land-use planning and risk insurance, which affect wellbeing related to housing, safety and basic services,...

Groundwater tracers for understanding water and nitrate flow through Te Hoiere/Pelorus catchment to inform decision making in restoration programme

Uwe Morgenstern & P. Davidson
Using 2013 baseline isotope and hydrochemistry data, together with water-quality monitoring data over the last 10 years, we provide an improved understanding of the Te Hoiere / Pelorus catchment behaviour in relation to transport of water and nitrate. Radon, water isotopes and gas tracers enable detailed understanding of river/stream water loss into the gravel underflow system, as well as discharge of such underflows and locally recharged groundwater into the river. In Holocene gravel deposits, nitrate-loaded...

Development of post-event building damage survey templates for geological hazards

Sheng-Lin Lin
Rapid and profound changes in the technology used for data acquisition, computing and information management provides a platform that has the potential to allow communities to consider acquiring, analysing and managing data in new ways. Improving the collection and management of data, immediately in post-disaster reconnaissance and in long-term impact assessments, is central to enabling knowledge gained from such events to be used and applied to improve community resilience to future disasters. However, the lack...

Measurement data for Zealandian Mesozoic Brachiopods

Donald A. B. MacFarlan
he data presented here consists of measurements of individual specimens made as part of the author’s systematic studies into Zealandian Triassic and Jurassic brachiopods. Some preliminary data on Zealandian Cretaceous brachiopods is also included (The author)

Registration Year

  • 2022

Resource Types

  • Text


  • GNS Science
  • National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research
  • Victoria University of Wellington
  • University of Auckland
  • University of Canterbury
  • Columbia University
  • University of Otago
  • Massey University