789 Works

Foreword

Sofiane Amziane
Welcome to this Special Issue of Academic Journal of Civil Engineering related to the conference organized each year by AUGC (The University - Association of Civil Engineering). The 34th meeting of universities in civil engineering has been organised by AUGC and the department ArGEnCo (Architecture, Geology, Environment and Construction) of the University of Liège were held in Liège (Belgium) from 25 to 27 May 2016 under the general theme: Building the city of the future.

Mechanical enhancement of casted and compacted earth-based materials by sand, flax fiber and woven fabric of flax

F. Menasria, A. Perrot, D. Rangeard & A. Le Duigou
Earth-based materials are commonly reinforced with bio-based materials such as straw. In this study, we use high performance bio-based flax fibers and fabrics. The aim of this work is to find reinforcements that are able to improve the mechanical strengths and the ductility of an earthbased matrix. We also try to describe the reinforcement mechanisms are also described. In a first step, a kaolinite-based clay soil is mixed with sand to design earth-based mortars with...

Mechanical properties and durability of mortar with rice husk ash calcined at low temperature

C. T. Chen, P. H. Chen & Y. L. Yen
In past studies, rice husk ash (RHA) calcined at 1000 °C or higher was found active. They can be alkali-activated or induce pozzolanic reactions in cement hydrates. However, calcination at high temperature consumes much energy. In addition, most RHA is produced at an open-aired site. The burning temperature cannot be so high even in a power plant. In view of these issues, this study explores the mechanical properties and durability of mortar in the presence...

Effect of water on the characteristics of polyethylene / flax fibers composites

L. Van Schoors, M. Gueguen-Minerbe, S. Moscardelli, H. Rabii & P. Davies
Flax reinforced polyethylene composites were subjected to sorption /desorption cycles, at 96% relative humidity and 30°C. Then, a multi scale characterization was realized. The mechanical properties of composites decrease during the sorption cycle, in particular the modulus which may be related to plasticizing phenomena, but recover their initial values after drying. No physico-chemical changes were observed during this ageing. Moreover, a microbiological survey revealed that the composites were sensitive to microbial development, especially when the...

Experimental study of the effect of adding fan palm fibers on concrete durability exposed to severe environments

M. Machaka & A. ElKordi
Adding Fiber to Concrete became a common practice to improve its durability, but for environmental purposes, it is preferable to use natural fibers instead of synthetic ones. In addition, using fibers prepared from tree waste that improves many concrete physical and mechanical properties is environmentally effective and costly preferable. Natural fibers extracted from Fan Palm trees that were cured chemically when used in concrete lead to improvements in concrete physical and mechanical properties. On the...

3D printing of fibre cement-based materials: fresh and rheological performances

M. Rubio, M. Sonebi & S. Amziane
The aim of this paper is to investigate the effect of different mix composition on fresh and rheological properties of a printable mortar. For the mix design, two binders such as fly ash (FA), and silica fume (SF) were used with cement and sand for a water/binder ratio of 0.50. Polypropylene fibres (PP), superplasticizer (SP), and viscosity modifying agents VMA (Diutan gun and nano-clay) were used in the investigation. The results show that adding 24%...

Cementitious material with bio-based recycled agricultural waste

B. Nepal, C. S. Chin & S. W. Jones
Fibre reinforced concrete (FRC) is a significant achievement of modern construction. Fibres increase the ductile capacity of concrete by enabling it to undergo large deformation before failure. The tensile strength of concrete is increased whereas it would otherwise only be strong in compression. Although FRC has several advantages, the use of steel fibres means it only provides a little contribution towards sustainability; therefore a shift towards new and innovative building materials is an urgent necessity....

Biochar as a carbon sequestering construction material in cementitious mortar

S. Gupta & H. W. Kua
Recent efforts to attain carbon negative construction practices in Singapore and other developed countries leads to a search for construction materials that can reduce net carbon emission associated with concrete constructions. One such material is biochar which can sequester fixed carbon in its structure. Therefore, using biochar as a mixed-in component in cementitious material can reduce the net greenhouse emission associated with concrete constructions. Our study focuses on application of biochar derived from mixed-wood saw...

Biochar as a bond enhancement in fiber-reinforced mortar

H. W. Kua, S. Gupta & C. Tan
This study focuses on the evaluation of using biochar to enhance the strength performance of cement mortar reinforced with polypropylene (PP) fibers. Biochar was produced with mixed wood sawdust that was discarded from a local sawmill. It was then divided into two groups, with one group being subjected to dosage of carbon dioxide until it reached saturation. Results showed that when reinforcing PP fibers are coated with CO2-dosed biochar, the cement mortar experienced a 13%...

Assessing a method of bamboo treatment and its effects on the durability and mechanical performance

H. D. Tran, Q. B. Bui & A. C. Grillet
Bamboo is a natural material having a fast reproduction and excellent mechanical properties. However, when a natural material in general and bamboo in particular are expected to be a construction material, their durability is always questionable. Indeed, it is well known that these materials do not possess the same performance at the long-term, comparing to industrial materials. A sustainable solution for the bamboo treatment still needs to be investigated. The present study explores the oil-heated...

Investigation on the performance and durability of treated hemp concrete with linseed oil

C. Sentenac, M. Sonebi & S. Amziane
Given the low mechanical strength, hemp concrete cannot therefore be used as a load bearing material. Hemp concrete principal weakness point is the strength but the lack of information concerning the durability performance of this material can also be an explanation for the professional’s reluctance to use bio-based concrete. This study focused on the effects of aggregate treatments, linseed oil and two different binders. The mechanicals performance such as the compressive strength at 7, 14...

Supersulfated cements based on volcanic raw materials

K. Cabrera-Luna, E. E. Maldonado-Bandala, D. Nieves-Mendoza & J. I. Escalante García
Research efforts worldwide have focused on developing alternative binders that would help to reduce the Greenhouse gas emissions associated to the production of Portland cement. Various raw materials, natural or byproducts, have been studied for the development of several types of binders. One of those greener cements are the so called supersulphated, which are commonly formulated using about 80% blast furnace slag and a source calcium sulphate and an alkaline activator that is commonly clinker...

Influence of liquid water on thermal and acoustical properties of hemp concretes

E. Gourlay, G. Pot, P. Glé, E. Gourdon & A. Feeser
Hemp concrete is a multifunctional ecological material used in buildings which is obtained by mixing together a binder and hemp particles (the non-fibrous fraction of the hemp stem called “shiv” or “hurd”). Due to its high porosity (ranging from 60 to 90% in volume), it presents an “atypical” mechanical behavior and its hygrothermal and acoustical properties are particularly interesting. This paper focuses on the influence of liquid water on thermal and acoustical properties of hemp...

Hygrothermal behaviour of a hemp concrete block, experimental and numerical results

M. Asli, F. Brachelet, E. Antczak & D. Defer
Most building materials, and more particularly bio-based materials, are subjected to hygrothermal transfers in the environment in which they are disposed. These transfers depend on the thermophysical characteristics and the ambient humidity and temperature conditions. In this environment and despite these variations, the material must be able to ensure in a sustainable manner, the functions for which it was implemented (thermal, mechanical, acoustic ...). In this paper we treated the coupled heat and mass transfer...

Investigation on the performance and durability of treated hemp concrete with water repellent

C. Sentenac, M. Sonebi & S. Amziane
Hemp concrete is an organic based building material. Hemp concrete principal weakness point is the mechanical performance such as the compressive strength but the lack of information concerning the durability performance of this material can also be an explanation for the professional’s reluctance to use bio-based concrete. This study focused on the effects of aggregate treatments, water repellent and two different binders. The mechanicals performance such as the compressive strength at 7, 14 and 28...

Light-weight claydite and sawdust concrete based on supersulphated cement

L. Dvorkin, N. Lushnikova, M. Sonebi & J. M. Khatib
The paper gives coverage on the peculiarities of the properties of two types of lightweight concrete: claydite (light-weight expanded clay aggregate - LECA) concrete and sawdust (wood shavings) containing concrete. The first one is based on LECA produced in Western Ukraine and Moldova, for the second one sawdust of the common local coniferous trees was applied. There was used supersulphated cement composed of blast furnace granulated slag, phosphor-gypsum and Portland cement in the research. The...

Effect of sheep wool fibres on thermal-insulation and mechanical properties of cement matrix

A. Valenza, V. Fiore, A. Nicolosi, G. Rizzo, G. Scaccianoce & G. Di Bella
The use of sheep wool as reinforcement of cement in order to produce mortar or plaster involves several advantages for environment and energy. Moreover, in several regions it is treated as a waste and, consequently, its employ is characterized by low cost. Aim of this paper is to evaluate the influence of wool fibres on thermal conductivity and mechanical properties of cement. The samples were prepared using wool fibres, obtained from a breed of Sicilian...

Carbon footprint of bamboo particles, rice husk and wood shavings-cement composites

L. Caldas, M. Da Gloria, D. Santos, V. Andreola, M. Pepe & R. Toledo Filho
The growing concentration of greenhouse gases (GHGs) increases more and more the heat trapping in the atmosphere, leading to a rise in global temperatures, also known as global warming. For these reasons, in the last decade, in order to counteract this phenomenon, a special effort has been made also in the construction sector by developing new sustainable building materials and, moreover, one of the most promising solution is the possible employment of forest waste as...

Experimental study of the hygrothermal behaviour of hemp shives-based precast blocks at material and wall scales

T. L. Vu, S. Spagnol & C. Magniont
This work aims to characterize the hygrothermal behavior of precast blocks made of hemp shiv aggregates and of a pozzolanic binder. The first part of the paper consists in the determination of basic hygrothermal properties of hemp concrete at material scale: thermal conductivity, thermal effusivity, vapor sorption isotherm, and water vapor permeability were assessed. The second part aims to develop a new tool allowing hygrothermal solicitation of a whole wall made of hemp concrete blocks...

3D X-ray tomography for the hygrothermal characterization of spruce wood

C. El Hachem, K. Abahri & R. Bennacer
The bio-based material considered in this work is spruce wood. Because of its complex morphology and high heterogeneity, this material still presents lacks of knowledge, concerning microscopic geometric changes, due to the hygrothermal solicitations. These changes lead usually to a considerable evolution of the resulting thermophysical properties of the material which constrains its use. The swelling and shrinkage phenomena, observed at the macroscopic scale, are the main witnesses reflecting such change caused by the hygric...

Investigating the strain rate-dependent compressive properties of fiber-reinforced soy-based polyurethane foams

N. Obaid, M. Kortschot & M. Sain
Although conventional polyurethane foams are used in several applications; they are produced from non-renewable constituents. An alternative polyurethane foam can be produced by replacing petroleum-based polyol with one that is derived from soybean oil. Polyurethane foams are often used as the core material for sandwich panels in structural applications and as energy absorption materials in car bumpers and other applications. In order to maintain structural integrity, these foams must display acceptable properties over a wide...

Heat transfer of dowelled and bolted steel-to-timber connections exposed to fire: experimentation and numerical modeling

A. Samaké, P. Audebert & M. Taazount
This exploration is dedicated of the experimental and numerical studies of heat transfer in timber-to-metal connections (bolts and dowels) in a fire exposure. The study was performed experimentally by testing specimens of connections in an oven with gas burner under the action of an ISO 834 fire temperature-time curve. Then, medialization of these specimens is made under the Msc_Marc software. The numerical model is based on finite element modeling. Finally a comparative study and discussions...

Bamboo panels to control moisture level of buildings

D. M. Nguyen, A. C. Grillet, J. Weiss, T. S. Phan Nguyen, M. H. Diep Thi & M. Woloszyn
The traditional use of bamboo throughout South East Asia is very diverse: fences, scaffolding, kitchen equipment, furniture, mats, blinds, toothpicks, paper pulp… Some applications use bamboo cane as such, however the current tendency is also towards an unstructured use of bamboo in the form of fibers or chips or even ashes. From strips, a wide variety of boards and plywood are made. Panels from bamboo fibers compressed in the presence of an organic resin are...

Effects of seashell aggregates in concrete properties

B. Gonzalez, D. Carro, F. Martínez-Abella, C. Martínez & S. Seara-Paz
In this project the use of mussel shell as fine and coarse aggregate in concrete is studied. Two different conventional concretes were designed, a non-structural concrete (NSC) and a plain structural one (SC). Then, the conventional fine and coarse aggregate was partially replaced with seashell. Initially, each size fraction (fine or coarse) was replaced separately using four substitution rates (25%, 50%, 75% and 100%). Finally, two low percentages (5% and 12.5%) were chosen to replace...

Acoustical characterization and modelling of agricultural byproducts for building insulation

E. Gourdon, P. A. Chabriac, P. Glé, A. Fabbri & F. McGregor
In a general context of global warming, an increasing interest is observed on the use of biobased insulating materials. Indeed, this kind of materials ensures good thermal characteristics while drastically reducing fossil energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions associated with their manufacture. In addition, thanks to their permeancy (ability to allow diffusion of water vapor within their porous network), these materials present an alternative option to isolate and rehabilitate buildings made with non-industrial materials (rammed...

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